Petworth House in the parish of Petworth, West Sussex, England, is a late 17th-century Grade I listed country house, rebuilt in 1688 by Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, altered in the 1870s to the design of the architect Anthony Salvin. It contains intricate wood-carvings by Grinling Gibbons, it is the manor house of the manor of Petworth. For centuries it was the southern home for the Percy family, Earls of Northumberland. Petworth is famous for its extensive art collection made by George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont, containing many works by his friend J. M. W. Turner, it has an expansive deer park, landscaped by Capability Brown, which contains the largest herd of fallow deer in England. The manor of Petworth first came into the possession of the Percy family as a royal gift from Adeliza of Louvain, the widow of King Henry I, to her brother Joscelin of Louvain, he married the Percy heiress and adopted the surname Percy. His descendants became the Earls of the most powerful family in northern England.
The Percy family, whose primary seat was at Alnwick Castle in Northumberland, bordering Scotland, intended Petworth to be for their occasional residence only. However, in the late 16th century, Queen Elizabeth I grew suspicious of the Percy family's allegiance to Mary, Queen of Scots, confined them to Petworth. In 1670 Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland died without a male heir, thus his considerable fortune and estates of Petworth House, Alnwick Castle, Syon House and Northumberland House were inherited by his 2-year-old daughter and sole-heiress, Lady Elizabeth Percy. In 1682, at the age of 16 and twice widowed, she married the 20 year old Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, whose family seat was Marlborough Castle in Wiltshire, they became one of the wealthiest couples in England. The site was occupied by a fortified manor house built by Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy, the 13th-century chapel and undercroft of which still survive. Since 1750 the house and estate have been owned by the prominent Wyndham family, descended from Sir Charles Wyndham, 4th Baronet of Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, a nephew and co-heir of Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset.
As part of the inheritance and splitting-up of the great Percy inheritance, a source of contention between the 7th Duke and his father the 6th Duke, in 1749 after the death of the 6th Duke, King George II granted the 7th Duke four extra titles in the peerage, including Baron Cockermouth and Earl of Egremont, which latter two were created with special remainder to Sir Charles Wyndham, the intended and actual recipient of Petworth, Cockermouth Castle and Egremont Castle. The 7th Duke's only daughter Lady Elizabeth Seymour and her husband Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet, received the other Percy estates, including Alnwick Castle and Syon House, together with the titles Baron Warkworth of Warkworth Castle and Earl of Northumberland, created in 1749 with special remainder to Smithson; the 6th Duke had "conceived a violent dislike for Smithson", the husband of his granddaughter, wrote to her stating "You are descended by many generations from the most ancient families in England and it is you who doth add ancient blood to Sir Hugh Smithson’s family.
He adds not so ancient blood to your family". He was determined to prevent Smithson from inheriting any of the Percy lands and wished to make as his sole heir his grandson Sir Charles Wyndham, whose ancient family originated at Felbrigg Hall in Norfolk and had married into the nobility, for example his ancestor Sir John Wyndham had married Lady Margaret Howard, 4th daughter of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal; as part of his plan he petitioned the king to grant him the additional title of Earl of Northumberland, with special remainder to Wyndham. The plan was opposed by his son the future 7th Duke, who petitioned the king against, succeeded at least in delaying the drawing up of the necessary letters patent; the 6th Duke died in 1748 before the letters patent were drawn up and the 7th Duke put into effect a similar scheme, which split the Percy inheritance between his own son-in-law Smithson and his late father's choice of heir, Sir Charles Wyndham. In accordance with the wishes of his father-in-law the 7th Duke, in 1750 Smithson changed his surname by Act of Parliament to Percy, adopted the Percy arms, in 1766 was created Duke of Northumberland and Earl Percy.
It had been a stipulation before the marriage in 1682 of the 6th Duke to Elizabeth Percy that he and his descendants should adopt the surname Percy, but this was not binding on the couple who were minors, in 1687 the Duchess having reached the age of 21, dispensed with the agreement. In 2015 Smithson's descendant Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland still owns the said Percy estates; the Wyndham Earls of Egremont soon died out in the male line but before that event George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont bequeathed Petworth and Cockermouth Castle to his illegitimate son and adopted heir Col. George Wyndham, created in 1859 by Queen Victoria Baron Leconfield, who adopted a differenced version of the Wyndham armorials; the 3rd Earl's heir male was his nephew George Wyndham, 4th Earl of Egremont, the last Earl, who under law inherited the earldom, but had been stripped of the Percy inheritance of Petworth, receiving instead the entailed Wyndham estates including Orchard Wyndham, still owned today by the Wyndham family.
He attempted to make up for the loss of Petworth by building his own stately home in Devon called Silverton Park, deemed hideous and was demolished in 1901. The future 6th Baron Leconf
A private collection is a owned collection of works. In a museum or art-gallery context, the term signifies that a certain work is not owned by that institution, but is on loan from an individual or organization, either for temporary exhibition or for the long term; this source is an art collector, although it could be a school, bank, or some other company or organization. By contrast, collectors of books if they collect for aesthetic reasons, are called bibliophiles, their collections are referred to as libraries. Art collecting was common among the wealthy in the Ancient World in both Europe and East Asia, in the Middle Ages, but developed in its modern form during the Renaissance and continues to the present day; the Royal collections of most countries were the grandest of private collections but are now in public ownership. However the British Royal Collection remains under the care of the Crown, though distinguished from the private property of the British Royal Family; the cabinet of curiosities was an important mixed form of collection, including art and what we would now call natural history or scientific collections.
These were formed by royalty but smaller ones by merchants and scholars. The tastes and habits of collectors have played a important part in determining what art was produced, providing the demand that artists supply. Many types of objects, such as medals, small plaquettes, modern engraved gems and bronze statuettes were made for the collector's market. By the 18th century all homes of the well-to-do were expected to contain a selection of objects, from paintings to porcelain, that could form part of an art collection, the collections of those who would qualify for the term had to be larger, some were enormous. Collectors tended to specialize in one or two types of work, although some, like George Salting, still had a wide scope for their collections. Apart from antiquities, which were regarded as the highest form of collecting from the Renaissance until recently, books and prints from the late 15th century onwards, until the 18th century collectors tended to collect new works from Europe; the extension of serious collecting to art from all periods and places was an 19th-century development, or at least dating to the Age of Enlightenment.
Trecento paintings were little appreciated until about the 1830s, Chinese ritual bronzes and jades until the 1920s. Collecting of African art was rare until after World War II. In recognition of its importance in influencing the production of new art and the preservation of old art, art collecting has been an area of considerable academic research in recent decades, having been somewhat neglected previously. Famous collections that are now dispersed include the Borghese Collection and Farnese collection in Rome, the Orleans Collection in Paris sold in London; when this happens, it can be a large loss to those interested in art as the initial vision of the collector is lost. The Princely Family of Liechtenstein have works by such artists as Hals, Raphael and Van Dyck, a collection containing some 1,600 works of art, but were unable to show them since 1945 when they were smuggled out of Nazi Germany; the works were displayed in the Liechtenstein Museum after nearly 60 years with most in storage.
The important collection of the Thyssen family kept in the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, which settled in Madrid in 1992, was bought by the Spanish state. Only an exhibited part, the collection of Carmen Cervera, widow of the late Baron Thyssen, remains private but exhibited separately in the museum. Many collections were left to the public in some form, are now museums, or the nucleus of a museum's collection. Most museums are formed around one or more private collection acquired as a whole. Major examples where few or no additions have been made include the Wallace Collection and Sir John Soane's Museum in London, the Frick Collection and Morgan Library in New York, The Phillips Collection in Washington DC, the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon Portugal. Other collections are merged into larger collections in museums; some important 19th/20th examples are: The Waddesdon Bequest of Renaissance objects was bequeathed to the British Museum, where it is displayed in its own room, as is the Percival David Collection of Chinese porcelain.
Many other bequests or purchased collections are split up within the museum's collection. Sergei Shchukin, was an important Russian art collector of French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, his collection is now divided between the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow and the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg; the Charles Lang Freer Collection became an important part of The Smithsonian—the Freer Gallery of Art. When the banker Robert Lehman died in 1969, his foundation donated 2,600 works of art to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Housed in the "Robert Lehman Wing," the museum refers to the collection as "one of the most extraordinary private art collections assembled in the United States". To emphasize the personal nature of the Robert Lehman Collection, the Met housed the collection in a special set of galleries which evoked the interior of Lehman's richly decorated townhouse. Unlike other departments at the Met, the Robert Lehman collection does not conce
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium
The Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium are a group of art museums in Brussels, Belgium. The Royal Museums contains over 20,000 drawings and paintings, which date from the early 15th century to the present. In 1845, it was decided, by Royal Decree, that a museum was to be founded with works of art of deceased and living Belgian artists. A national commission was established to select important works of art; the first president of the commission was the Count de Beaufort. Other members were: president of the Royal Museum of Antwerp. François-Joseph Navez, president of the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts of Brussels. Guillaume Geefs Eugène Simonis Tilman-François Suys, professor at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. Luigi Calamatta, professor of engraving. Many of the founding members were active in the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium; the museums are situated on the Coudenberg, in Brussels. There are six museums connected with the Royal Museums; the Magritte Museum, opened in 2009, Fin-de-Siècle Museum, opened in 2013, are adjacent to the main building.
The smaller Constantin Meunier Museum and the Antoine Wiertz Museum, dedicated to these two Belgian artists, are located a few kilometers from the city centre. The museum has an extensive collection of paintings and drawings from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century; the bulk of the collection is formed around Flemish painting, presented in chronological order. For example, there are valuable panels by the Flemish Primitives; the museum is proud of its "Rubens Room", which houses more than 20 paintings by the artist. The painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, long-attributed to Bruegel, is located there and forms the subject of W. H. Auden's famous poem "Musée des Beaux Arts", named after the museum. There are constant temporary exhibitions; the museum has one of the richest collections of paintings by the Belgian surrealist painter René Magritte. Inaugurated on 20 May 2009, the Magritte Museum opened on 2 June 2009. Inaugurated on 6 December 2013, the museum presents collections of artists such as Constantin Meunier, James Ensor, Henri Evenepoel, Fernand Khnopff, Leon Spilliaert, George Minne.
The life and work of Antoine Wiertz are honored in the painter's former studio, in the heart of the Leopold Quarter. This unique museum offers a striking view of the monumental paintings and sketches marked by the Belgian romantic movement. Located in the former house and workshop of Constantin Meunier, the museum houses 150 works and documents by the realist painter and sculptor; the chief curators or directors of the museum have been: 1961–1984: Philippe Roberts-Jones 1985–1989: Henri Pauwels 2005–present: Michel Draguet The main building which now houses the Museum of Ancient Art was built as the Palais des Beaux-Arts, designed by Belgian architect Alphonse Balat and funded by King Leopold II. Balat was the king's principal architect, the building was one part of the king's vast construction projects for Belgium; the building was completed in 1887, stands as an example of the Beaux-Arts architecture use of themed statuary to assert the identity and meaning of the building. The extensive program of architectural sculpture includes the four figures of Music, Architecture and Painting atop the four main piers, the work of sculptors Égide Mélot, Joseph Geefs, Louis Samain, Guillaume de Groot respectively.
The finial, gilded Genius of Art was designed by de Groot. The three rondels of Rubens, van Ruysbroek, Jean de Bologne, who represent Painting and Sculpture, are the work of Antoine-Joseph van Rasbourgh, Antoine-Félix Bouré and Jean Cuypers; the two bas-relief panels are Music by Industrial Arts by Charles Brunin. The two bronze groups on pedestals represent The Crowning of Art by Paul de Vigne, The Teaching of Art by Charles van der Stappen. On the side of the building, a memorial commemorates five members of the Mouvement National Royaliste, a resistance group, killed during the liberation of Brussels on 3–4 September 1944. Alongside the western face of the building is a sculpture park, with works by Aristide Maillol, Emilio Greco, Paul Hanrez and Bernhard Heiliger. Belgian Federal Science Policy Office Centre for Fine Arts Culture of Belgium Royal Museums for Art and History Grant Allen, "Brussels Picture Gallery", Belgium: its cities, Boston: Page Official website Search collections Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium on Facebook Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium on Twitter Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium on Instagram
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Pieter Bruegel the Elder was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. He was a formative influence on Dutch Golden Age painting and painting in general in his innovative choices of subject matter, as one of the first generation of artists to grow up when religious subjects had ceased to be the natural subject matter of painting, he painted no portraits, the other mainstay of Netherlandish art. After his training and travels to Italy, he returned in 1555 to settle in Antwerp, where he worked as a prolific designer of prints for the leading publisher of the day. Only towards the end of the decade did he switch to make painting his main medium, all his famous paintings come from the following period of little more than a decade before his early death, when he was in his early forties, at the height of his powers; as well as looking forwards, his art reinvigorates medieval subjects such as marginal drolleries of ordinary life in illuminated manuscripts, the calendar scenes of agricultural labours set in landscape backgrounds, puts these on a much larger scale than before, in the expensive medium of oil painting.
He does the same with the fantastic and anarchic world developed in Renaissance prints and book illustrations. He is sometimes referred to as "Peasant Bruegel", to distinguish him from the many painters in his family, including his son Pieter Brueghel the Younger. From 1559, he signed his paintings as Bruegel; the two main early sources for Bruegel's biography are Lodovico Guicciardini's account of the Low Countries and Karel van Mander's 1604 Schilder-boeck. Guicciardini recorded that Bruegel was born in Breda, but van Mander specified that Bruegel was born in a village near Breda called "Brueghel", which does not fit any known place. Nothing at all is known of his family background. Van Mander seems to assume he came from a peasant background, in keeping with the over-emphasis on Bruegel's peasant genre scenes given by van Mander and many early art historians and critics. In contrast, scholars of the last sixty years have emphasized the intellectual content of his work, conclude: "There is, in fact, every reason to think that Pieter Bruegel was a townsman and a educated one, on friendly terms with the humanists of his time", ignoring van Mander's dorp and just placing his childhood in Breda itself.
Breda was a significant centre as the base of the House of Orange-Nassau, with a population of some 8,000, although 90% of the 1300 houses were destroyed in a fire in 1534. However, this reversal can be taken to excess. From the fact that Bruegel entered the Antwerp painters' guild in 1551, it is inferred that he was born between 1525 and 1530, his master, according to van Mander, was the Antwerp painter Pieter Coecke van Aelst, whose daughter Mayken Coecke Bruegel married in 1563. Between 1545 and 1550 he was a pupil of Pieter Coecke, who died on 6 December 1550. However, before this Bruegel was working in Mechelen, where he is documented between September 1550 and October 1551 assisting Peeter Baltens on an altarpiece, painting the wings in grisaille. Bruegel got this work via the connections of Mayken Verhulst, the wife of Pieter Coecke. Mayken's father and eight siblings were all artists or married an artist, lived in Mechelen. In 1551 Bruegel became a free master in the Guild of Saint Luke of Antwerp.
He set off for Italy soon after by way of France. He visited Rome and, rather adventurously for the period, by 1552 he had reached Reggio Calabria at the southern tip of the mainland, where a drawing records the city in flames after a Turkish raid, he continued to Sicily, but by 1553 was back in Rome. There he met the miniaturist Giulio Clovio; these works landscapes, have not survived, but marginal miniatures in manuscripts by Clovio are attributed to Bruegel. He left Italy by 1554, had reached Antwerp by 1555, when the set of prints to his designs known as the Large Landscapes were published by Hieronymus Cock, the most important print publisher of northern Europe. Bruegel's return route is uncertain, but much of the debate over it was made irrelevant in the 1980s when it was realized that the celebrated series of large drawings of mountain landscapes thought to have been made on the trip were not by Bruegel at all. However, all the drawings from the trip that are considered authentic are of landscapes.
From his return to Italy in 1554/5 until 1563, the year of his marriage Bruegel lived in Antwerp the publishing centre of northern Europe working as a designer of over forty prints for Cock, though his dated paintings begin in 1557. With one exception, Bruegel did not work the plates himself, but produced a drawing which Cock's specialists worked from, he moved in the lively Humanist circles of the city, his change of name in 1559 can be seen as an attempt to Latinize it. In 1563 he was married in Brussels, where he lived for the remainder
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the largest, work of his career; the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality, he was influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
His career falls into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region, where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke; the reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, created Duke of Urbino by Pope Sixtus IV – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments, his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the small court of Urbino he was more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but visited, they became good friends, he became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both cardinals, were becoming well known as writers, would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however, his mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had remarried. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, he continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity, his father's workshop continued and together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello the court painter, Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello. According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, has been disputed—eight was early for an apprenticeship to begin. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. Most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500. Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters; the Perugino workshop w
Hans Holbein the Elder
Hans Holbein the Elder was a German painter. Holbein was born in free imperial city of Augsburg, died in Isenheim, Alsace, he belonged to a celebrated family of painters. He had two sons, both artists and printmakers: Ambrosius Holbein and Hans Holbein the Younger, who both had their first painting lessons from their father; the date of Holbein's birth is unknown. His name appears in the Augsburg tax books in 1494; as early as 1493, Holbein had a following, he worked that year at the abbey at Weingarten, creating the wings of an altarpiece representing Joachim's Offering, the Nativity of the Virgin Mary's Presentation in the Temple, the Presentation of Christ. Today they hang in separate panels in the cathedral of Augsburg. Holbein painted richly colored religious works, his paintings show how he pioneered and led the transformation of German art from the International Gothic to the Renaissance style. In addition to the altar paintings that are his principal works, he was a woodcut artist, an illustrator of books, a church window designer.
Holbein first appears at Augsburg, partnered with his brother Sigismund. Augsburg, at the time of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, cultivated art with a Flemish style, felt the influence of the schools of Bruges and Brussels though it was near Italy, with close commercial connections to Venice. Sigismund was a painter, but Hans had the lead of the partnership and signed all the works they produced. After 1516 Holbein was declared a tax defaulter in Augsburg, which forced him to accept commissions abroad. At Issenheim in Alsace, where Matthias Grünewald was employed at the time, Holbein found patrons and was contracted to complete an altarpiece, his brother Sigismund and others sued him in Augsburg for unpaid debts. Pursued by Augsburg authorities, he fled Issenheim, abandoning his work and equipment, went to Basel, he died two years at an unknown location. After 1524 his name no longer appeared on the register of the Augsburg guild. Early Renaissance painting Hans Holbein the Elder Gallery
Jan or Johannes Popels was a painter of the Southern Netherlands. Popels became a member of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke from 1622 until 1663, he engraved religious subjects, Vienna's Albertina has his Group of Three Naked Children. He worked for the catalog of Italian painters in the gallery of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, making copies of paintings and modelli in collaboration with David Teniers the Younger, he died in Tournai