Freising is a town in Bavaria and the capital of the Freising district, with a population of 45,227. Freising is north of Munich, near Munich International Airport, on the Isar river and two hills, the cathedral hill with the bishop's castle and Freising cathedral, Weihenstephan Hill with Weihenstephan Abbey, the oldest working brewery in the world, it was the first recorded place of a European tornado. The city is 448 meters above sea level. Freising is located on the Isar halfway between Landshut in Upper Bavaria. Freising is one of the oldest settlements in Bavaria, becoming a major religious centre in the early Middle Ages, it is the centre of an important diocese. Some important historical documents were created between 900 and 1200 in its monastery: Freising manuscripts written in Slovenian, being the first Roman-script continuous text in a Slavic language Chronicle or history of the two cities by Otto of FreisingThe above and other scripts from that time can be found in the "Bayerische Staatsbibliothek" in Munich.
Though archaeological finds show that the area was settled in the Bronze Age, no proof has been found yet to suggest a continuous settlement until the 8th century AD Frigisinga. Saint Corbinian settled at a shrine that existed at Freising in 724, he was the forerunner of the diocese of Freising, established after his death by Saint Boniface. According to his Vita by Bishop Arbeo he ordered a bear to carry his luggage over the Alps after it had killed his packhorse; the saddled bear is still the symbol of the city, displayed in the coat of arms. Though the seat of the diocese was moved to Munich in 1821, including the elevation to an arch-diocese, Freising has remained the seat of diocese administration until today. Between 764-783, Bishop Arbeo founded a scriptorium at the abbey; the settlement started to become a religious centre. The earliest recorded tornado in Europe struck Freising in 788; the mortal remains of Pope Alexander I are said to have been transferred to Freising in 834. In 996, Freising received city rights from Emperor Otto III.
However, after the " destruction of the episcopal bridge, custom houses and salt works near Oberföhring by Duke Henry the Lion, who transferred the custom houses and bridge site to the upper part of Oberföhring, placing them in the village of Munich on the Isar" in 1158, Freising started to lose its economic significance. In 1159, the romanesque cathedral was constructed. In the secularization of 1803, the Roman Catholic Church lost most of its properties and authority over the city; the Lord Mayor of Freising is Tobias Eschenbacher. The majority of seats in the city council are held by the so-called "Free Voters"; the distribution of seats in Freising's city council can be seen in the following diagram: Schools include: Camerloher-Gymnasium Freising Dom-Gymnasium Freising Josef-Hofmiller-GymnasiumUniversities include: Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf TU-München Weihenstephan Prince-Bishopric of Freising Freising is twinned with: Obervellach, since 1963 Innichen, since 1969 Maria Wörth, since 1978 Waidhofen an der Ybbs, since 1986 Arpajon, since 1991 Škofja Loka, since 2004 Otto of Freising, bishop.
Mair von Landshut, late 15th-century artist, was a citizen and born in Freising. The Bavarian General and War Minister Benignus Ritter von Safferling was born in Freising. Georg Eder and historian Martin Ruland the Elder and alchemist Johann Stadlmayr, court music director and composer Benignus von Safferling, Bavarian General and Minister of War Ludwig Prandtl, physicist Ernst Kraus, a German geologist Karl Maria Demelhuber, SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS Karl Lederer, 1933 to 1942 mayor of Freising. Karl Gustav Fellerer, a German musicologist Albrecht Obermaier, German naval officer, last deputy naval officer of the Bundesmarine Pope Benedict XVI, Pope from 2005-2013 Karl Huber, German painter and sculptor Heinrich Reinhardt, Roman Catholic priest and professor of philosophy Peter Neumair, wrestler Joseph Weiss, German diplomat Hans Pflügler, former clubs: Bayern Munich - World champion 1990 Alexander Kutschera, footballer Stefan Diez, German industrial designer Ferdinand Bader, ski jumper Brigitte Wagner, wrestler Maximilian Haas, footballer Maximilian Wittek, footballer Veit Arnpeck, Bavarian chronicler Benignus von Safferling, General of the Bavarian Army and War Minister Ludwig Petuel, Munich businessman Oskar Knight of Niedermayer and adventurer Simone Blum Show jumper Freising cathedral Sichtungsgarten Weihenstephan, a notable horticultural garden Freising travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Bavarian state library Pictures of Freising
Verbrüderungsbuch is the German name for registers from monasteries in the Middle Ages. They contained lists with the names of sponsors and benefactors, as well as persons in close spiritual contact with a monastery, so that they were remembered in the prayers of the monks. In many cases these books were established as early as the 8th century and continued up to the 13th century. So-called Jahrtagsbücher are in many ways their successors. Verbrüderungsbücher are a rich source for prosopography and historical linguistics of the early Middle Ages. Paulus Piper: Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli Augiensis Fabariensis. In: Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Berlin 1894 Franz Beyerle: Die Fratres de Friburch im St. Galler Verbrüderungsbuch. In: Schau-ins-Land. Published by the Breisgau-Verein Schau-ins-Land, Freiburg im Breisgau 1954
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for three centuries in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory corresponded to ancient Gaul and the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania; the semi legendary Merovech was supposed to have founded the Merovingian dynasty, but it was his famous grandson Clovis I who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. After the death of Clovis, there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front. During the final century of Merovingian rule, the kings were pushed into a ceremonial role; the Merovingian rule ended in March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III. Zachary's successor, Pope Stephen II, confirmed and anointed Pepin the Short in 754, beginning the Carolingian monarchy; the Merovingian ruling family were sometimes referred to as the "long-haired kings" by contemporaries, as their long hair distinguished them among the Franks, who cut their hair short.
The term "Merovingian" comes from medieval Latin Merovingi or Merohingi, an alteration of an unattested Old Dutch form, akin to their dynasty's Old English name Merewīowing, with the final -ing being a typical patronymic suffix. The Merovingian dynasty owes its name to the semi-legendary Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks; the victories of his son Childeric I against the Visigoths and Alemanni established the basis of Merovingian land. Childeric's son Clovis I went on to unite most of Gaul north of the Loire under his control around 486, when he defeated Syagrius, the Roman ruler in those parts, he won the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alemanni in 496, at which time, according to Gregory of Tours, Clovis adopted his wife Clotilda's Orthodox Christian faith. He subsequently went on to decisively defeat the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507. After Clovis's death, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons; this tradition of partition continued over the next century.
When several Merovingian kings ruled their own realms, the kingdom—not unlike the late Roman Empire—was conceived of as a single entity ruled collectively by these several kings among whom a turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole kingdom under a single ruler. Leadership among the early Merovingians was based on mythical descent and alleged divine patronage, expressed in terms of continued military success. In 1906, the British Egyptologist Flinders Petrie suggested that the Marvingi recorded by Ptolemy as living near the Rhine were the ancestors of the Merovingian dynasty. Upon Clovis's death in 511, the Merovingian kingdom included all of Gaul except Burgundy and all of Germania magna except Saxony. To the outside, the kingdom when divided under different kings, maintained unity and conquered Burgundy in 534. After the fall of the Ostrogoths, the Franks conquered Provence. After this their borders with Italy and Visigothic Septimania remained stable. Internally, the kingdom was divided among Clovis's sons and among his grandsons and saw war between the different kings, who allied among themselves and against one another.
The death of one king created conflict between the surviving brothers and the deceased's sons, with differing outcomes. Conflicts were intensified by the personal feud around Brunhilda. However, yearly warfare did not constitute general devastation but took on an ritual character, with established'rules' and norms. Clotaire II in 613 reunited the entire Frankish realm under one ruler. Divisions produced the stable units of Austrasia, Neustria and Aquitania; the frequent wars had weakened royal power, while the aristocracy had made great gains and procured enormous concessions from the kings in return for their support. These concessions saw the considerable power of the king parcelled out and retained by leading comites and duces. Little is in fact known about the course of the 7th century due to a scarcity of sources, but Merovingians remained in power until the 8th century. Clotaire's son Dagobert I, who sent troops to Spain and pagan Slavic territories in the east, is seen as the last powerful Merovingian King.
Kings are known as rois fainéants, despite the fact that only the last two kings did nothing. The kings strong-willed men like Dagobert II and Chilperic II, were not the main agents of political conflicts, leaving this role to their mayors of the palace, who substituted their own interest for their king's. Many kings came to the throne at a young age and died in the prime of life, weakening royal power further; the conflict between mayors was ended when the Austrasians under Pepin the Middle triumphed in 687 in the Battle of Tertry. After this, though not a king, was the political ruler of the Frankish kingdom and left this position as a heritage to his sons, it was now the sons of the mayor that divided the realm among each other under the rule of a single king. After Pepin's long rule, his son Charles Martel assumed power, fighting against nobles and his own stepmother, his reputation for ruthlessness further undermined the king's position. Under Charles Martel's leadership, the Franks defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours in 732.
After the victory of 718 of the Bulgarian Khan Ter
Francia called the Kingdom of the Franks, or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It was ruled by the Franks during the Early Middle Ages, it is the predecessor of the modern states of Germany. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, West Francia became the predecessor of France, East Francia became that of Germany. Francia was among the last surviving Germanic kingdoms from the Migration Period era before its partition in 843; the core Frankish territories inside the former Western Roman Empire were close to the Rhine and Maas rivers in the north. After a period where small kingdoms inter-acted with the remaining Gallo-Roman institutions to their south, a single kingdom uniting them was founded by Clovis I, crowned King of the Franks in 496, his dynasty, the Merovingian dynasty, was replaced by the Carolingian dynasty. Under the nearly continuous campaigns of Pepin of Herstal, Charles Martel, Pepin the Short and Louis the Pious—father, grandson, great-grandson and great-great-grandson—the greatest expansion of the Frankish empire was secured by the early 9th century, by this point dubbed as the Carolingian Empire.
During the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties the Frankish realm was one large kingdom polity subdivided into several smaller kingdoms effectively independent. The geography and number of subkingdoms varied over time, but a basic split between eastern and western domains persisted; the eastern kingdom was called Austrasia, centred on the Rhine and Meuse, expanding eastwards into central Europe. It evolved into the Holy Roman Empire; the western kingdom Neustria was founded in Northern Roman Gaul, as the original kingdom of the Merovingians it came over time to be referred to as Francia, now France, although in other contexts western Europe could still be described as "Frankish". In Germany there are prominent other places named after the Franks such as the region of Franconia, the city of Frankfurt, Frankenstein Castle; the Franks emerged in the 3rd century as a term covering Germanic tribes living on the northern Rhine frontier of the Roman Empire, including the Bructeri, Chamavi and Salians.
While all of them had a tradition of participating in the Roman military, the Salians were allowed to settle within the Roman Empire. In 357, having been living in the civitis of Batavia for some time, Emperor Julian, who forced the Chamavi back out of the empire at the same time, allowed the Salians to settle further away from the border, in Toxandria; some of the early Frankish leaders, such as Flavius Bauto and Arbogast, were committed to the cause of the Romans, but other Frankish rulers, such as Mallobaudes, were active on Roman soil for other reasons. After the fall of Arbogastes, his son Arigius succeeded in establishing a hereditary countship at Trier and after the fall of the usurper Constantine III some Franks supported the usurper Jovinus. Jovinus was dead by 413, but the Romans found it difficult to manage the Franks within their borders; the Frankish king Theudemer was executed by the sword, in c. 422. Around 428, the king Chlodio, whose kingdom may have been in the civitas Tungrorum, launched an attack on Roman territory and extended his realm as far as Camaracum and the Somme.
Though Sidonius Apollinaris relates that Flavius Aetius defeated a wedding party of his people, this period marks the beginning of a situation that would endure for many centuries: the Germanic Franks ruled over an increasing number of Gallo-Roman subjects. The Merovingians, reputed to be relatives of Chlodio, arose from within the Gallo-Roman military, with Childeric and his son Clovis being called "King of the Franks" in the Gallo-Roman military before having any Frankish territorial kingdom. Once Clovis defeated his Roman competitor for power in northern Gaul, Syagrius, he turned to the kings of the Franks to the north and east, as well as other post-Roman kingdoms existing in Gaul: Visigoths and Alemanni; the original core territory of the Frankish kingdom came to be known as Austrasia, while the large Romanised Frankish kingdom in northern Gaul came to be known as Neustria. Chlodio's successors are obscure figures, but what can be certain is that Childeric I his grandson, ruled a Salian kingdom from Tournai as a foederatus of the Romans.
Childeric is chiefly important to history for bequeathing the Franks to his son Clovis, who began an effort to extend his authority over the other Frankish tribes and to expand their territorium south and west into Gaul. Clovis converted to Christianity and put himself on good terms with the powerful Church and with his Gallo-Roman subjects. In a thirty-year reign Clovis defeated the Roman general Syagrius and conquered the Kingdom of Soissons, defeated the Alemanni and established Frankish hegemony over them. Clovis defeated the Visigoths and conquered all of their territory north of the Pyrenees save Septimania, conquered the Bretons and made them vassals of Francia, he conquered most or all of the neighbouring Frankish tribes along the Rhine and incorporated them into his kingdom. He incorporated the various Roman military settlements scattered over Gaul: the Saxons of Bessin, the Britons and the Alans of Armorica and Loire valley or the Taifals of Poitou to name a few prominent ones. By the end of his life, Clovis ruled all of Gaul save the Gothic province of Septimania and the Burgundian kingdom in the southeast.
The Merovingians were a hereditary monarchy. The Frankish kings adhered to th
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Arbeo of Freising
Arbeo of Freising was an early medieval author and Bishop of Freising from 764. Arbeo was a scion of the Huosi noble dynasty in the stem duchy of Bavaria, he may have been the child which, according to his own hagiography, Saint Corbinian rescued from the floodwaters of the Passer River near Meran. Arbeo was raised by Corbinians's brother Erembert and prepared for an ecclesiastical career, becoming a member of the Benedictine Order. At first a priest and notary under Bishop Joseph of Freising and official of the episcopal chancery, he was appointed abbot of the newly founded monastery of Scharnitz in 763. One year he succeeded Joseph as Bishop of Freising. During his tenure the Bavarian monasteries of Innichen, Schäftlarn and Schliersee were established, Scharnitz Abbey relocated to Schlehdorf. Arbeo had the relics of Saint Corbinian transferred to Freising. In the long-time quarrels of the Agilolfing duke Tassilo III of Bavaria with his Frankish suzerains, the bishop remained a loyal supporter of King Charlemagne and may have lost his diocese in his years.
Arbeo founded scriptorium. He is counted as the first named author in German and is sometimes credited with the composition of the Codex Abrogans, a bilingual vocabulary in Latin and Old High German described as the first German book, he is buried in Freising. His commemoration day in the Catholic Church is 4 May. An affiliation with Margrave Aribo, progenitor of the Aribonids is possible but has not been established. Arbeonis episcopi Frisingensis vitae sanctorum Haimhrammi et Corbiniani Albert Lehner: Sacerdos = Bischof. Klerikale hiérarchie in 2007 Leipzig. Sigmund Ritter von Riezler: Arbeo. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 1, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, p. 510. Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz: Arbeo, Bischof von Freising. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. Vol. 1, Hamm 1975, Sp. 205. Bengt Löfstedt. "Zu Arbeos Latein". Bulletin du Cange: Archivum Latinitatis Medii Aevi, 1927-1928. Tome XLI. E. J. Brill, Leiden. 1979. Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz. "Arbeo, Bischof von Freising". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm.
Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 1. Hamm: Bautz. Col. 205. ISBN 3-88309-013-1. Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon article http://www.manfred-hiebl.de/mittelalter-genealogie/mittelalter/bistuemer/freising/arbeo_bischof_von_freising_+_783.html