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Thelonious Monk

Thelonious Sphere Monk was an American jazz pianist and composer. He had a unique improvisational style and made numerous contributions to the standard jazz repertoire, including "'Round Midnight", "Blue Monk", "Straight, No Chaser", "Ruby, My Dear", "In Walked Bud", "Well, You Needn't". Monk is the second-most-recorded jazz composer after Duke Ellington, remarkable as Ellington composed more than a thousand pieces, whereas Monk wrote about 70. Monk's compositions and improvisations feature dissonances and angular melodic twists and are consistent with his unorthodox approach to the piano, which combined a percussive attack with abrupt, dramatic use of switched key releases and hesitations, his style was not universally appreciated. Monk was renowned for a distinct look which included suits and sunglasses, he was noted for an idiosyncratic habit during performances: while other musicians continued playing, Monk would stop, stand up, dance for a few moments before returning to the piano. Monk is one of five jazz musicians to have been featured on the cover of Time magazine.

Monk was friends with poet Allen Ginsberg. Monk was one of several artists Leary wanted to recruit for his studies on the effects of psilocybin in creative individuals. Thelonious Sphere Monk was born two years after his sister Marion on October 10, 1917, in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, was the son of Thelonious and Barbara Monk, his poorly written birth certificate misspelled his first name as "Thelious" or "Thelius". It did not list his middle name, taken from his maternal grandfather, Sphere Batts. A brother, was born in January 1920. In 1922, the family moved to 243 West 63rd Street, in Manhattan, New York City. Monk started playing the piano at the age of six and was self-taught, he did not graduate. At 17, Monk toured with an evangelist, playing the church organ, in his late teens he began to find work playing jazz. In the early to mid-1940s, he was the house pianist at a Manhattan nightclub. Much of Monk's style was developed during his time at Minton's, when he participated in after-hours cutting contests, which featured many leading jazz soloists of the time.

Monk's musical work at Minton's was crucial in the formulation of bebop, which would be furthered by other artists, including Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Christian, Kenny Clarke, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis. Monk is believed to be the pianist featured on recordings Jerry Newman made around 1941 at the club. Monk's style at this time was described as "hard-swinging," with the addition of runs in the style of Art Tatum. Monk's stated influences included Duke Ellington, James P. Johnson, other early stride pianists. According to the documentary Thelonious Monk: Straight, No Chaser, Monk lived in the same neighborhood in New York City as Johnson and knew him as a teenager. Mary Lou Williams, who mentored Monk and his contemporaries, spoke of Monk's rich inventiveness in this period, how such invention was vital for musicians, since at the time it was common for fellow musicians to incorporate overheard musical ideas into their own works without giving due credit. "So, the boppers worked out a music, hard to steal.

I'll say this for the'leeches,' though: they tried. I've seen them in Minton's scribbling on the tablecloth, and our own guys, I'm afraid, did not give Monk the credit he had coming. Why, they stole his idea of the beret and bop glasses."In 1944 Monk made his first studio recordings with the Coleman Hawkins Quartet. Hawkins was one of the earliest established jazz musicians to promote Monk, the pianist returned the favor by inviting Hawkins to join him on a 1957 session with John Coltrane. In 1947, Ike Quebec introduced Monk to Lorraine Gordon and her first husband, Alfred Lion, the founder of Blue Note Records. From on, Gordon preached his genius to the jazz world with unrelenting passion. Shortly after meeting Gordon and Lion, Monk made his first recordings as the Coleman Hawkins Quartet leader for Blue Note, which showcased his talents as a composer of original melodies for improvisation. Monk married Nellie Smith the same year, on December 27, 1949 the couple had a son, T. S. Monk, who became a jazz drummer.

A daughter, was born on September 5, 1953 and died of cancer in 1984. In her autobiography, Gordon spoke of the utter lack of interest in Monk's recordings, which translated to poor sales. "I went to Harlem and those record stores didn't want Monk or me. I'll never forget one particular owner, I can still see him and his store on Seventh Avenue and 125th Street.'He can't play lady, what are you doing up here? The guy has two left hands."You just wait,' I'd say.'This man's a genius, you don't know anything.'"Due to Monk's reticence, Gordon became his mouthpiece to the public. In February 1948, she wrote to Ralph Ingersoll, the editor of the newspaper PM, described Monk as "a genius living here in the heart of N

The Future Eve

The Future Eve is a symbolist science fiction novel by the French author Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam. Begun in 1878 and published in 1886, the novel is known for popularizing the term "Android". Villiers opens the novel with his main character, a fictionalized Thomas Edison, contemplating the effects of his inventions on the world and the tragedy that they were not available until he invented them. Interrupted in his reverie, Edison receives a message from his friend Lord Ewald, who saved his life some years before and to whom he feels indebted; when Ewald calls, he reveals that he is close to suicide because of Miss Alicia Clary. Alicia is described as being physically perfect but and intellectually empty, she will say. Far from having any ambition or goals of her own, she lives her life based on what she believes is expected of her. Ewald describes his frustration with the disparity between her appearance and her self and confides that though he can have no other, she is so hopeless that he has resolved to kill himself.

Edison replies by offering to construct for Ewald a machine-woman in the form of Alicia but without any of her bothersome personality. He shows Ewald the prototype of the Android, named Hadaly, Ewald is intrigued and accepts Edison's offer. Edison reveals that he has invited Alicia to his residence at Menlo Park in order to set the process in motion, he explains to the still somewhat doubtful Ewald how he will interact with the Android and how natural it will all feel. Ewald presses Edison to tell him why he created Hadaly in the first place. Edison relates a long story about Mr. Edward Anderson, tempted into infidelity by a young woman named Miss Evelyn, his indiscretion, brought about by the guile of Miss Evelyn, ruins his life completely. Edison says that he tracked down Miss Evelyn only to discover that she was not as she appeared, rather she was horribly ugly and her beauty was the work of cosmetics and other accessories. Edison created Hadaly in an effort to overcome the flaws and artificiality of real women and create a perfect and natural woman who could bring a man true happiness.

Edison takes Ewald back to Hadaly and explains to him the exact mechanical details of her functioning: how she moves and talks and breathes and bathes, all the while explaining how natural and normal Hadaly's robotic needs are, comparing them to similar human actions and functions. After the details of the android's functioning and construction are covered, Alicia arrives and is escorted in. Edison convinces her. Over the course of the next weeks, she poses for Edison and her exact physical likeness is duplicated and recordings of her voice are made. Edison sends Alicia away and introduces Ewald to his artificial Alicia without revealing that it is not the real thing. Ewald is taken with her and she secretly reveals to him that she is in fact not an Android but has been supernaturally endowed with the spirit of Sowana, Edison's mystical assistant. Ewald instead leaves with Hadaly-Alicia-Sowana. However, before he can reach home to his new life with his new lover, Ewald's ship sinks and the Android, traveling with the cargo, is destroyed.

Thomas Edison Lord Ewald Alicia, Ewald's fiancée Hadaly, a mechanical woman constructed by Edison Sowana, Edison's mystical assistant Mr. Anderson, a former acquaintance of Edison's Miss Evelyn, a young woman who seduces Mr. Anderson Mrs. Anderson, Mr. Anderson's wife The Future Eve has been called stunning for its literary experimentation and its virulent misogyny, it has been discussed as a key text in the Decadent movement, as a vital commentary on social and cultural ideas of "hysteria" in relation to the work of Jean-Martin Charcot, as an important work of 19th century science fiction. The narrative nucleus of the novel, in which Edison dissects the female android Hadaly, has been discussed as a critical link between the spectatorial Gaze cultivated within the Anatomical theatre of the Renaissance and that of cinema. Mamoru Oshii's film Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence opens with a quote from The Future Eve. "If our gods and hopes are nothing but scientific phenomena it must be said that our love is scientific as well."Hadaly is the model designation of the Gynoids at the centre of the film.

Edisonade The Empire of Corpses French text at Project Gutenberg

Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802

The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802, sometimes known as the Factory Act 1802, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom designed to improve conditions for apprentices working in cotton mills. The Act was introduced by Sir Robert Peel, who had become concerned in the issue after a 1784 outbreak of a "malignant fever" at one of his cotton mills, which he blamed on'gross mismanagement' by his subordinates; the Act required that cotton mills and factories be properly ventilated and basic requirements on cleanliness be met. Apprentices in these premises were to be given a basic education and to attend a religious service at least once a month, they were to be provided with clothing and their working hours were limited to no more than twelve hours a day. The Act was not enforced, did not address the working conditions of'free children' who came to outnumber the apprentices. Regulating the way masters treated their apprentices was a recognised responsibility of Parliament and hence the Act itself was non-contentious, but coming between employer and employee to specify on what terms a man might sell his labour was contentious.

Hence it was not until 1819 that an Act to limit the hours of work for'free children' working in cotton mills was piloted through Parliament by Peel and his son Robert. Speaking, it is Peel's Cotton Mills and Factories Act of 1819 which paved the way for subsequent Factory Acts that would regulate the industry and set up effective means of regulation. During the early Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom, cotton mills were water-powered, therefore sprang up where water power was available. When, as was the case, there was no ready source of labour in the neighbourhood, the workforce had to be imported. A cheap and importable source of labour was'parish apprentices'. In 1800 there were 20,000 apprentices working in cotton mills; the apprentices were vulnerable to maltreatment by bad masters, to industrial accidents, to ill-health from their work, ill-health from overwork, ill-health from contagious diseases such as smallpox and typhus, which were widespread. The enclosed conditions and close contact within mills and factories allowed contagious diseases such as typhus and smallpox to spread rapidly.

Typhoid is spread not by poor working conditions but by poor sanitation, but sanitation in mills and the settlements round them was poor. In about 1780 a water-powered cotton mill was built for Robert Peel on the River Irwell near Radcliffe. Children were unpaid and bound apprentice until they were 21, they boarded on an upper floor of the building, were locked in. Shifts were 10–10.5 hours in length, the apprentices'hot bunked': a child who had just finished his shift would sleep in a bed only just vacated by a child now just starting his shift. Peel himself admitted that conditions at the mill were "very bad". In 1784 it was brought to the attention of the magistrates of the Salford Hundred that an outbreak of "low, putrid fever, of a contagious nature" had "prevailed many months in the cotton mills and among the poor, in the township of Radcliffe"; the doctors of Manchester, led by Dr Thomas Percival were commissioned to investigate the cause of the fever and to recommend how to prevent its spread.

They could not identify the cause, their recommendations were driven by the contemporary view that fevers were spread by putrid atmospheres and hence were to be combatted by removing smells and improving ventilation: Windows and doors should be left open every night and during the lunch break: when the mill was running as many windows as possible were to be left open. ( Natural ventilation was poor because there were too few opening lights in the mill windows, they were all at the same height. The stoves used for heating did not give much airflow. Chimneys should be built in each work room and turf fires lit in them to give better ventilation and combat contagion by their "strong and pungent" smoke. Rooms should be swept daily and floors washed with lime water once a week; the walls and ceilings should be whitewashed two or three times a year. The apartments should be fumigated weekly with tobacco. Privies should be washed daily and ventilated to ensure that the smell did not permeate to the work rooms.

Rancid oil used to lubricate machinery should be replaced with purer oil. To prevent contagion and to preserve health, all employees should be involved in keeping the factory clean. Children should bathe occasionally; the clothes of those infected with fever should be washed in cold water in hot and be left to fumigate before being worn again. Those who died of fever should be wrapped promptly in cloth and those in the vicinity advised to smoke tobacco to avoid infection; the last recommendation expressed a much wider concern about the welfare of mill children: We ear

Samotino Point

Samotino Point is the ice-covered point on the southeast side of the entrance to Pizos Bay on Nordenskjöld Coast in Graham Land, Antarctica. It was formed as a result of glacier retreat in the last decade of 20th century; the feature is named after the settlement of Samotino in northeastern Bulgaria. Samotino Point is located at 64°31′00″S 58°59′32″W, 10.65 km southeast of Porphyry Bluff, 9.4 km northwest of Cape Longing, 30 km east-northeast of Cape Sobral. SCAR Antarctic Digital Database mapping in 2012. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. Samotino Point. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Samotino Point. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission

32nd Division (German Empire)

The 32nd Division, formally the 3rd Division No. 32 was a unit of the Saxon Army, a component of the Imperial German Army. The division was formed on April 1, 1887, was headquartered in Bautzen; the division was subordinated in peacetime to the XII Army Corps. The division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I; the division was recruited in the eastern part of the Kingdom of Saxony. During World War I, the division fought on the Western Front, seeing action in the Allied Great Retreat which culminated in the First Battle of the Marne, it spent the next several years in the trenches. In 1917, it fought in the Second Battle of the Aisne known as the Third Battle of Champagne, in the Battle of Passchendaele. In 1918, it fought against the Allied Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Allied intelligence rated the division third class in 1918; the organization of the 32nd Division in 1914, shortly before the outbreak of World War I, was as follows: 5. Infanterie-Brigade Nr. 63 3.

Infanterie-Regiment König Ludwig III von Bayern Nr. 102 4. Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 103 1. Jäger-Bataillon Nr. 12 6. Infanterie-Brigade Nr. 64 12. Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 177 13. Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 178 2. Jäger-Bataillon Nr. 13 3. Kavallerie-Brigade Nr. 32 1. Husaren-Regiment, König Albert Nr. 18 3. Husaren-Regiment Nr. 20 3. Feldartillerie-Brigade Nr. 32 2. Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 28 5. Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 64 On mobilization in August 1914 at the beginning of World War I, most divisional cavalry, including brigade headquarters, was withdrawn to form cavalry divisions or split up among divisions as reconnaissance units. Divisions received engineer companies and other support units from their higher headquarters; the 32nd Division was redesignated the 32nd Infantry Division. Its initial wartime organization was as follows: 5. Infanterie-Brigade Nr. 63 3. Infanterie-Regiment König Ludwig III von Bayern Nr. 102 4. Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 103 6. Infanterie-Brigade Nr. 64 12. Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 177 13.

Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 178 1. Husaren-Regiment,König Albert Nr. 18 3. Feldartillerie-Brigade Nr. 32 2. Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 28 5. Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 64 2. Kompanie/1. Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 12 3. Kompanie/1. Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 12 Divisions underwent many changes during the war, with regiments moving from division to division, some being destroyed and rebuilt. During the war, most divisions became triangular - one infantry brigade with three infantry regiments rather than two infantry brigades of two regiments. An artillery commander replaced the artillery brigade headquarters, the cavalry was further reduced, the engineer contingent was increased, a divisional signals command was created; the 32nd Infantry Division's order of battle on January 1, 1918, was as follows: 5. Infanterie-Brigade Nr. 63 3. Infanterie-Regiment König Ludwig III von Bayern Nr. 102 4. Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 103 12. Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 177 4. Eskadron/3. Husaren-Regiment Nr. 20 Artillerie-Kommandeur 32 5. Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 64 Fußartillerie-Bataillon Nr. 80 Stab Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 140 2.

Kompanie/1. Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 12 5. Kompanie/1. Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 12 3. Reserve-Kompanie/1. Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 12 Minenwerfer-Kompanie Nr. 32 Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 32 32. Infanterie-Division - Der erste Weltkrieg Claus von Bredow, bearb. Historische Rang- und Stammliste des deutschen Heeres Hermann Cron et al. Ruhmeshalle unserer alten Armee Hermann Cron, Geschichte des deutschen Heeres im Weltkriege 1914-1918 Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1815-1939. Bd. 1 Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919

Congo

Congo may refer to either of two countries that border the Congo River in central Africa: the larger Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southeast known as Zaire and sometimes referred to as "Congo-Kinshasa" the smaller Republic of the Congo to the northwest and sometimes referred to as "Congo-Brazzaville"Congo or Kongo may refer to: Kongo Central, former Bas-Congo, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo Basin, the sedimentary basin of the Congo River in west equatorial Africa Congo Craton, covered by the Palaeozoic-to-recent Congo Basin, an ancient Precambrian craton that with four others makes up the modern continent of Africa. Congo Canyon, a submarine canyon found at the end of the Congo River in Africa, it is one of the largest submarine canyons in the world Kingdom of Kongo, covering part of the Congo region Kongo dia Nlaza, a former kingdom absorbed by the Kingdom of Kongo Democratic Republic of the Congo territory Congo Free State Belgian Congo Republic of the Congo or Congo-Léopoldville Congo Crisis, a period of unrest in the Republic of the Congo between 1960 and 1965 Republic of Zaire Portuguese Congo, now the Angolan exclave of Cabinda Province Republic of the Congo territory French Congo Moyen-Congo or Middle Congo, as part of French Equatorial Africa between 1910 and 1958 People's Republic of the Congo Congo, Alabama Congo, Missouri Congo, West Virginia Congo Square, an open space, now within Louis Armstrong Park, located in the Tremé neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana Congo, New South Wales, Australia Congo, Paraíba, Brazil Congo River, a list of rivers with the name Niger–Congo language family Atlantic–Congo languages Benue–Congo languages Volta–Congo languages Kongo language or Kikongo, one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo and Ndundu people living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola Habla Congo or Habla Bantu, a Kongo-based liturgical language of the Palo religion with origins in Cuba spreading to other countries in the Caribbean Basin Kongo people or Congolese, an ethnic group in the two Congo states and Angola Edwin Congo, Colombian retired footballer Kid Congo Powers, an American rock guitarist and singer Louis Congo, an emancipated slave appointed public executioner of the French colony Louisiana Cheick Kongo, French mixed martial arts fighter and kickboxer John Kongos, a South African musician, leader of the band Johnny Kongos and the G-Men Congo bay owl or Phodilus prigoginei, a species of owl in the barn owl family, Tytonidae Congo, a chimpanzee who learned how to draw and paint Congo eel, a species of aquatic salamander Congo moor chat or Myrmecocichla tholloni, a species of bird in the family Muscicapidae Congo peafowl or Afropavo congensis, a species of peafowl native to the Congo Basin Congo pufferfish or potato puffer or Tetraodon miurus, a freshwater pufferfish found in areas of the Congo River in Africa, including rapids Congo tetra or Phenacogrammus interruptus, a species of fish in the African tetra family Congo, a 1995 film based on Michael Crichton's novel Kongo, a film starring Walter Huston, Lupe Velez, Conrad Nagel Congo invented by Demian Freeling in 1982 Congo, a pinball machine released in 1995 Congo, a 1980 novel by Michael Crichton Congo: The Epic History of a People, a 2010 non-fiction book by David van Reybrouck Congo, a 1979 album by The Congos "Congo", a 1997 song by Genesis from Calling All Stations Kongos, a South African rock band The Congos, a reggae vocal group from Jamaica Congo, a 2001 BBC documentary series Congo, a spirit in Haitian Vodou mythology Congo Airways, the flag carrier of the Democratic Republic of the Congo HMS Congo, a steamship for the Royal Navy, United Kingdom The Conference of NGOs, a worldwide group of charity and aid organizations Conga Congoid, or negroid, a grouping of human beings regarded as a biological taxon Kakongo, former kingdom King Kong Kongō All pages with titles beginning with Congo All pages with titles containing Congo All pages with titles beginning with Kongo All pages with titles containing Kongo