Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
O2 Academy Liverpool
The O2 Academy Liverpool is a music venue in Hotham Street, England, run by the Academy Music Group. The main building consists of performance areas. O2 Academy1 can hold 1,200 people while O2 Academy2 can hold 500. There are 5 bars in the building which cater for the visitors who come to see shows (2 in O2 Academy2 and 3 in O2Academy1. On 6 November 2008, it was announced that Telefónica Europe had become the new sponsor of all Academy venues, in a deal with music promoter Live Nation; the deal, which lasts for five years, sees all venues rebranded "The O2 Academy", in line with Telefónica's purchase of the Millennium Dome. Official website O2 Academy Liverpool Official Fan Page
Bright Antenna Records is an independent record label founded in 2007, based in Mill Valley, California. The label was created by writer Tiffanie DeBartolo; the company name comes from the lyrics to the song "The Spirit of Radio" by Rush. In addition to distribution through the Alternative Distribution Alliance, Bright Antenna operates an online store for its vinyl and specialty products. Beware of Darkness Cheerleader Flagship Love Thy Brother Middle Class Rut Mona Reuben Hollebon The Wombats Zack Lopez In The Valley Below Far Jimmy Gnecco of Ours Magic Wands Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark Paul Hartnoll of Orbital Robert Smith of The Cure Spring Tigers The Catholic Comb Beware of Darkness – Howl EP Beware of Darkness – Orthodox Beware of Darkness – Sanctuary Season Beware of Darkness – Are You Real? The Catholic Comb – The Catholic Comb EP The Catholic Comb – Vampire Life Cheerleader – Perfect Vision/Waiting Waiting Cheerleader – On Your Side Cheerleader – The Sunshine of Your Youth Far – Pony Flagship – blackbush EP Flagship – Flagship Flagship – "Faded EP" Jimmy Gnecco – Bring You Home Jimmy Gnecco – The Heart Jimmy Gnecco – The Heart X Edition Magic Wands – Aloha Moon Magic Wands – Magic Love & Dreams Middle Class Rut – 25 Years Middle Class Rut – All Walks of Life/Busy Bein' Born Middle Class Rut – Busy Bein' Born/Start to Run Middle Class Rut – Hurricane Middle Class Rut – No Name No Color Middle Class Rut – Pick Up Your Head Middle Class Rut – Factories/Indians OMD – History of Modern OMD – History of Modern OMD – If You Want It OMD – Sister Marie Says Paul Hartnoll feat.
Robert Smith – Please Spring Tigers – Spring Tigers Reuben Hollebon – Terminal Nostalgia The Wombats – 1996 Digital Single The Wombats – Anti–D Digital Single The Wombats – Jump Into the Fog Digital Single The Wombats – Our Perfect Disease Digital Single The Wombats – Techno Fan Digital Single The Wombats – Tokyo Digital Single The Wombats – The Wombats The Wombats – The Wombats Proudly Present: This Modern Glitch The Wombats – Your Body Is a Weapon Digital Single The Wombats – Glitterbug The Wombats - Beautiful People Will Ruin Your Life Zack Lopez – Bloodlines
Kill the Director
"Kill The Director" is a song by English indie rock band The Wombats. It is written in the key of B major. According to a radio interview on BBC Radio 1, the song was written about the film The Holiday with Cameron Diaz and Kate Winslet. From the lyrics "this is no Bridget Jones" and according to the radio interview, they hated the film, hence decided to write a song about it. Brazilian'New Rave' band Cansei de Ser Sexy, among others, have remixed this song; the song was used in the popular UK television show The Inbetweeners. The song was used as the title music to football show Football Focus in the 07/08 English football season; the song was re-released as a download and 7" inch single on July 7, 2008 with the seven inch only being available from the band's website. Track listings of major single releases of "Kill the Director". UK CD single "Kill the Director" "Kill the Director"UK 7" single "Kill the Director" "Metro Song"UK 7" single "Kill the Director" "Kill the Director" UK CD single "Kill The Director" "There She Goes"UK 7" single "Kill the Director" "Sunday TV"UK 7" single "Kill the Director" "Bleeding Love" On July 6, 2008, Kill the Director entered the UK Singles Chart at #93 on downloads alone.
The following week, the song moved up to #48 following the physical release
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Babyshambles is an English rock band established in London. The band was formed by Pete Doherty during a hiatus from the Libertines; as of 2013 the band includes Drew McConnell and Adam Ficek. Babyshambles have released three albums Down in Albion, Shotter's Nation and Sequel to the Prequel, three EPs and a number of singles. In mid-2003, Pete Doherty was banned from playing with the Libertines until he could overcome his substance abuse problems; as a response, Doherty formed an alternative band, recruited former Libertine Steve Bedlow as vocalist. Doherty planned on calling his new band T'Libertines, because of the band's Yorkshire connection – the line up of the band at the time consisted of Yorkshiremen. On the night Babyshambles' first gig was scheduled to take place, Doherty was arrested for burgling Carl Barât's flat. After he was charged and released, his friend Dean Fragile organized a new gig at the Tap'n'Tin; the performance received mixed reviews. Doherty was sentenced to six months' imprisonment for his crime.
His sentence was reduced on appeal to two months. When he was released from prison, Doherty rejoined The Libertines and sidelined the Babyshambles project. However, he found time to record the band's first single "Babyshambles", released in April 2004 on High Society Records; the artwork was by Sophie Thunder. The single was limited to 1000 7" vinyl copies. In the early summer of 2004, Doherty once again found himself cast out of The Libertines because of his drug use; as a result, Doherty brought Babyshambles to the fore with Patrick Walden on guitar, Gemma Clarke on drums and Peter Perrett's two sons and Peter Junior, on guitar and bass respectively. Doherty organised several gigs and the band began to gain respect in their own right though Doherty missed a number of appearances; the band's lineup underwent several changes before stabilizing during the late summer of 2004 with Doherty on vocals, Patrick Walden on guitar, Gemma Clarke on drums and Drew McConnell on bass. In September and October 2004, Babyshambles embarked on a British tour that culminated with two shows at the London Scala.
Despite fears that Doherty's performance would not be consistent, the tour sold-out and received critical acclaim. The band's second single "Killamangiro" was released 29 November 2004 on Rough Trade Records, reaching number 8 on the UK singles chart; the band embarked on another tour in December 2004, among growing concerns regarding Doherty's drug dependence. During a gig in Blackpool, the band walked off the stage when it became clear that Doherty was too intoxicated to perform, a riot broke out at the London Astoria after Doherty failed to appear, with 150-200 of the audience invading the stage and damaging the band's equipment, including the destruction of Gemma Clarke's drumkit, an incident that cast doubt over her desire to continue in the band. After stabilizing in late summer, Babyshambles' lineup underwent another change in January 2005. On 27 January 2005, drummer Gemma Clarke quit the band after disagreeing with their management; the ongoing heavy drug abuse of the band members of frontman Doherty, James Mullord's inability to do something about it, made her leave the band.
She was replaced by Adam Ficek, once a band member of the White Sport alongside Patrick Walden. In April and May 2005, Babyshambles spent several weeks in a recording studio in Wales working on their debut album with Mick Jones of the Clash, who had worked with Doherty on the production of the Libertines' albums; the album, entitled Down in Albion, was released on 14 November 2005. It reached the Top 10 on the UK Albums Chart; the first single from the album, "Fuck Forever", had been released on 15 August, reaching number four on the UK singles chart. The second single, "Albion", was released on 28 November and reached number eight in the UK singles chart. Fellow English rock group Oasis had booked Babyshambles to support them on their UK tour in July 2005. However, Doherty was attending the birthday celebration of fashion designer Hedi Slimane with Kate Moss and was unable to arrange transport back to the UK in time for the band's first appearance; as a consequence Oasis cancelled Babyshambles' support for the rest of the tour.
Several small gigs took place at the end of 2005 and 2006 Babyshambles announced four small club shows in London, Liverpool and Stoke in January 2006. To the surprise of his fans, the band performed without guitarist Patrick Walden, with Doherty on guitar instead. Walden returned for a UK tour in February, he played his last gig with the band at the Shepherd's Bush Empire during that tour, has not appeared with Babyshambles since. He has, appeared on stage independently and in the company of Drew McConnell and Seb Rochford, playing two Babyshambles songs which he co-wrote with Pete Doherty, in July 2007. In February 2006, Babyshambles won the Naomi Award for Worst Live Act, were nominated for several NME awards; the band performed "Albion" at the NME Awards show, Doherty won the "Sexiest Man" award. In August 2006, Babyshambles signed to major record label Parlophone for the release of an EP, headlined the Get Loaded in the Park festival; the band released the limited edition single "Beg, Steal or Borrow", available to those who had attended the festival.
A free copy of "The Blinding" was released in the street magazine The Big Issue. A cover version of the Clash song "Janie Jones" was released through B-Unique Records in October; the single was released to raise money for Joe Strummer's charity foundation Strummerville and features