Woodstock is a 1970 documentary film of the watershed counterculture Woodstock Festival which took place in August 1969 near Bethel, New York. Entertainment Weekly called this film the benchmark of concert movies and one of the most entertaining documentaries made; the film was directed by Michael Wadleigh. Seven editors are credited, including Thelma Schoonmaker, Martin Scorsese, Wadleigh. Woodstock was a great critical success, it received the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. Schoonmaker was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Film Editing, a rare distinction for a documentary. Dan Wallin and L. A. Johnson were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Sound; the film was screened at the 1970 Cannes Film Festival, but was not entered into the main competition. The 1970 theatrical release of the film ran 185 minutes. A director's cut spanning 224 minutes was released in 1994. Both cuts take liberties with the timeline of the festival. However, the opening and closing acts are the same in the film.
Jimi Hendrix at Woodstock was released separately on DVD and Blu-ray. In 1996, Woodstock was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". An expanded 40th Anniversary Edition of Woodstock, released on June 9, 2009 in Blu-ray and DVD formats, features additional performances not before seen in the film, includes lengthened versions of existing performances featuring Creedence Clearwater Revival and others. * studio recording from an album by the artist** director's cut only, not in the original theatrical release Woodstock received universal acclaim from newspaper and magazine critics in 1970. It was an enormous box office smash; the edition of May 20, 1970 of Variety reported it was doing well in its third week in Chicago and San Francisco. In each of those metropolitan areas the movie played at only one cinema during that week, but many thousands showed up. After it branched out to more cinemas including more than one per metropolitan area, it grossed $50 million in the United States.
The budget for its production was just $600,000, making it not only the sixth highest-grossing film of 1970 but one of the most profitable movies of that year as well. Decades after its initial release, the film earned a 100% "Fresh" rating on the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes. Roger Ebert added Woodstock to his "Great Movies" list in 2005. Upon the festival's 25th anniversary, in 1994, a director's cut of the film — subtitled 3 Days of Peace & Music — was released in cinemas and on DVD, it added over 40 minutes and included additional performances by Canned Heat, Jefferson Airplane and Janis Joplin. Jimi Hendrix's set at the end of the film was extended with two additional numbers; some of the crowd scenes in the original film were replaced by unseen footage. After the closing credits — featuring Crosby, Nash & Young's "Find the Cost of Freedom" — a list of prominent people from the "Woodstock Generation" who had died is shown, including John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X, Che Guevara, Martin Luther King Jr.
Mama Cass Elliot, Jim Morrison, John Lennon, Max Yasgur, Roy Orbison, Abbie Hoffman, Paul Butterfield, Keith Moon, Bob Hite, Richard Manuel, Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendrix. It ends with the epitaph to the right: On June 9, 2009 a 40th-anniversary edition was released in two-disc sets on Blu-ray and DVD, available as both a "Special Edition" and an "Ultimate Collector's Edition"; the latter included copious memorabilia. The director's cut was newly remastered in high definition with a 2K scan of the original elements, provided a new 5.1 audio mix. Among the special features are 18 never-before-seen performances from artists such as Joan Baez, Country Joe McDonald, The Who, Jefferson Airplane, Canned Heat and Joe Cocker; the bonus songs, a 143-minute collection of 18 performances presented in standard definition, are entitled "Untold Stories": Joan Baez: "One Day at a Time" Country Joe McDonald: "Flying High" Santana: "Evil Ways" Canned Heat: "I'm Her Man" Canned Heat: "On the Road Again" Mountain: "Beside the Sea" Mountain: "Southbound Train" The Grateful Dead: "Turn on Your Love Light" The Who: "We're Not Going to Take It" The Who: "My Generation" Jefferson Airplane: "3/5 of a Mile in 10 Seconds" Joe Cocker: "Something's Coming On" Johnny Winter: "Mean Town Blues" Paul Butterfield: "Morning Sunrise" Sha Na Na: "Teen Angel" Creedence Clearwater Revival: "Born on the Bayou" Creedence Clearwater Revival: "I've Put a Spell On You" Creedence Clearwater Revival: "Keep on Chooglin" Bonus featurettes in standard definition, last 77 minutes.
Entitled "Woodstock: From Festival to Feature," they cover the festival itself, the challenges of making the film, its reception and legacy, other topics: The Camera 365,000 Feet of Film Shooting Stage The Lineup Holding the Negative Hostage Announcements Suits vs. Longhairs Documenting History Woodstock: The Journey Pre-Production Production Synchronization The Crowd No Rain! No Rain! 3 Days in a Truck The Woodstock Effect Living Up to Idealism World's Longest Optical Critical Acclaim The Hog Farm Commune Hugh Hefner and Michael Wadleigh This edition contains the same Blu-ray version of the film released in 2009 along with
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap, which encouraged state repression of Black African and Asian South Africans for the benefit of the nation's minority white population; the economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day. Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had emerged in the form of minority rule by White South Africans and the enforced separation of Black South Africans from other races, which extended to pass laws and land apportionment. Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the election of the National Party at the 1948 general election.
A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the late-eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised, ethnically diverse slave population. With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated against Black South Africans began appearing shortly before 1900; the policies of the Boer republics were racially exclusive. The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines; the Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloured", "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.
Places of residence were determined by racial classification. From 1960–1983, 3.5 million Non-White South Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass evictions in modern history. Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the Black population to ten designated "tribal homelands" known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states; the government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans. Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century, it was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa. During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention.
Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to appease most activist groups. Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress, the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison. Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991, pending democratic, multiracial elections set for April 1994. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart" "apart-hood", its first recorded use was in 1929. Under the 1806 Cape Articles of Capitulation the new British colonial rulers were required to respect previous legislation enacted under Roman Dutch law and this led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy.
The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire. In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters. In 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes; this was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from their master or a local official. Ordinance No. 49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the sole purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, who were still forced to carry passes; the United Kingdom's Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation.
To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835, which changed the status of slaves to indentured labourers. This was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa, little different from slave
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time, his films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time. In a career spanning fifty years, Fellini won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, won four in the category of Best Foreign Language Film, the most for any director in the history of the Academy. At the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles, he received an honorary award for Lifetime Achievement. Besides La Dolce Vita and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon and Fellini's Casanova. Fellini was born on 20 January 1920, to middle-class parents in Rimini a small town on the Adriatic Sea.
His father, Urbano Fellini, born to a family of Romagnol peasants and small landholders from Gambettola, moved to Rome in 1915 as a baker apprenticed to the Pantanella pasta factory. His mother, Ida Barbiani, came from a bourgeiois Catholic family of Roman merchants. Despite her family's vehement disapproval, she had eloped with Urbano in 1917 to live at his parents' home in Gambettola. A civil marriage followed in 1918 with the religious ceremony held at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome a year later; the couple settled in Rimini where Urbano became wholesale vendor. Fellini had two siblings: Riccardo, a documentary director for RAI Television, Maria Maddalena. In 1924, Fellini started primary school in an institute run by the nuns of San Vincenzo in Rimini, attending the Carlo Tonni public school two years later. An attentive student, he spent his leisure time drawing, staging puppet shows, reading Il corriere dei piccoli, the popular children's magazine that reproduced traditional American cartoons by Winsor McCay, George McManus and Frederick Burr Opper.
In 1926, he discovered the world of Grand Guignol, the circus with Pierino the Clown, the movies. Guido Brignone’s Maciste all’Inferno, the first film he saw, would mark him in ways linked to Dante and the cinema throughout his entire career. Enrolled at the Ginnasio Giulio Cesare in 1929, he made friends with Luigi ‘Titta’ Benzi a prominent Rimini lawyer. In Mussolini’s Italy and Riccardo became members of the Avanguardista, the compulsory Fascist youth group for males, he visited Rome with his parents for the first time in 1933, the year of the maiden voyage of the transatlantic ocean liner SS Rex. The sea creature found on the beach at the end of La Dolce Vita has its basis in a giant fish marooned on a Rimini beach during a storm in 1934. Although Fellini adapted key events from his childhood and adolescence in films such as I Vitelloni, 8½, Amarcord, he insisted that such autobiographical memories were inventions: It is not memory that dominates my films. To say that my films are autobiographical is an overly facile liquidation, a hasty classification.
It seems to me that I have invented everything: childhood, nostalgias, memories, for the pleasure of being able to recount them. In 1937, Fellini opened a portrait shop in Rimini, with the painter Demos Bonini, his first humorous article appeared in the "Postcards to Our Readers" section of Milan's Domenica del Corriere. Deciding on a career as a caricaturist and gag writer, Fellini travelled to Florence in 1938, where he published his first cartoon in the weekly 420. According to a biographer, Fellini found school "exasperating" and, in one year, had 67 absences. Failing his military culture exam, he graduated from high school in July 1938 after doubling the exam. In September 1939, he enrolled in law school at the University of Rome to please his parents. Biographer Hollis Alpert reports that "there is no record of his having attended a class". Installed in a family pensione, he met the painter Rinaldo Geleng. Poor, they unsuccessfully joined forces to draw sketches of restaurant and café patrons.
Fellini found work as a cub reporter on the dailies Il Piccolo and Il Popolo di Roma, but quit after a short stint, bored by the local court news assignments. Four months after publishing his first article in Marc’Aurelio, the influential biweekly humour magazine, he joined the editorial board, achieving success with a regular column titled But Are You Listening? Described as “the determining moment in Fellini’s life”, the magazine gave him steady employment between 1939 and 1942, when he interacted with writers and scriptwriters; these encounters led to opportunities in show business and cinema. Among his collaborators on the magazine's editorial board were the future director Ettore Scola, Marxist theorist and scriptwriter Cesare Zavattini, Bernardino Zapponi, a future Fellini screenwriter. Conducting interviews for CineMagazzino proved congenial: when asked to interview Aldo Fabrizi, Italy's most popular variety performer, he established such immediate personal rapport with the man that they collaborated professionally.
Specializing in humorous monologues, Fabrizi commissioned material from his young protégé. Retained on business
The King of Comedy (film)
The King of Comedy is a 1982 American satirical black comedy film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Robert De Niro, Jerry Lewis, Sandra Bernhard. Written by Paul D. Zimmerman, the film focuses on themes including celebrity worship and American media culture. 20th Century Fox released the film on February 18, 1983, in the United States, though the film was released two months earlier in Iceland. Production began in New York on June 1, 1981, to avoid clashing with a forthcoming writers' strike, opened the Cannes Film Festival in 1983; the film opened to positive reviews from critics, but was a flop at the box office, grossing only $2.5 million against its $19 million budget. Rupert Pupkin is an aspiring, mentally-deranged stand-up comedian unsuccessfully trying to launch his career. After meeting Jerry Langford, a successful comedian and talk show host, Rupert believes his "big break" has come, he attempts to book a spot on Langford's show, but is continually rebuffed by his staff and by Langford himself.
Along the way, Rupert indulges in elaborate and obsessive fantasies in which he and Langford are colleagues and friends. Hoping to impress, Rupert invites a date, Rita, to accompany him when he shows up uninvited at Langford's country home; when Langford returns home to find Rupert and Rita settling in, he angrily tells Rupert that his act is mediocre and that he's a lunatic who'll never amount to anything. While Jerry yells at him, Rupert continues trying to stay in his good graces, until an embarrassed Rita gets Rupert to leave; when the straight approach does not work, Rupert hatches a kidnapping plot with the help of Masha, a fellow stalker obsessed with Langford. As ransom, Rupert demands that he be given the opening spot on that evening's episode of Langford's show, that the show be broadcast in normal fashion; the network brass and the FBI agree to his demands, with the understanding that Langford will be released once the show airs. Between the taping of the show and the broadcast, Masha has her "dream date" with Langford, duct-taped to a chair in her parents' Manhattan townhouse.
Langford convinces her to untie him and he manages to escape. Rupert's stand-up routine is well received by the audience. In his act, he describes his troubled upbringing while laughing at his circumstances. Rupert closes by confessing to the studio audience that he kidnapped Langford in order to break into show business; the audience laughs. Rupert responds by saying, "you'll all think I'm crazy, but I figure it this way: better to be king for a night, than a schmuck for a lifetime." The movie closes with a news report of Rupert's release from prison, set to a montage of storefronts stocking his "long awaited" autobiography, King for a Night. Rupert still considers Langford his friend and that he is weighing several "attractive offers", including comedy tours and a film adaptation of his memoirs; the final scene shows Rupert taking the stage for an apparent TV special with a live audience and an announcer enthusiastically introducing him, leaving the viewer to decide whether it is reality or Rupert's fantasy.
Robert De Niro as Rupert Pupkin Jerry Lewis as Jerry Langford Diahnne Abbott as Rita Keene Sandra Bernhard as Masha Ed Herlihy as himself Tony Randall as himself Shelley Hack as Mrs. Long After Raging Bull was completed, Scorsese thought about retiring from feature films to make documentaries instead because he felt "unsatisfied" and hadn't found his "inner peace" yet. However, he was keen to do a pet project of his, The Last Temptation of Christ, wanted De Niro to play Jesus Christ. De Niro preferred their next collaboration to be a comedy, he had purchased the rights of a script by film critic Paul D. Zimmerman. Michael Cimino was first proposed as director but withdrew from the project because of the extended production of Heaven's Gate. Bob Fosse considered directing the film and suggested Andy Kaufman as Rupert Pupkin, Sandra Bernhard as Masha and Sammy Davis, Jr. as Jerry Langford Fosse passed on the film in favor of directing Star 80 instead. Scorsese pondered whether he could face shooting another film with a looming strike by the Writers Guild of America.
Producer Arnon Milchan knew he could do the project away from Hollywood interference by filming on location in New York and deliver it on time with the involvement of a smaller film company. In the biography/overview of his work, Scorsese on Scorsese, the director had high praise for Jerry Lewis, stating that during their first conversation before shooting, Lewis was professional and assured him before shooting that there would be no ego clashes or difficulties. Scorsese said he felt Lewis' performance in the film was vastly underrated and deserved more acclaim. After such a strong critical appreciation for the way in which Scorsese had shot Raging Bull, the director felt that The King of Comedy needed more of a raw cinematic style, one of which would take its cues from early silent cinema, using more static camera shots, fewer dramatic close-ups. Scorsese has noted that Edwin S. Porter's 1903 film Life of an American Fireman had influenced The King of Comedy's visual style. De Niro prepared for Rupert Pupkin's role by developing a "role reversal" technique, consisting of chasing down his own autograph-hunters, stalking them and asking them lots of questions.
As Scorsese remembered, he agreed to meet and talk with one of his longtime stalkers:The guy was waiting for him with his wife, a shy suburban woman, rather embarrassed by the situation. He wanted to take him to dinner at the
François Roland Truffaut was a French film director, producer and film critic. He is regarded as one of the founders of the French New Wave. In a film career lasting over a quarter of a century, he remains an icon of the French film industry, having worked on over 25 films. Truffaut's film The 400 Blows came to be a defining film of the French New Wave movement, was followed by four sequels, Antoine et Colette, Stolen Kisses and Board, Love on the Run, between 1958 and 1979. Truffaut's 1973 film Day for Night earned him critical acclaim and several accolades, including the BAFTA Award for Best Film and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, his other notable films include Shoot the Piano Player, Jules et Jim, The Wild Child, Two English Girls, The Woman Next Door. Truffaut was born in Paris on 6 February 1932, his mother was Janine de Montferrand. His mother's future husband, Roland Truffaut, accepted him as an adopted son and gave him his surname, he was passed around to live with his grandmother for a number of years.
It was his grandmother. He lived with his grandmother until her death, it was only after his grandmother's death. The identity of Truffaut's biological father was unknown, though a private detective agency in 1968 revealed that their inquiry into the matter led to a Roland Levy, a Jewish dentist from Bayonne. Truffaut's mother's family Truffaut himself believed and embraced them. Truffaut would stay with friends and try to be out of the house as much as possible, his best friend throughout his youth and until his death was Robert Lachenay, the inspiration for the character René Bigey in The 400 Blows and would work as an assistant on some of Truffaut's films. It was the cinema, he was eight years old when he saw his first movie, Abel Gance's Paradis Perdu from 1939. It was there, he played truant from school and would sneak into theaters because he didn't have enough money for admission. After being expelled from several schools, at the age of fourteen he decided to become self-taught. Two of his academic goals were to read three books a week.
Truffaut frequented Henri Langlois' Cinémathèque Française where he was exposed to countless foreign films from around the world. It was here that he became familiar with American cinema and directors such as John Ford, Howard Hawks and Nicholas Ray, as well as those of British director Alfred Hitchcock. After starting his own film club in 1948, Truffaut met André Bazin, who would have great effect on his professional and personal life. Bazin was the head of another film society at the time, he became a personal friend of Truffaut's and helped him out of various financial and criminal situations during his formative years. Truffaut spent the next two years trying to escape. Truffaut was arrested for attempting to desert the army. Bazin used his various political contacts to get Truffaut released and set him up with a job at his newly formed film magazine Cahiers du cinéma. Over the next few years, Truffaut became a critic at Cahiers, where he became notorious for his brutal, unforgiving reviews.
He was called "The Gravedigger of French Cinema" and was the only French critic not invited to the Cannes Film Festival in 1958. He supported Bazin in the development of one of the most influential theories of cinema itself, the auteur theory. In 1954, Truffaut wrote an article in Cahiers du cinéma called "Une Certaine Tendance du Cinéma Français", in which he attacked the current state of French films, lambasting certain screenwriters and producers, listing eight directors he considered incapable of devising the kinds of "vile" and "grotesque" characters and storylines that he declared were characteristic of the mainstream French film industry: Jean Renoir, Robert Bresson, Jean Cocteau, Jacques Becker, Abel Gance, Max Ophuls, Jacques Tati and Roger Leenhardt; the article caused a storm of controversy, landed Truffaut an offer to write for the nationally circulated, more read cultural weekly Arts-Lettres-Spectacles. Truffaut would pen more than 500 film articles for that publication over the next four years.
Truffaut devised the auteur theory, which stated that the director was the "author" of his work. Although his theory was not accepted it gained some support in the 1960s from American critic Andrew Sarris. In 1967, Truffaut published his book-length interview of Hitchcock/Truffaut. After having been a critic, Truffaut decided to make films of his own, he started out with the short film Une Visite in 1955 and followed that up with Les Mistons in 1957. After seeing Orson Welles' Touch of Evil at the Expo 58, he was inspired to make his feature film directorial debut with The 400 Blows, released in 1959 to much critical and commercial acclaim. Truffaut received a Best Director award from the Cannes Film Festival, the same festival that had banned him only one year earlier; the film follows the character of Antoine Doinel through his perilous misadventures in school, an unhappy home life and reform school. The film is autobiographical. Both Truffaut and Doinel were only children of loveless marriages.
Who's That Knocking at My Door
Who's That Knocking at My Door titled I Call First, is a 1967 drama film and directed by Martin Scorsese, in his feature film directorial debut. and Harvey Keitel's debut as an actor. Exploring themes of Catholic guilt similar to those in his film Mean Streets, the story follows Italian-American J. R. as he struggles to accept the secret hidden by his free-spirited girlfriend. This film was the winner of the 1968 Chicago Film Festival. J. R. is a typical Catholic Italian-American young man on the streets of New York City. As an adult, he stays close to home with a core group of friends with whom he drinks and carouses around, he gets involved with a local girl he meets on the Staten Island Ferry, decides he wants to get married and settle down. As their relationship deepens, he declines her offer to have sex because he thinks she is a virgin and he wants to wait rather than "spoil" her. One day, his girlfriend tells him; this crushes J. R. and he attempts to return to his old life of drinking with his friends.
However, after a wild party with friends, he realizes he still loves her and returns to her apartment one early morning. He awkwardly tells her that he forgives her and says that he will "marry her anyway." Upon hearing this, the girl tells him marriage would never work. J. R. becomes enraged and calls her a whore, but recants and says he is confused by the whole situation. She tells him to go home, he returns to the Catholic church, but finds no solace. Martin Scorsese appears in an uncredited role as a gangster. Who's That Knocking at My Door was filmed over the course of several years, undergoing many changes, new directions and different names along the way; the film began in 1965 as a student short film about J. R. and his do-nothing friends called Bring on the Dancing Girls. In 1967, the romance plot with Zina Bethune was introduced and spliced together with the earlier film, the title was changed to I Call First; this version of the film received its world premiere at the Chicago International Film Festival in November 1967.
In 1968, exploitation distributor Joseph Brenner offered to buy the picture and distribute it on the condition that a sex scene be added to give the film sex exploitation angles for marketing purposes. Scorsese shot and edited a technically beautiful but gratuitous montage of J. R. fantasizing about bedding a series of prostitutes and the film became Who's That Knocking at My Door. The film was re-issued under the title J. R. in 1970, however all subsequent releases have been published under the 1968 title. The film was shot with a combination of 16 mm cameras. Scorsese shot most of the 35 mm footage with a Mitchell BNC camera, a cumbersome camera that impeded mobility, he opted to shoot several scenes with the 16 mm Eclair NPR camera in order to introduce greater mobility blow up the footage to 35 mm. American critic Roger Ebert gave the film an positive review after its world premiere at the Chicago International Film Festival in November 1967, he called the film "a work, genuine, artistically satisfying and technically comparable to the best films being made anywhere.
I have no reservations in describing it as a great moment in American movies."When the film received its theatrical release two years Ebert admitted that he had been a little over eager with his first review, admitting that "Scorsese was too obvious, the film has serious structural flaws." However, he was still positive towards the film, suggested that "It is possible that with more experience and maturity Scorsese will direct more polished, finished films." Martin Scorsese's mother, appears as J. R.'s mother serving food near the end. Mrs. Scorsese would continue to appear in many of her son's films until her death in 1997. Scorsese himself appears uncredited as one of the gangsters. To this day, he still makes cameo appearances in many of his films; the role of Sally Gaga is played by the father of rapper Pizon. List of American films of 1967 Who's That Knocking at My Door? on IMDb Who's That Knocking at My Door? at AllMovie Who's That Knocking at My Door? at Rotten Tomatoes Who's That Knocking at My Door? at the TCM Movie Database
Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands. The four parts of the kingdom—the Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten—are constituent countries and participate on a basis of equality as partners in the kingdom. In practice, most of the kingdom's affairs are administered by the Netherlands—which comprises 98% of the kingdom's land area and population—on behalf of the entire kingdom; the Caribbean Sea islands countries of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten are dependent on the Netherlands for matters like foreign policy and defence, although they are autonomous to a certain degree, with their own parliaments. The vast majority in land area of the constituent country of the Netherlands is located in Europe, with the exception of the Caribbean Netherlands: its three special municipalities are located in the Caribbean Sea like the other three constituent countries.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands originated in the aftermath of French Emperor Napoleon I's defeat in 1815. In the year 1815, the Netherlands regained its independence from France under its First French Empire, which had annexed its northern neighbor in 1810, as the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands; the great powers of Europe, united against Napoleonic France, had decided in the secret treaty of the London Protocol to establish a single state in the territories that were the Dutch Republic/Batavian Republic/Kingdom of Holland, the Austrian Netherlands and the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, awarding rule over this to William, Prince of Orange and Nassau, although the southern territories remained under Prussian rule until Napoleon's return from his first exile on Elba. In March 1815, amidst the turmoil of the Hundred Days, the Sovereign Prince William of Orange and Nassau adopted the style of "King of the Netherlands". Following Napoleon's second defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815, the Vienna Congress supplied international recognition of William's unilateral move.
The new King of the Netherlands was made Grand Duke of Luxembourg, a part of the Kingdom that was, at the same time, a member state of the German Confederation. In 1830, Belgium seceded from the Kingdom, a step, recognised by the Netherlands only in 1839. At that point, Luxembourg became a independent country in a personal union with the Netherlands. Luxembourg lost more than half of its territory to Belgium. To compensate the German Confederation for that loss, the remainder of the Dutch province of Limburg received the same status that Luxembourg had enjoyed before, as a Dutch province that at the same time formed a Duchy of the German Confederation; that status was reversed when the German Confederation ceased to exist in 1867, replaced by the Prussian-led North German Confederation until the proclamation of a unified German Empire in 1871. The origin of the administrative reform of 1954 was the 1931 Statute of Westminster and the 1941 Atlantic Charter, signed by the Netherlands on 1 January 1942.
Changes were proposed in the 7 December 1942 radio speech by Queen Wilhelmina. In this speech, the Queen, on behalf of the Dutch government in exile in London, expressed a desire to review the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies after the end of the war. After liberation, the government would call a conference to agree on a settlement in which the overseas territories could participate in the administration of the Kingdom on the basis of equality; this speech had propaganda purposes. After Indonesia became independent, a federal construction was considered too heavy, as the economies of Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles were insignificant compared to that of the Netherlands. By the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, as enacted in 1954, a composite state was created known as the "Tripartite Kingdom of the Netherlands", consisting of the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles. Under the provisions of the Charter, both former colonies were granted internal autonomy.
Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles each got a Minister Plenipotentiary based in the Netherlands, who had the right to participate in Dutch cabinet meetings when it discussed affairs that applied to the Kingdom as a whole, when these affairs pertained directly to Suriname or the Netherlands Antilles. Delegates of Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles could participate in sessions of the First and Second Chamber of the States General. An overseas member could be added to the Council of State when appropriate. According to the Charter and the Netherlands Antilles were allowed to alter their "Basic Law"s; the right of the two autonomous countries to leave the Kingdom, was not recognised. Before the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands was proclaimed in 1954, Netherlands New Guinea, the Netherlands Antilles "Colony of Curaçao and subordinates" (Kolonie Cu