click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

The Yearling (1946 film)

The Yearling is a 1946 family film drama directed by Clarence Brown, produced by Sidney Franklin, released in Technicolor by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The screenplay by Paul Osborn and John Lee Mahin was adapted from Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings's novel of the same name; the film stars Gregory Peck, Jane Wyman, Claude Jarman Jr. Chill Wills, Forrest Tucker; the story is about a young boy. The story was adapted as the 1994 TV film The Yearling starring Peter Strauss and Jean Smart. Ezra "Penny" Baxter, once a Confederate soldier, his wife Ora, are pioneer farmers near Lake George, Florida in 1878, their son, Jody, a boy in his pre-teen years, is their only surviving child. Jody has a wonderful relationship with his loving father. Ora, however, is still haunted by the deaths of the other children of the family she had lost over the years, she is sombre and is afraid that Jody will end up dying if she shows her parental love to him. Jody finds her somewhat unreasonable. With all of his siblings dead and buried, Jody longs for a pet to care for.

Penny is sympathetic and understanding, but Ora is disgusted and believes that a pet is nothing but trouble. One morning and his parents discover that their old enemy, a bear named Old Slewfoot, has returned and killed a calf and young pig from among their stock, they set out after the bear, accompanied by Penny's dogs Perk and Julia. They catch up with the bear, but Old Slewfoot is able to escape after Perk flees from the bear fight in terror, Penny's gun backfires, Julia is badly injured. Upset over his best hunting dog injured from the fight, his gun useless, his new dog Perk useless as a hunting dog, Penny decides to trade in Perk for a new gun with his neighbors, the Forresters. Jody becomes acquainted with his best friend Fodderwing, the youngest of the Forresters and keeps a menagerie of pets, Lem Forrester trades with Penny by giving him a new shotgun in exchange for the mongrel Perk. One day, while tracking down their missing hogs, stolen by the Forresters, a rattlesnake bites Penny before he kills it with his new gun.

Penny kills a doe and uses its liver to draw out the venom. Jody asks to adopt the doe's orphaned fawn. Penny permits it but warns Jody that the fawn will have to be set free when it grows up; when Jody goes to ask his only friend, Fodderwing, to name the fawn, Jody finds out that Fodderwing has just died. However, Buck Forrester tells Jody that Fodderwing had said that if he had a fawn he would name him Flag because of its white tail. Jody and his family attend Fodderwing's funeral, at a generous request from the Forresters, Penny offers a eulogy about Fodderwing's kindness and wisdom with the wild animals and that he was healed of his crippled body, walking around as easy as anyone else in the house of the Lord; as the months drag by, Jody and Flag are inseparable. One year Flag has grown up and becomes a total nuisance to the household and farm. After Penny is injured while trying to clear another field to make up for lost crops, Penny informs Jody that he and his mother have agreed that for Jody to keep Flag he must replant corn and build the fence around the field higher.

Jody works hard and receives help from Ora with the fence. During the night, Flag destroys the new corn crop. Penny orders Jody to shoot it. Jody does not have the heart to kill it. Instead, he orders the deer to go away and never return, but Flag comes back to their devours crops again. Ora shoots Flag with a double-barreled shotgun, discharging one of the barrels but only wounding the deer. Penny orders Jody to put the deer out of its "torment". Rather than let his pet deer suffer an agonizing death, he follows his father's orders and kills Flag with the remaining shell; the loss of Jody's beloved pet deer proves too much for him to handle: overwhelmed with anger and despair, he runs away from home. Three days he is rescued, unconscious adrift on the river in a canoe, by a friendly boat captain and returns home, he and Penny reconcile, but Ora is still out searching for him. Just before Jody goes to bed, Ora sees that he is back, she becomes filled with happiness and emotion, knowing that her huge fear of losing her last child is now over.

She runs into Jody's room and showers him with more affection than she gave him. She is no longer afraid to show her parental love to him; the Yearling was filmed on location in the Juniper Prairie Wilderness in the Ocala National Forest in Florida. A hiking trail in the area, "The Yearling Trail", is named after the story, gives access to sites where the family lived whose stories inspired the novel. MGM began production on The Yearling in 1941, with Spencer Tracy set to star as the patriarch, with Victor Fleming chosen to direct; the studio hired Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, the author of the novel The Yearling, as a consultant and location scout. Rawlings marked a forest service map with locations for filming referencing the clearing she named "Baxter's Island." MGM moved to the filming location, renovated the cabin, built surrounding buildings to create a town for a set. Once the actors arrived on location, a combination of the bugs and lack of enthusiasm for the plot made the actors leave; this led to the film being shelved after only three weeks of location shooting in Florida.

(According to biographer Millicent Bell, famed novelist John P. Marquand was visiting MGM in 1941 and asked to sit in on a "Yearling" production meeting, he was

Government procurement

Government procurement or public procurement is the procurement of goods and construction on behalf of a public authority, such as a government agency. With 12 percent of global GDP in 2018, government procurement accounts for a substantial part of the global economy. To prevent fraud, corruption, or local protectionism, the laws of most countries regulate government procurement to some extent. Laws require the procuring authority to issue public tenders if the value of the procurement exceeds a certain threshold. Government procurement is the subject of the Agreement on Government Procurement, a plurilateral international treaty under the auspices of the WTO. Government procurement is necessary because governments cannot produce all the inputs for the goods they provide themselves. Governments provide public goods, e.g. national defense or public infrastructure. Public goods are non-rival and non-excludable, which means that one individual's consumption does not diminish the quantity or quality of the commodity available to others, individuals cannot be prevented from consuming the commodity, or "free-riding".

Private markets cannot provide public goods. Instead the government provides those finances them by raising taxes from all citizens. In addition to public goods, governments also provide merit goods, such as education or health care. Merit goods are private goods which are rival and excludable and are therefore provided by private markets. Governments provide merit goods because of reasons of equity and fairness and because they have positive externalities for society as a whole. In order to provide public and merit goods, the government has to buy input factors from private companies, e.g. police cars, school buildings, uniforms etc. This process is called government or public procurement. Government procurement involves a high risk of corruption because of the great size of financial turnover and the complexitiy of many procurement processes in which businesses interact closely with politicians and civil servants; the personal interests of the public officials are not the same as the interests of the public.

Such a conflict of interest problem, known as the principal-agent-problem, increases the risk of corruption. According to OECD, the highest percentage of bribery cases occur in the area of public procurement to influence the awarding of public contracts. Corruption in public procurement causes high costs to the public. In order to prevent corruption and to ensure transparency and competition among suppliers, public procurement is subject to legal regulation. Government procurement regulations cover all public works and supply contracts entered into by a public authority. However, there may be exceptions; these most notably cover military acquisitions, which account for large parts of government expenditures. The GPA and EU procurement law allow of exceptions where public tendering would violate a country's essential security interests. Additionally, certain politically or economically sensitive sectors, such as public health, energy supply or public transport, may be treated differently. One of the consequences of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 was an attempt to reduce public spending in order to control public debt.

This trend has affected government procurement for its significant share in public spending. Therefore, various purchasing strategies have been implemented to increase quality and to decrease cost of government procurement; these strategies include centralized purchasing or framework agreements. Public e-procurement stands for replacing various phases of public procurement with electronic means. Purpose of using e-tools is reducing administrative costs by automation. E-procurement can mitigate some barriers to entry for smaller suppliers, consequent increase of competition can reduce price of procurement. Centralized purchasing means awarding procurement contract on behalf of one or more procuring entities; this method has been used to gain various benefits emerging from demand aggregation. Centralized procurement can be done by ordinary contracting authorities or established central purchasing body. Centralized procurement is regulated by local legislation. For instance, directives 2004/17/EC and 2004/18/EC are dealing with this issue in the EU.

Mentioned benefits of procurement centralization are as follows: · Final unit price decrease – Higher procurement value coming from demand aggregation can increase buyers bargaining power and decrease final price. Moreover, higher value can attract more companies to bid in the tender, increased competition might lead to better price as well.· Transaction costs reduction – Key objective of centralized procurement is preventing duplication of some procedures. Contracting units can reduce their transaction costs in cooperating with other entities; this aspect is considered as most relevant argument for procurement centralization.· Increasing transparency – Under many jurisdictions, there is certain threshold in value obliging procurer to publish tender details. Therefore, higher procured value can contribute to higher transparency among public tenders.· Knowledge sharing – Cooperation in purchasing can result in sharing best procurement practices. Some central procurement bodies perform research activities.

However, other centralization aspects are criticized. Discussed drawbacks are connected to the decentralization theorem stated by American economist Wallace E. Oates in 1972; the theorem claims, that decentralized system is more efficient, because of the information asymmetry between local and central government. Procurement centralization might negatively impact supply side. Hi

Bisset Berry

Sir William Bisset Berry was a South African politician and the fourth Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Cape Colony. Born in Aberdeen and educated at that University, Bisset Berry came to the Cape Colony in 1864 as a ship's surgeon and settled in Queenstown, Eastern Cape, his engagement to Agnes Baden-Powell was announced in The Illustrated London News of 27 April 1901,> but they never married. He became Queenstown's mayor and was elected as its representative in the Cape Parliament in 1894. Although he hated publicity, he was an engaging public speaker and a skilled debater so when there was a vacancy for the position of Speaker of Parliament, he was elected unopposed in 1898 though he had only 4 years of parliamentary experience and his command of the Afrikaans language was not great. Reclusive and humble to a fault, he lamented his inexperience and lack of qualifications, but fared well and showed himself to be decisive and firm when necessary, his term in office came at a time of great instability and he presided over the votes of no confidence in Sprigg's government and the application of martial law in the Cape Colony.

In 1902 he distinguished himself with his strong opposition to the attempt by the British Colonial Office to suspend the Cape constitution. He was not returned to office; the young James Molteno was elected to replace him as Speaker. Speaker of the South African National Assembly Royal Commonwealth Society: Proceedings Vol.29. London: Royal Colonial Institute, 1898

Cathay City

Cathay Pacific City referred as Cathay City, is the headquarters of Cathay Pacific, Hong Kong's flag-carrying airline. It is located at Hong Kong International Airport; the airline built Cathay Pacific City. The headquarters opened in 1998; the topping out ceremony was held on February 17, 1998. Cathay Pacific City was scheduled to be built in increments between April and September 1998, it was scheduled to open in July. It was scheduled to have over 3,000 employees; the airline's move to the centre was scheduled to begin in June. On 6 July, operational departments were scheduled to be ready for the airport. In the second half of 1998 the rest of the airline was scheduled to move in; the airline's headquarters were at Swire House, a building in Central named after the airline's parent company. The architects were Llewelyn-Davies, who began design work in May 1995. Simon Jackson and Associates outfitted the hotel interiors. Cathay Pacific City had a cost of 4.9 billion Hong Kong dollars. Cathay Pacific City is located on 4 hectares of reclaimed land, located at the southeast corner of the platform of Hong Kong International Airport.

Cathay Pacific City has 1,300,000 square feet of space and is one of the largest corporate head office facilities in Asia. Cathay Pacific City includes three 10-storey office buildings, a 23-storey staff hotel, a flight training centre with a safety training school, a workshop and storage building, a leisure centre, an airline stores building; the centre has a 40-metre steel pedestrian bridge. The head office of Air Hong Kong, as of 2004, is located on the fourth floor of the South Tower of Cathay Pacific City. In February 2012 FlightSafety International and Gulfstream Aerospace, in a venture with Cathay Pacific, opened a learning centre for pilots of Gulfstream 450 and Gulfstream 550 aircraft at Cathay Pacific City; the centre is not marked with the FlightSafety name. The headquarters includes the Cathay Pacific Experience museum; the main gallery of the museum chronicles the airline's early history. The second gallery focuses on the airline's development; the third gallery explains the development into the contemporary airline.

To access Cathay Pacific City employees are required to show electronic passes. From Hong Kong city centre via MTR to: Tung Chung - take the Long Win Bus route S64 from Tung Chung Railway Station; the second stop is Cathay Pacific City. Airport - via Airport Express - when reaching the airport, or if at the airport: Take the HAS crew shuttle to Cathay Pacific City from the Terminal 1 Ground Transportation Centre. CAL Park Cairns, Robert. "Cathay City: Hong Kong International Airport." Asian Architect and Contractor. May 1998. Volume 27, Start page 62. Excellence in Exhibit Plus Event Design. Visual Reference Publications. 1 February 2010. ISBN 1584711213, 9781584711216. Tam, Angela. "Cathay Pacific City." Asian Architect and Contractor. July 1999. Volume 28, Start Page 13. Media related to Cathay City at Wikimedia Commons

Miriam Haskell

Miriam Haskell was an American designer of costume jewelry. With creative partner Frank Hess, she designed affordable pieces from 1920 through the 1960s, her vintage items are eagerly collected and the namesake company, which first displayed her jewelry in New York City's McAlpin Hotel, continues. It is listed as Haskell Jewels, LLC. Haskell was born on July 1, 1899, in Tell City, Indiana, a small town on the Ohio River 80 miles southwest of Louisville, Kentucky. After high school in nearby New Albany, where her Russian Jewish immigrant parents ran a dry-goods store, she studied for three years at Chicago University. Moving to New York City in 1924 with $500 in her pocket, she opened a jewelry boutique in 1926 in the old McAlpin Hotel, a second outlet within the year at West 57th Street. Frank Hess joined her business the same year. Despite some controversy concerning the extent to which the jewelry designs are Haskell's or Hess's, the two worked together until Miriam left the company. In the 1930s, the company relocated to 392 Fifth Avenue.

The Saks shop offered pieces by Chanel. Miriam Haskell jewelry was worn for publicity shots and personal use by movies stars Joan Crawford and Lucille Ball, as well as by Gloria Vanderbilt and the Duchess of Windsor. Crawford owned a set of every Haskell produced, from the 1920s through the 1960s. Watercolors used for advertising, by Larry Austin and others, showing models wearing large Haskell pieces are collected and a Florida dealer found many in a set of steamer trunks around 1978, her vintage pieces can command high prices from collectors. However, her jewellery was signed before 1950, it was her brother Joseph Haskell who introduced the first signed Miriam Haskell jewellery. For a short time during the 1940s, a shop in New England did request all pieces they received be signed by Miriam - this signature being a horseshoe-shaped plaque with Miriam Haskell embossed on it. Pieces with this signature are rare. Haskell's clients included Florenz Ziegfeld, who decorated the chorines of his Follies with her designs.

With Hess, she traveled in search of materials to Paris, Gablonz and Wattens, home of Daniel Swarovski's crystal factory. She built a mansion; when the Ohio flooded in 1937, Haskell sent boxcars full of relief materials to New Albany, traveled home to assist during the disaster. In World War Two, she contributed most conscientiously to the war effort, asked Hess to create new patriotic metalfree jewelry designs, using natural materials and plastics; the horror of World War II affected her health and emotional stability. In 1950, she lost control of her company to her brothers. Living in an apartment on Central Park South with her widowed mother through the next decades, she became erratic in her behavior. In 1977, she moved to Cincinnati, under the care of her nephew Malcolm Dubin, died in 1981, it was a sad ending for an exceptional life, but, as Pamfiloff writes, "Obviously, the legacy of her dream has filtered on down through the decades. It was a man's world. Designers were men; the owners of companies were men.

The staff was men. The salesmen were men, it was all men. And you had Coco Chanel, who just jumped right out there, a couple of other women who carved out their own niche in the world. Haskell did that, too." Deanna Farnetti Cera, The Jewels of Miriam Haskell. Barbara Ellman, "The World of Fashion Jewelry". Cathy Gordon and Sheila Pamfiloff, Miriam Haskell Jewelry. Https://web.archive.org/web/20090801095554/http://www.miriamhaskell.com/the_story.asp Miriam Haskell at FMD Miriam Haskell - Designers & Jewellery Makers

Society of Chemical Industry

The Society of Chemical Industry is a learned society set up in 1881 "to further the application of chemistry and related sciences for the public benefit". Its purpose is "Promoting the commercial application of science for the benefit of society" and provides an international forum where science meets business on independent, impartial ground. Since being founded in 1881, the society has expanded and diversified to cover a range of interest areas, such as food and agriculture, biotechnology, environmental science and safety; the headquarters is in London. In addition there are semi-independent branches in the United States and Australia; the Society aims to promote links between scientists and industrialists, does so through technical and business interest groups and international and regional groups, by running some 50 conferences and lectures a year. SCI aims to inform government decision-making relating to science and industry. A paper urging further action on science education to protect the future of UK economic health produced by SCI members in response to the closure of the Chemistry department at the University of Sussex gained newspaper coverage in the UK.

On 21 November 1879, Lancashire chemist John Hargreaves canvassed a meeting of chemists and managers in Widnes, St Helens and Runcorn to consider the formation of a chemical society. Modelled on the successful Tyne Chemical Society operating in Newcastle, the newly proposed South Lancashire Chemical Society held its first meeting on 29 January 1880 in Liverpool, with the eminent industrial chemist and soda manufacturer Ludwig Mond presiding, it was decided that the society should not be limited to just the local region and the title'the Society of Chemical Industry’ was settled upon at a meeting in London on 4 April 1881, as being'more inclusive'. Held at the offices of the Chemical Society, now the headquarters of the Royal Society of Chemistry, in Burlington House, this meeting was presided over by Henry Roscoe, appointed first president of SCI, attended by Eustace Carey, Ludwig Mond, FA Abel, Lowthian Bell, William H Perkin, Walter Weldon, Edward Rider Cook, Thomas Tyrer and George E Davis.

In 1881 Ivan Levinstein was a founder of the Manchester Section of the Society of Chemical Industry following Sir Henry Roscoe as chair of the Section. Levinstein served as President of the Society of Chemical Industry between 1901 and 1903; the original membership fee was steep for the time: The first subscription fee was set at one guinea, which would be equivalent to nearly £400 today. Four grades of membership were agreed at the time: member, associate and honorary, with most appointments made on the basis of a review of their'eligibility' by the SCI council. Despite the high fee, by the time of the first official meeting of the Society of Chemical Industry in June 1881, it had attracted over 300 members. An Extraordinary General Meeting was held on 27 March 1906, under the direction of president Edward Divers and secretary C. G. Cresswell, to discuss a motion to apply for incorporation under a royal charter; the resolution was formally proposed by Sir Boverton Redwood. After some discussion, the motion was unanimously supported.

The Society was formally incorporated, by Royal Charter, as of 17 June 1907, its bylaws were published in the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. By that time, it had expanded to include a number of satellite chapters, including Canada, New South Wales, New York and New England as well as locations within Great Britain; the first headquarters of the newly fledged Society of Chemical Industry was established in 1881 at Palace Chambers, Bridge Street, London. After a series of changes of address, the Society moved to its fifth and present location at 14/15 – and 16 – Belgrave Square in 1955. Owned by the Duke of Westminster, along with the rest of Belgravia, the building was and still is part of the Grosvenor Estate and had been commandeered by the Ministry of Defence during World War II; the former Nazi commander Rudolf Hess is believed to have been interrogated in the building after he flew to Britain late in the war. SCI organises over 50 conferences and events per year which are focused around stimulating and informative scientific and special interest subjects.

These are organised through SCI member-led technical and regional interest groups. SCI runs free Public Evening Lectures, as well as several awards programmes designed to raise awareness of the benefits of the practical application of chemistry and related sciences across scientific disciplines and industrial sectors; the SCI confers scholarships and travel bursaries to student members, celebrates accomplished scientists and business people through a number of international awards and lectureships. SCI has a number of Technical Interest and Business Interest Groups, which aim to provide opportunities to exchange ideas and gain new perspectives on markets, technologies and people; these groups over a wide range of topics and regions, with some being more active than others. SCI's Technical Interest Groups comprise: Agrisciences Biotechnology The British Carbon Group Colloid and Surface Chemistry Construction Materials Electrochemical Technology Environment Fine Chemicals Fire and Materials Chemistry Food Group Health and Environment Horticulture Lipids Macro Group UK Materials Chemistry Process Engineering Science and Enterprise Separation Science and Technology Young Chemists' Panel International Groups comprise: Society of Chemical Industry Australia Canada Regional Interest Groups in the UK comprise: All Ireland Bristo