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Thebes, Egypt

Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt for long periods during the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom eras, it was close to the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday; the site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and where the city proper was situated. The Egyptian name for Thebes was wꜣs.t, "City of the wꜣs", the sceptre of the pharaohs, a long staff with an animal's head and a forked base. From the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known in Egyptian as niwt-'imn, the "City of Amun", the chief of the Theban Triad of deities whose other members were Mut and Khonsu; this name of Thebes appears in the Bible as the "Nōʼ ʼĀmôn" in the Book of Nahum and as "No" mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and Jeremiah.

Thebes is the latinised form of Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, the hellenized form of Demotic Egyptian tꜣ jpt, referring to jpt-swt. As early as Homer's Iliad, the Greeks distinguished the Egyptian Thebes as "Thebes of the Hundred Gates" or "Hundred-Gated Thebes", as opposed to the "Thebes of the Seven Gates" in Boeotia, Greece. In the interpretatio graeca, Amun was rendered as Zeus Ammon; the name was therefore translated into Greek as Diospolis, "City of Zeus". To distinguish it from the numerous other cities by this name, it was known as the "Great Diospolis"; the Greek names came into wider use after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, when the country came to be ruled by the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty. Thebes was located along the banks of the Nile River in the middle part of Upper Egypt about 800 km south of the Delta, it was built on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile. As a natural consequence, the city was laid in a northeast-southwest axis parallel to the contemporary river channel.

Thebes had an area of 93 km2 which included parts of the Theban Hills in the west that culminates at the sacred 420-meter al-Qurn. In the east lies the mountainous Eastern Desert with its wadis draining into the valley. Significant among these wadis is Wadi Hammamat near Thebes, it was used as an overland trade route going to the Red Sea coast. Nearby towns in the fourth Upper Egyptian nome were Per-Hathor, Djerty, Iuny and Imiotru. According to George Modelski, Thebes had about 40,000 inhabitants in 2000 BC. By 1800 BC, the population of Memphis was down to about 30,000, making Thebes the largest city in Egypt at the time. Historian Ian Morris has estimated that by 1500 BC, Thebes may have grown to be the largest city in the world, with a population of about 75,000, a position which it held until about 900 BC, when it was surpassed by Nimrud; the archaeological remains of Thebes offer a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height. The Greek poet Homer extolled the wealth of Thebes in the Iliad, Book 9: "... in Egyptian Thebes the heaps of precious ingots gleam, the hundred-gated Thebes."

More than sixty annual festivals were celebrated in Thebes. The major festivals among these, according to the Edfu Geographical Text, were: the Beautiful Feast of Opet, the Khoiak, Festival of I Shemu, Festival of II Shemu. Another popular festivity was the halloween-like Beautiful Festival of the Valley. Thebes was inhabited from around 3200 BC, it was the eponymous capital of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. At this time it was still a small trading post, while Memphis served as the royal residence of the Old Kingdom pharaohs. Although no buildings survive in Thebes older than portions of the Karnak temple complex that may date from the Middle Kingdom, the lower part of a statue of Pharaoh Nyuserre of the 5th Dynasty has been found in Karnak. Another statue, dedicated by the 12th Dynasty king Senusret may have been usurped and re-used, since the statue bears a cartouche of Nyuserre on its belt. Since seven rulers of the 4th to 6th Dynasties appear on the Karnak king list at the least there was a temple in the Theban area which dated to the Old Kingdom.

By 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs consolidated control over Lower Egypt and northern parts of Upper Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. A rival line, based at Thebes, ruled the remaining part of Upper Egypt; the Theban rulers were descendants of the prince of Thebes, Intef the Elder. His probable grandson Intef I was the first of the family to claim in life a partial pharaonic titulary, though his power did not extend much further than the general Theban region. By c. 2050 BC, Intef III's son Mentuhotep II, took the Herakleopolitans by force and reunited Egypt once again under one ruler, thereby starting the period now known as the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II ruled for 51 years and built the first mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, which most served as the inspiration for the and larger temple built ne

Qazis of Hyderabad

The Qazis of Hyderabad, Sindh are an established Pakistani and Sindhi political family from Hyderabad, Sindh. Most, though not all, members of the family that were in politics were known by their title, the name given to certain Judges under Islamic Law, instead of their last name "Abbasi"; the family has been involved in politics for at least five generations. The Qazi/Abbasi family hailed from Sewan in Sindh and migrated to Hyderabad when Qazi Abdul Qayyum settled there. Qazi Abdul Qayyum's brother, Hakeem Fatemah Muhammad Sewani, who chose to use the title Hakeem, settled in Karachi after leaving Sewan, where he established another branch of the family. In journalistic circles, the family publishes several Sindhi language newspapers including the Daily Ibrat. In addition, the family served the journalistic community through its involvement in the All Pakistan Newspapers Society. Qazi Abdul Majeed Abid was its Secretary-General thrice, Qazi Aslam Akbar was its Secretary-General four times, Qazi Asad Abid was its Secretary-General an unprecedented nine times.

The Qazis have been elected from many constituencies outside of Hyderabad. For example, Pir Mazhar Ul Haq has traditionally been elected from Dadu and Fahmida Mirza and Zulfiqar Mirza from Badin. Members of the family that have held office have included the following: First Generation Qazi Abdul Qayyum, the first Muslim President of the Hyderabad Municipality Second Generation Qazi Muhammad Akbar, former Sindh Provincial Home Minister, former Sindh Provincial Finance Minister, former Sindh Provincial Information Minister, former Sindh Provincial Public Works Minister, former Ambassador of Pakistan, son of Qazi Abdul Qayyum Qazi Abdul Majeed Abid, former Federal Minister for Agriculture, former Federal Minister for Water and Power, former Federal Minister for Information and Broadcasting, former Federal Minister for Education, former Member of the National Assembly, former Sindh Provincial Communications Minister, son of Qazi Abdul Qayyum Qazi Muhammad Azam, a three time former Member of Parliament and son of Qazi Abdul Qayyum Hakeem Muhammad Ahsan, first Mayor of Karachi, Pakistan following independence of Pakistan in 1947, former Ambassador of Pakistan to numerous countries, former Senior Sindh Provincial Minister and Sindh Provincial Health Minister, nephew of Qazi Abdul Qayyum and son of Hakeem Fatemah Muhammad SewaniThird Generation Fahmida Mirza, former Speaker of the National Assembly, former Acting President of Pakistan, three time Member of the National Assembly, daughter of Qazi Abid.

She is Federal Minister for Inter Provincial Coordinaton. Qazi Asad Abid, former Member of the National Assembly and son of Qazi Abid Ameena Ashraf, former Member of the National Assembly and the Sindh Provincial Assembly and daughter of Qazi Muhammad Akbar Zulfiqar Mirza, former Sindh Provincial Home Minister, former Member of the National Assembly, nephew of Qazi Abid, Qazi Azam, Qazi Akbar Fourth Generation Pir Mazhar Ul Haq, former Senior Sindh Provincial Minister and Sindh Provincial Education Minister, former Sindh Provincial Housing and Works Minister, former Sindh Provincial Law Minister, grandson of Qazi Muhammad Akbar Qazi Ashad Abbasi, Hyderabad Cantonment Board from Ward 7 and grandson of Qazi AkbarFifth Generation Marvi Mazhar, a former Member of the Provincial Assembly in Sindh and daughter of Pir Mazhar Ul Haq Hasnain Mirza, a current Member of the Provincial Assembly in Sindh and son of Zulfikar Mirza Pir Majeeb Ul Haq, a current Member of the Provincial Assembly in Sindh and son of Pir Mazhar Ul Haq.

United States Expansion The Family has expanded to the United States. Qazi Azfar Sonny Abbasi a grandson of Qazi Abjul Majid Abid, has been active in Democratic Party Politics for over twenty-five years in supporting various candidates at all levels. On July 13, 2018, Sonny was appointed to the Virginia Board of Housing and Community Development by Governor of Virginia, Ralph Northam. On July 22, 2019, he was elected Vice Chairman of the Virginia Board of Housing and Community Development, only a year after first being appointed. Fahmida Mirza Pir Mazhar Ul Haq Qazi Asad Abid Qazi Abdul Majeed Abid Political families of Pakistan Hyderabad: politically alive https://web.archive.org/web/20160303183923/http://jang.com.pk/thenews/oct2008-weekly/nos-19-10-2008/kol.htm#4 NA elects first woman speaker by two-thirds majority http://www.dawn.com/2008/03/20/top1.htm Dr. Fehmida Mirza to act as President during absence abroad of President Zardari https://web.archive.org/web/20120219231541/http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=66889&Itemid=2 PROFILE: Dr Fahmida Mirza wife of Dr. Zulfiqar Mirza https://web.archive.org/web/20090211061645/http://www.sindhtimes.com/news/121/ARTICLE/2095/2008-11-29.html https://www.governor.virginia.gov/newsroom/all-releases/2018/july/headline-827318-en.html

Yuriy Virt

Yuriy Mykolayovych Virt is a retired Ukrainian football goalkeeper and current manager of FC Veres Rivne. He played over 100 games for Metalurh Donetsk in the Ukrainian Premier League. In the beginning of 1990s he played for number of clubs from Lviv Oblast such as FC Skala Stryi and the first FC Lviv city team. In September 2001 he played two games for the Ukraine national football team earning clean sheets wins in both of them against Belarus and Armenia. After retiring from playing career, Virt worked for Ukrainian Premier League club Metalurh Donetsk as a goalkeeper coach. Since 2017, he coached as a manager FC FC Rukh Vynnyky. In June 2019, he was once again appointed as manager of Veres Rivne. Statistics at FFU website Yuriy Virt at National-Football-Teams.com