Little Rock Central High School
Little Rock Central High School is an accredited comprehensive public high school in Little Rock, United States. The school was the site of forced desegregation in 1957 after the U. S. Supreme Court ruled; this was during the period of heightened activism in the Civil Rights Movement. Central is located at the intersection of Park Street. Central can trace its origins to 1869 when the Sherman School operated in a wooden structure at 8th and Sherman streets. In 1885 the Sherman School was moved to 14th and Scott streets and was named Scott Street School, but was more called City High School. Five years in 1890, the Peabody School was constructed at West Capitol and Gaines streets, it was named in honor of philanthropist George Peabody from US$200,000 received via the Peabody Education Fund. In 1905, the city founded Little Rock High School at the intersection of 14th and Cumberland streets, shuttered the Peabody and Scott Street schools to serve as the city's sole public high school. At the time only white students were enrolled.
In 1927 at a cost of US$1.5 million, the city completed construction on the nation's largest and most expensive high school facility, which remains in use today. In 1953 with the construction of Hall High School, the school was renamed as Little Rock Central High School, it has since been listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places and named as a U. S. National Historic Landmark and National Historic Site. Central High School, which covers grades 9 through 12, has an enrollment of 2,456, it is in the Little Rock School District. The current principal is Nancy Rousseau, who became principal in 2002. Built in 1927 at a cost of $1.5 million, Little Rock Senior High School was designed in the Gothic Revival style. Statues of four figures over the front entrance represent ambition, personality and preparation, its opening earned national publicity, with nearly 20,000 people attending the dedication ceremony. In 1953 it was renamed as Little Rock Central High School. At the time in Arkansas and other states across the South, public school educational facilities were racially segregated.
In 1954 the US Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that such segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, encouraged the states to integrate their schools. Related historic events in the 1950s changed education at Central High School and throughout the United States. LRCHS was the focal point of the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957. Nine Black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, were denied entrance to the school in defiance of the 1954 U. S. Supreme Court ruling ordering integration of public schools; this provoked a showdown between the Governor Orval Faubus and President Dwight D. Eisenhower that gained international attention. On the morning of September 23, 1957, the nine Black high school students faced an angry mob of over 1,000 Whites in front of Central High School who were protesting the integration project; as the students were escorted inside by the Little Rock police, violence escalated, they were removed from the school. The next day, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the 1,200-man 327th Airborne Battle Group of the U.
S. Army's 101st Airborne Division from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to escort the nine students into the school. By the same order, he federalized the entire 10,000-man Arkansas National Guard, in order to remove them from the control of Governor Faubus. At nearby Camp Robinson, a hastily organized Task Force 153rd Infantry drew guardsmen from units all over the state. Most of the Arkansas Guard was demobilized, but the ad hoc TF153Inf assumed control at Thanksgiving when the 327th withdrew, patrolled inside and outside the school for the remainder of the school year; as Melba Pattillo Beals, one of the nine students, wrote in her diary, "After three full days inside Central, I know that integration is a much bigger word than I thought." This event, watched by the nation and world, was the site of the first important test for the implementation of the U. S. Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954. Many areas of the South pledged to resist this ruling. Arkansas' governor Orval Faubus questioned the authority of the federal court system and the validity of desegregation.
The crisis at Little Rock's Central High School was the first fundamental test of the national resolve to enforce black civil rights in the face of massive resistance during the years following the Brown decision. As to whether Eisenhower's specific actions to enforce integration violated the Posse Comitatus Act, the Supreme Court, in Cooper v. Aaron, indirectly affirmed the legality of his conduct, it was never expressly reviewed. In 1958, federal Judge Jesse Smith Henley of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas, stating that integration had "broken down under the pressure of public opinion," suspended operation of the federal integration order until the 1960-61 school term; the school board said that it had faced large fees and could not afford to hire security guards to keep the peace in school. LRCHS was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 19, 1977, was designated as a National Historic Landmark on May 20, 1982; the school continues to be used as an educational facility.
In 2007, Central High School held an event for the 50th Anniversary of the Little Rock Nine entering Central. On September 24, 2007, a new museum was opened honoring the Little Rock N
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey, its mission in the 21st century is "to ensure the political, educational and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination." National NAACP initiatives include political lobbying, publicity efforts and litigation strategies developed by its legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of black foreign refugees and questions of economic development, its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people, referring to those with some African ancestry. The NAACP bestows annual awards to African Americans in two categories: Image Awards are for achievement in the arts and entertainment, Spingarn Medals are for outstanding achievement of any kind.
Its headquarters is in Maryland. The NAACP is headquartered in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in New York, Georgia, Texas and California; each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in that region. Local and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U. S. the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board, led by a chairperson. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization. Julian Bond, Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator, was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock. For decades in the first half of the 20th century, the organization was led by its executive secretary, who acted as chief operating officer. James Weldon Johnson and Walter F. White, who served in that role successively from 1920 to 1958, were much more known as NAACP leaders than were presidents during those years. Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action.
Local chapters are supported by the'Branch and Field Services' department and the'Youth and College' department. The'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education; the Washington, D. C. bureau is responsible for lobbying the U. S. government, the Education Department works to improve public education at the local and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education; as of 2007, the NAACP had 425,000 paying and non-paying members. The NAACP's non-current records are housed at the Library of Congress, which has served as the organization's official repository since 1964; the records held there comprise five million items spanning the NAACP's history from the time of its founding until 2003. In 2011, the NAACP teamed with the digital repository ProQuest to digitize and host online the earlier portion of its archives, through 1972 – nearly two million pages of documents, from the national and branch offices throughout the country, which offer first-hand insight into the organization's work related to such crucial issues as lynching, school desegregation, discrimination in all its aspects.
The Pan-American Exposition of 1901 in Buffalo, New York featured many American innovations and achievements, but included a disparaging caricature of slave life in the South as well as a depiction of life in Africa, called "Old Plantation" and "Darkest Africa," respectively. A local African American women, Mary Talbert of Ohio was appalled by the exhibit, as a similar one in Paris highlighted black achievements, she informed W. E. B. DuBois of the situation, a coalition began to form. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing African Americans and possible strategies and solutions, they were concerned by the Southern states' disenfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. Through 1908, southern legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. In practice, this caused the exclusion of most blacks and many poor whites from the political system in southern states, crippling the Republican Party in most of the South.
Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result of such legislation. Men, voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. White-dominated legislatures passed segregation and Jim Crow laws; because hotels in the US were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year three non-African-Americans joined the group: journalist William English Walling, a wealthy socialist. Moskowitz, Jewish, was also Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture, they met in 1906 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, in 1907 in Boston, Massachusetts. The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict, disbanded in 1910. Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909. Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organiz
Congressional Gold Medal
A Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress. The Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom are the highest civilian awards in the United States, it is awarded to persons "who have performed an achievement that has an impact on American history and culture, to be recognized as a major achievement in the recipient's field long after the achievement." However, "There are no permanent statutory provisions relating to the creation of Congressional Gold Medals. When a Congressional Gold Medal has been deemed appropriate, Congress has, by legislative action, provided for the creation of a medal on an ad hoc basis." U. S. citizenship is not a requirement. Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions; the medal was first awarded in 1776 by the Second Continental Congress to General George Washington. Although the first recipients were military figures who participated in the American Revolution, the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War, Congress broadened the scope of the medal to include actors, entertainers, pioneers in aeronautics and space, lifesavers, notables in science and medicine, humanitarians, public servants, foreign recipients.
The medal is awarded to persons, but in 1979 the American Red Cross became the first organization to be honored with a gold medal. As of 2019 four people had been awarded more than one gold medal: Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, Lincoln Ellsworth, Hyman G. Rickover; the Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom are considered to carry the same level of prestige. The chief difference between the two is that the Freedom Medal is awarded by the President of the United States, Congressional Gold Medals are awarded by Acts of Congress. Per committee rules, legislation bestowing a Congressional Gold Medal upon a recipient must be co-sponsored by two-thirds of the membership of both the House of Representatives and the Senate before their respective committees will consider it. A Congressional Gold Medal is designed by the United States Mint to commemorate the person and achievement for which the medal is awarded. Medals are therefore different in appearance, there is no standard design. Congressional Gold Medals are considered non-portable, meaning that they are not meant to be worn on a uniform or other clothing, but rather displayed.
In rare instances, miniature versions have been made or converted for wear on clothing, suspended from a ribbon. The latter was authorized in 1935 by Pub. L. 74–43 allowing the Secretary of the Navy to authorize—at his discretion—the wearing of commemorative or other special awards on Navy or Marine Corps uniforms, in military sized form. Bronze versions of the medals are struck for sale by the U. S. Mint, may be available in both larger and smaller sizes. In at least one case, the John Wayne medal, private dealers bought large numbers of the bronze version, they were gold plated and resold to the public for a significant profit. The Congressional Gold Medal is distinct from the Medal of Honor, a military decoration for extreme bravery in action, from the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, presented by NASA for extraordinary accomplishment in United States space exploration. List of Congressional Gold Medal recipients Awards and decorations of the United States government Congressional Silver Medal Congressional Bronze Medal Thanks of Congress Snowden, James Ross.
A Description of the Medals of Washington. Illustrated, to Which Are Added Biographical Notices of the Directors of the Mint from 1792 to the year 1851. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. List of recipients Loubat, J. F. and Jacquemart, Illustrator, The Medallic History of the United States of America 1776–1876
The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People for outstanding achievement by an African American. The award was created in 1914 by Joel Elias Spingarn, chairman of the Board of Directors of the NAACP, it was first awarded to biologist Ernest E. Just in 1915, has been given most years thereafter. At its annual convention, the NAACP presents the award after deciding from open nominations. Should the organization end, it would be managed by Fisk Universities; the gold medal is valued at $100, Spingarn left $20,000 in his will for the NAACP to continue giving it indefinitely. Footnotes Specific references General references
Victor Frederick "Vic" Snyder is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for Arkansas's 2nd congressional district from 1997 to 2011, he is a member of the Democratic Party. Vic Snyder was born in Oregon, he is a graduate of Medford High School and attended college at Willamette University in Salem, where he was a member of Kappa Sigma. In 1967, after two years of college, Snyder volunteered for the United States Marine Corps, he served in Vietnam with Headquarters Company of the US 1st Marine Division during the Vietnam War. He attained the rank of corporal. Snyder earned a degree in Chemistry in 1975 from Willamette and earned his medical degree from the University of Oregon Health Sciences Center in Portland, Oregon in 1979. Snyder moved to Little Rock and served his residency at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. In 1982 after completing his residency he worked as a family practice physician for 15 years. During this time he travelled overseas to volunteer his medical services at Cambodian refugee camps in Thailand, Salvadoran refugee camps in Honduras, Ethiopian refugee camps in Sudan.
From 1985 to 1988 Snyder attended the University of Arkansas at Little Rock School of Law to obtain his law degree while still maintaining his medical practice. In 1990 Snyder ran for a seat in the Arkansas legislature and served in that body until 1996. In the Arkansas legislature, Snyder stepped into one of his earliest legislative controversies when he attempted to repeal the state's aged "Sodomy Laws". However, his efforts failed, the sodomy laws stayed in effect until the state Supreme Court struck it down in Jegley v. Picado in March 2001. Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee on Military Personnel Committee on Veterans' Affairs Subcommittee on Health Joint Economic CommitteeSnyder focuses on many traditionally liberal issues, including a particular interest in support for veteran's and military families, he has a liberal voting record for being an elected politician from the South and otherwise conservative-leaning Arkansas. Snyder voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment, the ban on partial-birth abortions, banning lawsuits against gun manufacturers and distributors, bankruptcy reform, drilling in ANWR, on October 10, 2002, he was among the 133 members of the House who voted against authorizing the invasion of Iraq.
In addition, Snyder was one of only two Congressmen to vote against prosecuting Saddam Hussein. On issues of free and expanded trade, Snyder differs with his party his Southern populist colleagues, he has opposed legislation cracking down on Wal-Mart, headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas. Snyder was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1996 and was reelected in 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2008. Snyder announced on January 15, 2010 that he would retire at the conclusion of his term which ends in 2010. A SurveyUSA poll released January 15, 2010 showed him trailing his Republican challenger, Tim Griffin, by 17 points. During the 2008 presidential campaign, like most Arkansas Democrats, Snyder endorsed former U. S. Senator and former First Lady of Arkansas Hillary Clinton for President. Snyder, in 2003 married The Reverend Betsy Singleton a United Methodist minister at Little Rock's Quapaw Quarter United Methodist Church, they have four children, all boys, named Penn, Aubrey and Sullivan.
The latter three are triplets. Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Kappa Sigma Famous Alumni
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, is a coeducational, public doctoral/professional university in Edwardsville, United States about 20 miles northeast of St. Louis, Missouri. SIUE was established in 1957 as an extension of Southern Illinois University Carbondale, it is the younger of the two major institutions of Southern Illinois University system, and, as of 2018, has the larger enrollment. The University offers graduate programs through its Graduate School. Fielding athletic teams known as the SIU Edwardsville Cougars, the university participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division I level as a member of Ohio Valley Conference; the majority of SIUE's students are from Illinois, with out-of-state and international students accounting for 18% of enrollment. As of 2018, for nearly all of its academic programs, SIUE does not charge out-of-state tuition and fee rates, such that the standard rates are the same for all U. S. residents. The university offers numerous extracurricular activities to its students, including athletics, honor societies, student clubs and organizations, as well as fraternities and sororities.
The university has an alumni base of more than 101,000. During the Post–World War II economic expansion, a lack of public higher education was noticeable in the growing Metro-East area. Organizations from across the area took it upon themselves to relieve this lack. Southern Illinois University, over 100 miles to the region's south, opened a residence center in Belleville in 1949. In 1955, the Edwardsville Chamber of Commerce founded the Southwestern Illinois Council for Higher Education, tasked with creating a more permanent solution to the problem. SWICHE and the SIU Board of Trustees met and stated their agreement in goals in 1956, that same year, an Executive Committee from the Board of Education in Alton invited Dr. Alonzo Myers, Chairman of the Department of Higher Education for Higher Education at New York University, to perform a study of the need for higher education in the Metro-East. Dr. Myers's 1957 report, The Extent and the Nature of Needs for Higher Education in Madison and St. Clair Counties, outlined the precise need: the 1950 census showed that students in the region in question were only half as as those in other regions of the country to finish a four-year college degree program.
Businesses in the area were in need of college-trained employees, but were forced to hire outside of the area in the fields of business administration, nursing and industrial technology. Myers concluded that, rather than more residence centers, private schools, or junior colleges, a branch of a four-year public university would best serve the needs of the area, he recommended the closest large public university, as the best candidate. Acting on the report, in 1957, SIU purchased both a former building of East St. Louis High School and the campus of Shurtleff College in Alton as temporary facilities. With all of the research and planning that had gone before, the true need had been underestimated; when the new campuses opened, officials planned on having about 800 students. The dual campus solution was temporary because both facilities were in urban areas with little room for expansion at the time of purchase. Land for the permanent campus was purchased in 1960—2,660-acre of farmland. Money for the purchase came from A) contributions from individuals, industries, labor unions, civic organizations, PTAs.
The location, west of Edwardsville, was chosen due to its accessibility via highways, its usability as an educational campus, its proximity to the major urban areas of the Metro-East. In 1960, a bond issue was voted upon by the residents of Illinois. A conference entitled Environmental Planning-Edwardsville Campus took place in 1961, highlighting the architectural and spatial design of the future campus; the campus was designed by architects Hellmuth and Kassabaum. Ground was broken in 1963 and, with the first two buildings completed, classes were first held on the Edwardsville campus in fall 1965. A series of dedication ceremonies from 1966 to 1969 highlighted the ongoing growth of the campus. Prior to the development of the Edwardsville campus, six "Divisions of Academic Programs" were established for the SIU Residential Centers in Alton and East St. Louis on March 4, 1960; when the move was made to the new campus in 1965, the "Divisions" became the Schools of Business, Fine Arts, Humanities and Technology, Social Sciences.
The nursing program, to become the School of Nursing when the new campus opened, was established in March 29, 1964. On April 18, 1969, the Board of Trustees voted to establish the School of Dental Medicine, which opened in 1972; the School of Engineering originated as the Engineering Department of the School of Science and Technology and was elevated to School status in 1982. Between September 9, 1993 and July 1, 1995 the Schools of Fine Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences and the University College merged to become the College of Arts and Sciences; the newest of SIUE's schools, the School of Pharmacy, began classes in 2005. In 2014, the School of Education was renamed to School of Education and Human Behavior to better represent the
Little Rock Nine
The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas, they attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower; the U. S. Supreme Court issued its historic Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 347 U. S. 483, on May 17, 1954. Tied to the 14th Amendment, the decision declared all laws establishing segregated schools to be unconstitutional, it called for the desegregation of all schools throughout the nation. After the decision, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People attempted to register black students in all-white schools in cities throughout the South. In Little Rock, the school board agreed to comply with the high court's ruling. Virgil Blossom, the Superintendent of Schools, submitted a plan of gradual integration to the school board on May 24, 1955, which the board unanimously approved.
The plan would be implemented during the fall of the 1957 school year, which would begin in September 1957. By 1957, the NAACP had registered nine black students to attend the all-white Little Rock Central High, selected on the criteria of excellent grades and attendance. Called the "Little Rock Nine", they were Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jefferson Thomas, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Minnijean Brown, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Pattillo Beals. Ernest Green was the first African American; when integration began in September 4, 1957, the Arkansas National Guard was called in to "preserve the peace". At orders of the governor, they were meant to prevent the black students from entering due to claims that there was "imminent danger of tumult and breach of peace" at the integration. However, President Eisenhower issued Executive order 10730, which federalized the Arkansas National Guard and ordered them to support the integration on September 23 of that year, after which they protected the African American students.
One of the plans created during attempts to desegregate the schools of Little Rock was by school superintendent Virgil Blossom. The initial approach proposed substantial integration beginning and extending to all grades within a matter of many years; this original proposal was scrapped and replaced with one that more met a set of minimum standards worked out in attorney Richard B. McCulloch's brief; this finalized plan would start in September 1957 and would integrate one high school, Little Rock Central. The second phase of the plan would take place in 1960 and would open up a few junior high schools to a few black children; the final stage would involve limited desegregation of the city's grade schools at an unspecified time as late as 1963. This plan was met with varied reactions from the NAACP branch of Little Rock. Militant members like the Bateses opposed the plan on the grounds that it was "vague, slow-moving and indicative of an intent to stall further on public integration." Despite this view, the majority accepted the plan.
This view was short lived, however. Changes were made to the plan, the most detrimental being a new transfer system that would allow students to move out of the attendance zone to which they were assigned; the unaltered Blossom Plan had gerrymandered school districts to guarantee a black majority at Horace Mann High and a white majority at Hall High. This meant that though black students lived closer to Central, they would be placed in Horace Mann thus confirming the intention of the school board to limit the impact of desegregation; the altered plan gave white students the choice of not attending Horace Mann, but didn't give black students the option of attending Hall. This new Blossom Plan did not sit well with the NAACP and after failed negotiations with the school board; this lawsuit, along with a number of other factors contributed to the Little Rock School Crisis of 1957. Several segregationist councils threatened to hold protests at Central High and physically block the black students from entering the school.
Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to support the segregationists on September 4, 1957. The sight of a line of soldiers blocking out the students made national headlines and polarized the nation. Regarding the accompanying crowd, one of the nine students, Elizabeth Eckford, recalled: They moved closer and closer.... Somebody started yelling.... I tried to see a friendly face somewhere in the crowd -- someone. I looked into the face of an old woman and it seemed a kind face, but when I looked at her again, she spat on me. On September 9, the Little Rock School District issued a statement condemning the governor's deployment of soldiers to the school, called for a citywide prayer service on September 12. President Dwight Eisenhower attempted to de-escalate the situation by summoning Faubus for a meeting, warning him not to defy the Supreme Court's ruling. Woodrow Wilson Mann, the mayor of Little Rock, asked President Eisenhower to send federal troops to enforce integration and protect the nine students.
On September 24, the President ordered the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army—without its black soldiers, who rejoined the division a month later—to Little Rock and federalized the entire 10,000-member Arkan