Tampere Cathedral is a Lutheran church in Tampere and the seat of the Diocese of Tampere. The building was designed in the National Romantic style by Lars Sonck, built between 1902 and 1907; the cathedral is famous for its frescoes, painted by the symbolist Hugo Simberg between 1905 and 1906. The paintings aroused considerable adverse criticism in their time, featuring versions of Simberg's The Wounded Angel and The Garden of Death. Of particular controversy was Simberg's painting of a winged serpent on a red background in the highest point of the ceiling, which some contemporaries interpreted as a symbol of sin and corruption; the altar-piece, representing the future resurrection of people of all races, was painted by Magnus Enckell. Tampere Cathedral
Fresco is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall; the word fresco is derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh", may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco. The fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is associated with Italian Renaissance painting. Buon fresco pigment is mixed with room temperature water and is used on a thin layer of wet, fresh plaster, called the intonaco; because of the chemical makeup of the plaster, a binder is not required, as the pigment mixed with the water will sink into the intonaco, which itself becomes the medium holding the pigment. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster; the chemical processes are as follows: calcination of limestone in a lime kiln: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 slaking of quicklime: CaO + H2O → Ca2 setting of the lime plaster: Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O In painting buon fresco, a rough underlayer called the arriccio is added to the whole area to be painted and allowed to dry for some days.
Many artists sketched their compositions on this underlayer, which would never be seen, in a red pigment called sinopia, a name used to refer to these under-paintings. Later,new techniques for transferring paper drawings to the wall were developed; the main lines of a drawing made on paper were pricked over with a point, the paper held against the wall, a bag of soot banged on them on produce black dots along the lines. If the painting was to be done over an existing fresco, the surface would be roughened to provide better adhesion. On the day of painting, the intonaco, a thinner, smooth layer of fine plaster was added to the amount of wall, expected to be completed that day, sometimes matching the contours of the figures or the landscape, but more just starting from the top of the composition; this area is called the giornata, the different day stages can be seen in a large fresco, by a sort of seam that separates one from the next. Buon frescoes are difficult to create because of the deadline associated with the drying plaster.
A layer of plaster will require ten to twelve hours to dry. Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done, the unpainted intonaco must be removed with a tool before starting again the next day. If mistakes have been made, it may be necessary to remove the whole intonaco for that area—or to change them a secco. An indispensable component of this process is the carbonatation of the lime, which fixes the colour in the plaster ensuring durability of the fresco for future generations. A technique used in the popular frescoes of Michelangelo and Raphael was to scrape indentations into certain areas of the plaster while still wet to increase the illusion of depth and to accent certain areas over others; the eyes of the people of the School of Athens are sunken-in using this technique which causes the eyes to seem deeper and more pensive. Michelangelo used this technique as part of his trademark'outlining' of his central figures within his frescoes. In a wall-sized fresco, there may be ten to twenty or more giornate, or separate areas of plaster.
After five centuries, the giornate, which were nearly invisible, have sometimes become visible, in many large-scale frescoes, these divisions may be seen from the ground. Additionally, the border between giornate was covered by an a secco painting, which has since fallen off. One of the first painters in the post-classical period to use this technique was the Isaac Master in the Upper Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. A person who creates fresco is called a frescoist. A secco or fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster; the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. It is important to distinguish between a secco work done on top of buon fresco, which according to most authorities was in fact standard from the Middle Ages onwards, work done a secco on a blank wall. Buon fresco works are more durable than any a secco work added on top of them, because a secco work lasts better with a roughened plaster surface, whilst true fresco should have a smooth one.
The additional a secco work would be done to make changes, sometimes to add small details, but because not all colours can be achieved in true fresco, because only some pigments work chemically in the alkaline environment of fresh lime-based plaster. Blue was a particular problem, skies and blue robes were added a secco, because neither azurite blue nor lapis lazuli, the only two blue pigments available, works well in wet fresco, it has become clear, thanks to modern analytical techniques, that in the early Italian Renaissance painters quite employed a secco techniques so as to allow the use of a broader range of pigments. In most early examples this work has now vanished, but a whole painting done a secco on a surface roughened to give a key for the paint may survive well
The Wounded Angel (film)
The Wounded Angel is a 2016 Kazakhstani drama film directed by Emir Baigazin. It was shown in the Panorama section at the 66th Berlin International Film Festival. Nurlybek Saktaganov Madiyar Aripbay Madiyar Nazarov Omar Adilov Anzara Barlykova The Wounded Angel on IMDb
Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfelt was a Finnish painter. He lived in the Grand Duchy of Finland and made Finnish culture visible abroad, before Finland gained full independence. Edelfelt was born in Porvoo, son of Carl Albert Edelfelt, an architect, Alexandra Edelfelt, née Brandt, his parents were Swedish-speaking Finns. He began his formal studies of art in 1869 at the Drawing School of the Finnish Art Society and continued as a student of Adolf von Becker, he studied history painting at the Antwerp Academy of Art before becoming a pupil of Jean-Léon Gérôme at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In Paris, he shared a studio with the American Julian Alden Weir, who introduced him to John Singer Sargent, he studied at Saint Petersburg. He married Baroness Ellan de la Chapelle in 1888, they had one child, he had romantic relationships with many other women. Edelfelt was one of the first Finnish artists to achieve international fame, he enjoyed considerable success in Paris, including a gold medal at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889.
His painted portraits of many famous people, including Louis Pasteur, Aino Ackté, the Russian imperial family. In Finland, he was one of the founders of the Realist art movement in Finland, he influenced several younger Finnish painters and helped fellow Finnish artists such as Akseli Gallen-Kallela and Gunnar Berndtson to make their breakthrough in Paris. Among his students was Léon Bakst; the painting of Louis Pasteur won him the Legion of Honour in 1886 at the exhibition at the Paris Salon. Edelfelt admired the poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg, a friend of the family; the company of Runeberg had a lasting impact on Edelfelt, who from time to time turned to scenes from Finnish history in his paintings. Edelfelt went on to illustrate Runeberg's epic poem The Tales of Ensign Stål. Albert Edelfelt was selected as the main motif on a Finnish commemorative coin celebrating the 150th anniversary of his birth, the €100 Albert Edelfelt and painting commemorative coin, minted in 2004; the reverse shows an embossed face of the artist.
Queen Blanka Duke Karl Insulting the Corpse of Klaus Fleming A Child's Funeral Under the Birches Virginie At the sea Boys on the Shore Portrait of Louis Pasteur Women of Ruokolahti on the Church Hill The Luxembourg Garden Christ and Mataleena Porilaisten marssi Copenhagen Two women with laundry Portrait of Nicholas II of Russia Portrait of Aino Ackté Inauguration of the Academy of Turku Albert Edelfelt's works Albert Edelfelt Studio Museum
An angel is a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies. In Abrahamic religions, angels are depicted as benevolent celestial beings who act as intermediaries between God or Heaven and humanity. Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, carrying out God's tasks. Within Abrahamic religions, angels are organized into hierarchies, although such rankings may vary between sects in each religion; such angels are given specific titles, such as Gabriel or Michael. The term "angel" has been expanded to various notions of spirits or figures found in other religious traditions; the theological study of angels is known as "angelology." Angels who were expelled from Heaven are referred to as fallen angels. In fine art, angels are depicted as having the shape of human beings of extraordinary beauty but no gender, they are identified with symbols of bird wings and light. The word angel arrives in modern English from the Old French angele. Both of these derive from Late Latin angelus, which in turn was borrowed from Late Greek ἄγγελος aggelos transliterated by non-Greek speakers in its phonetic form ángelos.
Additionally, per Dutch linguist R. S. P. Beekes, ángelos itself may be "an Oriental loan, like ἄγγαρος." The word's earliest form is Mycenaean a-ke-ro, attested in Linear B syllabic script. The rendering of "ángelos" is the Septuagint's default translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mal’ākh, denoting "messenger" without connoting its nature. In the associations to follow in the Latin Vulgate, this meaning becomes bifurcated: when mal’ākh or ángelos is supposed to denote a human messenger, words like nuntius or legatus are applied. If the word refers to some supernatural being, the word angelus appears; such differentiation has been taken over by vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and Jewish exegetes and modern scholars. The Torah uses the terms מלאך אלהים, מלאך יהוה, בני אלהים and הקודשים to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels. Texts use other terms, such as העליונים; the term מלאך is used in other books of the Tanakh. Depending on the context, the Hebrew word may refer to a human messenger or to a supernatural messenger.
A human messenger might be a prophet or priest, such as Malachi, "my messenger". Examples of a supernatural messenger are the "Malak YHWH,", either a messenger from God, an aspect of God, or God himself as the messenger Scholar Michael D. Coogan notes that it is only in the late books that the terms "come to mean the benevolent semi-divine beings familiar from mythology and art." Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name, mentioning Gabriel in Daniel 9:21 and Michael in Daniel 10:13. These angels are part of Daniel's apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature. In Daniel 7, Daniel receives a dream-vision from God; as Daniel watches, the Ancient of Days takes his seat on the throne of heaven and sits in judgement in the midst of the heavenly court an like a son of man approaches the Ancient One in the clouds of heaven and is given everlasting kingship. Coogan explains the development of this concept of angels: "In the postexilic period, with the development of explicit monotheism, these divine beings—the'sons of God' who were members of the Divine Council—were in effect demoted to what are now known as'angels', understood as beings created by God, but immortal and thus superior to humans."
This conception of angels is best understood in contrast to demons and is thought to be "influenced by the ancient Persian religious tradition of Zoroastrianism, which viewed the world as a battleground between forces of good and forces of evil, between light and darkness." One of these is a figure depicted in the Book of Job. Philo of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos inasmuch as the angel is the immaterial voice of God; the angel is conceived as God's instrument. Four classes of ministering angels minister and utter praise before the Holy One, blessed be He: the first camp Michael on His right, the second camp Gabriel on His left, the third camp Uriel before Him, the fourth camp Raphael behind Him, he is sitting on a throne high and exalted In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Although these archangels were believed to rank among the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkabah and Kabbalist mysticism and serves as a scribe.
Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel, is looked upon fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel and in the Talmud, as well as in many Merkabah mystical texts. There is no evidence in Judaism for the worship of angels, but there is evidence for the invocation and sometimes conjuration of angels. According to Kabbalah
Helsingin Sanomat, abbreviated HS and colloquially known as Hesari, is the largest subscription newspaper in Finland and the Nordic countries, owned by Sanoma. Except after certain holidays, it is published daily, its name derives from that of the Finnish capital, where it is published. The paper was founded in 1889 as Päivälehti, when Finland was a Grand Duchy under the Tsar of Russia. Political censorship by the Russian authorities, prompted by the paper's strong advocacy of greater Finnish freedoms and outright independence, forced Päivälehti to temporarily suspend publication, to close permanently in 1904, its proprietors re-opened the paper under its current name in 1905. Founded as the organ of the Young Finnish Party, the paper has been politically independent and non-aligned since the 1932. Helsingin Sanomat has a long history as a family business, owned by the Erkko family, it is owned by the Sanoma media group which owns Ilta Sanomat. The relationship between the owners of Helsingin Sanomat and Finland's government have sometimes been close.
For instance, during the run-up to the Winter War, Eljas Erkko was at the same time the paper's publisher and Finland's foreign minister. Mikael Pentikäinen was the editor-in-chief until May 2013. Riikka Venäläinen replaced him temporarily in the post. Helsingin Sanomat is published daily in Finnish in compact format with the exception of the days after public holidays when the paper does not appear; the only exception to this is the day after Finnish independence day when the revenue from Christmas advertising ensures an edition after that public holiday. Subscriptions make up 97% of the newspaper's circulation and the lack of a need to attract casual readers on newsstands had led to the front page being devoted to advertisements; the newspaper was published in broadsheet format until 6 January 2013. The paper has a monthly supplement named Kuukausiliite, a weekly TV guide and entertainment-oriented supplement named Nyt. Between 1999 and 2012 there were both Finnish and English-language online newspaper editions.
Helsingin Sanomat is published daily for the iPad. iPad version of Helsingin Sanomat resembles the newspaper's traditional version but is optimized for the tablet device. Content of Helsingin Sanomat can be accessed through other mobile devices as well; the circulation of Helsingin Sanomat was 476,163 copies in 1993, making it the most read newspaper in Finland. In the period of 1995–96 the paper had a circulation of 470,600 copies, its circulation was 446,380 copies in 2001. In 2008 its daily circulation was 412,421 on 468,505 on Sundays. In 2011 the daily had a circulation of 365,994 copies; the same year it was the largest paper in terms of readership. 75% of households in the Greater Helsinki region subscribe to Helsingin Sanomat, it functions as the region's local paper. Its total daily circulation is well over 400,000, or about 8% of Finland's total population, making it the biggest daily subscription newspaper in the Nordic countries; the paper is a significant factor in public opinion. Pertti Klemola, a Finnish journalist and scholar, once called it a state authority, an institution with its own independent social and political will.
Helsingin Sanomat advocated Finland joining the European Union in the run-up to the decision to do so in 1994. It has openly expressed support for Finland's membership of NATO. In fact, it supports the participation of Finland in all Western institutions; the website of the paper is one of the most important sources of news in Finnish on the web. In June 2009 the site was the sixth most popular Finnish website. In 2010 it was the seventh most visited website in Finland in 2010 and was visited by 1,236,527 people per week; the English-language section of the Helsingin Sanomat website, the Helsingin Sanomat International Edition, ran for thirteen years. The International Edition launched on 14 September 1999 with the aim of informing readers of news from Finland during the Finnish presidency of the European Union, it continued after the European presidency owing to the quantity of readers it was getting became one of the major English-language sources of news regarding Finland—making it popular with English-speaking immigrants to the country.
The Helsingin Sanomat International Edition closed down on 26 October 2012. English material is now published in cooperation with Helsinki Times weekly newspaper. For a while, Helsingin Sanomat published some of its material in Russian, but the service was discontinued on 6 October 2014. List of Finnish newspapers Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 156–61 Helsingin Sanomat Helsingin Sanomat International Edition
Akseli Gallen-Kallela was a Finnish painter, best known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic. His work is considered important for the Finnish national identity, he changed his name from Gallen to Gallen-Kallela in 1907. Gallen-Kallela was born Axel Waldemar Gallén in Finland in a Swedish-speaking family, his father Peter Gallén worked as police lawyer. Gallen-Kallela was raised in Tyrvää. At the age of 11 he was sent to Helsinki to study at a grammar school, because his father opposed his ambition to become a painter. After his father's death in 1879, Gallen-Kallela attended drawing classes at the Finnish Art Society and studied under Adolf von Becker. In 1884 he moved to Paris. In Paris he became friends with the Finnish painter Albert Edelfelt, the Norwegian painter Carl Dörnberger, the Swedish writer August Strindberg, he married Mary Slöör in 1890. The couple had three children, Impi Marjatta and Jorma. On their honeymoon to East Karelia, Gallen-Kallela started collecting material for his depictions of the Kalevala.
This period is characterized by romantic paintings of the Kalevala, like the Aino Myth, by several landscape paintings. In December 1894, Gallen-Kallela moved to Berlin to oversee the joint exhibition of his works with the works of Norwegian painter Edvard Munch. Here he became acquainted with the Symbolists. In March 1895, he received a telegram; this would prove to be a turning point in his work. While his works had been romantic, after his daughter's death Gallen-Kallela painted more aggressive works like the Defense of the Sampo, Joukahainen's Revenge, Kullervo Cursing and Lemminkäinen's Mother. On his return from Germany, Gallen studied print-making and visited London to deepen his knowledge, in 1898 studied fresco-painting in Italy. For the Paris World Fair in 1900, Gallen-Kallela painted frescoes for the Finnish Pavilion. In these frescoes, his political ideas became most apparent. One of the vipers in the fresco Ilmarinen Plowing the Field of Vipers is wearing the Romanov crown, the process of removing the vipers from the field was a clear reference to his wish for an independent Finland.
The Paris Exposition secured Gallen-Kallela's stature as the leading Finnish artist. In 1901 he was commissioned to paint the fresco, Kullervo Goes to War, for the concert hall of the Helsinki Student's Union. Between 1901 and 1903 he painted the frescoes for the Jusélius Mausoleum in Pori, memorializing the 11-year-old daughter of the industrialist F. A. Jusélius. Gallen-Kallela finnicized his name to the more Finnish-sounding Akseli Gallen-Kallela in 1907. In 1909, Gallen-Kallela moved to Nairobi in Kenya with his family, he was the first Finnish artist to travel south of the Sahara, there he painted over 150 expressionist oil paintings and bought many east African artefacts, but he returned to Finland after a couple of years, because he realized Finland was his main inspiration. Between 1911 and 1913 he designed and built a studio and house at Tarvaspää, about 10 km northwest of the centre of Helsinki. In 1918, Gallen-Kallela and his son Jorma took part in the fighting at the front of the Finnish Civil War.
When the regent, General Mannerheim heard about this, he invited Gallen-Kallela to design the flags, official decorations and uniforms for the newly independent Finland. In 1919 he was appointed aide-de-camp to Mannerheim. From December 1923 to May 1926, Gallen-Kallela lived in the United States, where an exhibition of his work toured several cities, where he visited the Taos art-colony in New Mexico to study indigenous American art. In 1925 he began the illustrations for his "Great Kalevala"; this was still unfinished when he died of pneumonia in Stockholm on 7 March 1931, while returning from a lecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. His studio and house at Tarvaspää was opened as the Gallen-Kallela Museum in 1961. Boy with a Crow, at the Ateneum in Helsinki The Old Woman and the Cat, at the Ateneum in Helsinki Démasquée In the Sauna Ahlström family The Aino Myth, triptych, at the Ateneum in Helsinki Mäntykoski Waterfall A Winter Scene From Imatra The Forging of the Sampo Symposion Jean Sibelius Lake Ruovesi, at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow The Defense of the Sampo Lemminkäinen's Mother Moonlit Night, at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow The Fratricide, at the Ateneum in Helsinki Joukahainen's Revenge Kullervo's Curse Kullervo Rides to War Lake Keitele, at the National Gallery in London Ad Astra Väinämöinen's Boat Journey Akseli Gallen-Kallela, De magie van Finland, Groninger Museum, NAI Uitgevers, 2006, ISBN 90-5662-524-1 Martin, T. & Pusa, E. Akseli Gallen-Kallela, 1865-1931 / Erja Pusa.
Tarvaspää: Gallen-Kallela Museum, 1985. OCLC 29071282 Gallen-Kallela Museum website Painting of the Month, July 2004 View some of his pictures