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The Yellow Book

The Yellow Book was a British quarterly literary periodical, published in London from 1894 to 1897. It was published at The Bodley Head Publishing House by Elkin Mathews and John Lane, by John Lane alone, edited by the American Henry Harland; the periodical was priced at 5 shillings and lent its name to the "Yellow Nineties", referring to the decade of its operation. It was a leading journal of the British 1890s. Aubrey Beardsley was its first art editor, he has been credited with the idea of the yellow cover, with its association with illicit French fiction of the period, he obtained works by such artists as Charles Conder, William Rothenstein, John Singer Sargent, Walter Sickert, Philip Wilson Steer. The literary content was no less distinguished. Though Oscar Wilde never published anything within its pages, it was linked to him because Beardsley had illustrated his Salomé and because he was on friendly terms with many of the contributors. Moreover, in Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, a major corrupting influence on Dorian is "the yellow book" which Lord Henry sends over to amuse him after the suicide of his first love.

This "yellow book" is understood by critics to be À rebours by Joris-Karl Huysmans, a representative work of Parisian decadence that influenced British aesthetes like Beardsley. Such books in Paris were wrapped in yellow paper to alert the reader to their lascivious content, it is not clear, whether Dorian Gray is the direct source for the review's title. Wilde was purported to have been carrying a copy of the first "Yellow Book" when he was arrested, at the Cadogan Hotel, in 1895, though in fact it was a copy of Pierre Louÿs’s racy, yellow-bound novel Aphrodite. Soon after Wilde was arrested Beardsley was dismissed as the periodical's art editor. Although critics have contended that the quality of its contents declined after Beardsley left and that The Yellow Book became a vehicle for promoting the work of Lane's authors, a remarkably high standard in both art and literature was maintained until the periodical ceased publication in the spring of 1897. A notable feature was the inclusion of work by women writers and illustrators, among them Ella D'Arcy and Ethel Colburn Mayne, George Egerton, Charlotte Mew, Rosamund Marriott Watson, Ada Leverson and Nellie Syrett, Ethel Reed.

Indicative of The Yellow Book's past significance in literary circles of its day is a reference to it in a fictional piece thirty-three years after it ceased publication. American author Willa Cather noted its presence in the personal library of one of her characters in the short story, "Double Birthday", noting that it had lost its "power to seduce and stimulate"; the Yellow Book differed from other periodicals in that it was issued clothbound, made a strict distinction between the literary and art contents, did not include serial fiction, contained no advertisements except publishers' lists. The Yellow Book's brilliant colour associated the periodical with illicit French novels - an anticipation, many thought, of the scurrilous content inside; the article'A Defence of Cosmetics' by Max Beerbohm appeared in the first volume, causing something of a sensation and establishing his reputation. Yet The Yellow Book's first list of contributors bespoke a non-radical conservative collection of authors: Edmund Gosse, Walter Crane, Frederick Leighton, Henry James among others.

Upon its publication, Oscar Wilde dismissed The Yellow Book as "not yellow at all". In The Romantic'90s, Richard Le Gallienne, a poet identified with the New Literature of the Decadence, described The Yellow Book as the following: "The Yellow Book was novel striking, but except for the drawings and decorations by Beardsley, seen thus for the first time, not unnaturally affected most people as at once startling and fascinating, it is hard to realize why it should have seemed so shocking, but the public is an instinctive creature, not half so stupid as is taken for granted. It evidently scented something queer and rather alarming about the strange new quarterly, thus it immediately regarded it as symbolic of new movements which it only represented"; the Yellow Book owed much of its reputation to Aubrey Beardsley, despite John Lane's remonstrations attempted to shock public opinion. Lane would painstakingly peruse Beardsley's drawings before each publication as Beardsley was known for hiding inappropriate details in his work.

Throughout Beardsley's contribution to The Yellow Book, the two were caught in a game of hide-and-seek. Lane's scrutiny of Beardsley's drawings suggests that he wished The Yellow Book to be a publication only associated with the Decadence's shocking aesthetic. Indeed, Lane continually emphasized that he desired the work to be suitable reading material for any audience. However, Beardsley mocked the Victorian artistic ideal, which he considered to be both prudish and hypocritical. Beardsley's artwork was the most controversial aspect of The Yellow Book.

Anglican Diocese of Guinea

The Anglican Diocese of Guinea is one of 17 dioceses in the Church of the Province of West Africa and comprises the nation of Guinea. It was created in 1985 by the partition of the Diocese of Gambia and Guinea into the English-speaking Diocese of Gambia and the French-speaking Diocese of Guinea; the first Christian mission in the area was sponsored by the Church Mission Society in 1806, but the two missionaries who were sent succumbed to the unhealthy climate. A second attempt in 1855 by missionaries from Barbados was more successful. Although Leacock died that year, Duport was ordained by the Bishop of Sierra Leone; the Diocese of Gambia and Guinea was created in 1935. In 1951, it was one of the five dioceses. Jean Rigal Elisée, the last of five bishops of the diocese, proposed that it be split up, on 1 August 1985, the Francophone Diocese of Guinea was created. Thomas Willy Makole, a Guinean, became its first bishop. Elisée became the bishop of the Anglophone Diocese of Gambia. Jacques Boston became the third Guinean bishop of the diocese in 2013.

The cathedral church of the diocese is the Cathedral of All Saints in Conakry. There are an additional three churches and ten congregations. Diocese of Gambia and Guinea 1935–1951 John Charles Sydney Daly 1951–1957 Roderic Norman Coote 1958–1963 St Surridge John Pike 1965–1971 Timothy Omotayo Olufosoye 1972–1985 Jean Rigal EliséeDiocese of Guinea 1985–1986 Thomas Willy Makole Albert David Guillaume Gomez 2013–present Jacques BostonFollowing Makole's demise, the diocese was administered successively by: George Brown Prince Eustace Shokellu Thompson Robert Garshong Allotey Okine official website

Guillotine (wrestling)

The Guillotine is an amateur wrestling move named after the decapitation device. It was developed in the 1920s by Cornell 1928 NCAA champion Ralph Leander Lupton, it is taught in high schools. It is a pinning move, deployed from upper referee position, it uses pain to force an opponent to go to their back. It is a combination of an open side hook. In mixed martial arts and submission grappling, it is sometimes referred to as the Twister and has been taught extensively by Eddie Bravo in his 10th planet jiu-jitsu system, it is not to be confused with the guillotine choke, a move from the front headlock position, used in submission grappling. A leg ride is secured. From the top, the same side leg must hook opponent's inside thigh, gripping the ankle with the attacker's foot. Next the attacker reaches across to grab the arm opposite to the side; this arm is pulled back and up to allow the attacker to slip his head under it, at or just above the elbow. Once the attacker's head is situated under the opponent's arm, the head is used to lift and turn the arm and opponent.

The attacker's other arm is applied under the opponent's arm and behind his head in a similar fashion to a half nelson. As the attacker rolls backward and the opponent is on his back, one of the attacker's arms will be under his body; this arm releases the wrist of the trapped arm. Next the attacker must reach across his opponent and lock his arms, straightening them as much as possible; this final position is the guillotine, the attacker applies it by squeezing as as possible while maintaining the leg hook to prevent the opponent from escaping

James O'Meara

James Joseph "Orange" O'Meara, was a Royal Air Force officer and fighter pilot of the Second World War. He became a flying ace during the Battle of Britain while flying the Supermarine Spitfire, by war's end was credited with 11 kills, two shared victories, one unconfirmed destroyed, four probables, 11 damaged and one shared damaged. O'Meara was born in Barnsley, Yorkshire, on 20 February 1919, he had an early passion for aviation and worked as a bank clerk in Norwich, Norfolk to earn money to afford flying lessons. He gained a pilot's license No. 15093 at Norfolk & Norwich Aero Club on 19 June 1937 and entered the Royal Air Force on short commission in April 1938 aged 19. Actually being commissioned pilot officer on 4 June 1938 and was confirmed as a pilot officer on 4 April 1939. On 18 June he was posted to RAF Hullavington. O'Meara's first operational posting was to No. 64 Squadron based at RAF Hornchurch, with which he obtained his first'kill' while over Dunkirk on 31 May 1940 when he brought down a Bf 109.

He had damaged a Ju 88 off Calais on 21 May. His next claim was a Bf 109 of JG 51, shot down in flames over the English Channel on 19 July and ten days while intercepting a raid over Dover, claimed two Ju 87s. On 11 August he claimed 2 Bf 109'probables' and on the following day destroyed one more, he claimed a Bf 109 down on 13 August, on the 15th he damaged three Heinkel He 111 bombers. On 18 August O'Meara claimed a He 111 destroyed. O'Meara was shortly afterwards posted to No. 72 Squadron at Biggin Hill. He was promoted flying officer on 3 September 1940, before damaging a Do 17 on 27 September, he was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross on 24 September 1940. His citation in the London Gazette read: Pilot Officer O'Meara has displayed a high degree of skill and devotion to duty in all operations against the. Enemy and has destroyed at least six enemy aircraft, his example and keenness have been outstanding. He was transferred for a'rest period' at No. 421 Flight RAF at Hawkinge, working up new pilots who would form the nucleus of No.91 Squadron RAF.

O'Meara shot down an He 59 of Seenotgruppe 3 on 26 November, a Bf 109 fighter-bomber of LG 2, attacking a Royal Navy minesweeper on 5 December, damaged another one afterwards. While with No. 91, he was shot down by a Bf 109 and crash-landed near Folkstone on 17 February 1941. He was awarded a Bar to the DFC on 18 March 1941; the citation published in the London Gazette reported that: This officer has performed excellent work as a fighter pilot in the many and varied missions which have been allotted to him. On a recent occasion he led an offensive operation which extended as far as Holland, in which troops and a gun-post were machine-gunned. Flying Officer O'Meara has now destroyed at least eleven enemy aircraft, he has set an excellent example. By late April 1941 he had destroyed another Seenotgruppe 3 He 59. On 3 September he was promoted to flight lieutenant and temporarily returned to No. 64 Squadron RAF as a flight commander, bringing his score to at least 12 confirmed victories. He was rested from operations in October 1941, joining 1491 Target Towing Flight at Tain.

In July 1942, after a brief spell with No. 164 Squadron, he was posted to Nigeria with 1432 Flight until August. After returning to the UK O'Meara was appointed RAF liaison officer to the Army Chief of Staff. In January 1943 O'Meara joined No. 234 Squadron until March. In April 1943 he was given command of No. 131 Squadron at Castletown until May 1944. He flew 170 sorties, claimed a Focke-Wulf Fw 190 damaged in August 1943. O'Meara was posted to No. 10 Group HQ, in October 1944 was recommended for a second Bar to his DFC. Air Vice Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory approved a Distinguished Service Order on 27 October 1944 instead, as O'Meara's length of uninterrupted active service warranting higher recognition, his citation, published in the London Gazette stated that: Squadron Leader O'Meara has completed a notable tour and throughout has displayed a high degree of skill and gallantry. His genius for leadership has been most evident and has contributed in a large way to the operational efficiency of the squadron he commands.

He has destroyed 12 enemy aircraft and damaged many more. O'Meara's wartime score totalled 11 and 2 shared destroyed, 1 unconfirmed destroyed, 4 probables, 11 and 1 shared damaged. After several civilian jobs he re-joined the RAF as a flight lieutenant on 3 January 1950, he was granted a permanent commission as squadron leader on 1 October 1953, where he remained until retirement on 31 July 1959 with the rank of squadron leader. After his retirement from the RAF, O'Meara worked as an architect for Wimpey Homes before running several business enterprises, his daughter was hit and killed by a car in 1969 and his relationship with his wife deteriorated and they divorced. He ran a restaurant before buying a hotel in Port Gaverne, Cornwall. O'Meara died in 1974 in the Barnstaple Hospital in North Devon after suffering for several years with a liver infection picked up from a parasite while stationed in India, he is buried in Bideford. Notes Bibliography Pilot's flying log book J. J. O'Meara. Aces High by C.

Shores & C. Williams, p. 470 Price, Dr Alfred. Mark I/II Spitfire Aces 1939–1941. Osprey Publishing, London: 1996. S. O. D. F. C

Chalus, Iran

Chalus is a city in Mazandaran Province in north of Iran. It serves as the county seat for Chalus County. According to the 2006 census, it has a population of 44,618, in 12,791 families. Chalus is a major vacation destination for Iranians during holidays for its nice weather and natural attractions; the people residing in Chalus speak Gilaki. What is more, one of the great attractions of Chalus is the road leading to Chalus known as Chalus Road; this attractive city with its delightful attractions has a great reputation for a number of magnificent villages, one of, called Shahrak-e Namak Abrud. This village offers a variety of different entertaining activities, such as cable car, offering a fantastic view of the surrounding mountains; the bordering counties are Noshahr to the east, Tonekabon to the west in Mazandaran province and Tehran province to the south. It sits on the Chalus River by the Caspian. Chalus used to be called "Salus" or "Shalus", it has a long history of rebels and fights with occupying foreign forces.

Chalus used to have a big silk factory, active from 1936 to 1958 and exported fabrics and other silk products to different countries. Gole Sorkhi, Chalus Mahalleh, Radyo Darya, Sheykh Ghotb are among the most notable neighborhoods of Chalus

Emanuela Nohejlová-Prátová

Emanuela Nohejlová-Prátová was a Czech numismatist and historian. She is considered to be a founder of modern Czech numismatics. Nohejlová-Prátová was born on 3 June 1900 in Opatovice nad Labem, east Bohemia part of Austria-Hungary, her father, Emanuel Nohejl, was the mayor for the village. Her mother was Berta Schmidt and the couple had three daughters, of which Nohejlová-Prátová was the youngest. In 1918 Nohejlová-Prátová caught influenza as a result of the pandemic of Spanish Flu that swept Europe, this illness delayed her graduation, she graduated from high school and went on the study History at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Prague. Her father encouraged to Medicine like him, but she preferred History - as soon as her eldest sister settled on Medicine, it meant that Nohejlová-Prátová could pursue her historical studies. During her time at University, she became engaged, however in 1923 her fiancee died as a result of injuries received during the First World War. By the end of her university studies, Nohejlová-Prátová had begun to make a name for herself as an excellent historian.

Her final dissertation on the history of the Opatovice monastery was published soon after she graduated. From 1923-6 she worked as a scientific officer at the National Museum in Prague. From 1926 she returned to teaching in schools in Chrudim, Ivančice and Dvůr Králové, but in 1927 she returned to Prague. In 1930 Nohejlová-Prátová was appointed as a curator in the Numismatic Department at the National Museum in Prague, where she worked until her retirement in 1959. Nohejlová-Prátová was arrested by the Gestapo on 4 February 1942, she was interrogated at Petschek Palace and imprisoned because she had used crystals from the mineralogy department to build radios, which supplied news at odds with Nazi propaganda, she was released from prison in May 1943. At that time she was forbidden from working in Prague, but was allowed to find work elsewhere and through a connection to Professor Fritz Dworschak, durector of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, found work there for two years. After the end of the war, her colleagues in Vienna were keen for her to remain, however Nohejlová-Prátová was keen to return to her work in Prague.

Nohejlová-Prátová had been a pioneer of the use of photographic enlargement in her research prior to the Second World War. Post-war, she returned to her job in the Department of Numismatics and began to research and catalogue the collections extensively. In 1949 she was appointed as a lecturer alongside her museum work, she worked extensively on hoarding practices in Bohemia and Silesia, examining deposits from the ancient period up to the nineteenth century, In her research she worked across many periods, with her specialisms lying in Czech coinage of Bohemia, metrology. She was considered an expert on medieval counterfeits. In Nohejlová-Prátová's work on Czech coinage in the tenth and eleventh century, she believed that numismatics tended to over-estimate the link between iconography and contemporary politics. In 1958 she was awarded a doctorate. In 1964 was appointed Professor at the Charles University. By 1960, she was Keeper of President of the Czech Numismatic Commission, she died on 19 November 1995, aged 95, in Pardubice, Czech Republic and is buried in the cemetery there.

A full bibliography for Nohejlová-Prátová can be found at Databáze Národní knihovny ČR. She wrote several books, including: Příběhy kláštera Opatovického, 1925 Z příběhů pražské mincovny, 1929 Moravská mincovna markraběte Jošta, 1933 Košický poklad, 1948 Coins Finds in Bohemia and Silesia Das Münzwesen Albrechts von Wallenstein, 1969 Základy numismatiky, 1975 Katalog výstavní sbírky medailí Dvě století vědecké numismatiky v českých zemích: "Kralovna Emma." Královny, kněžny a velké ženy české České medaile Severina BrachmannaAs well as many articles, such as: Denar of Princess Euphemia Poznámky o ražbách pražské mincovny, 1930 Krátký přehled českého mincovnictví a tabulky cen a mezd "Rožmberské tolary." Numismatické listy "Kilka uwag na temat najstarszych znalezisk denarów czeskich i współczesnych znalezisk polskich