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A theodolite is a precision optical instrument for measuring angles between designated visible points in the horizontal and vertical planes. The traditional use has been for land surveying, but they are used extensively for building and infrastructure construction, some specialized applications such as meteorology and rocket launching, it consists of a moveable telescope mounted so it can rotate around horizontal and vertical axes and provide angular readouts. These indicate the orientation of the telescope, are used to relate the first point sighted through the telescope to subsequent sightings of other points from the same theodolite position; these angles can be measured with great accuracy to milliradian or seconds of arc. From these readings a plan can be drawn, or objects can be positioned in accordance with an existing plan; the modern theodolite has evolved into what is known as a total station where angles and distances are measured electronically, are read directly to computer memory.

In a transit theodolite, the telescope is short enough to rotate through the zenith, otherwise for non-transit instruments vertical, rotation is restricted to a limited arc. The optical level is sometimes mistaken for a theodolite, but it does not measure vertical angles, is used only for levelling on a horizontal plane. Temporary adjustments are a set of operations necessary in order to make a theodolite ready for taking observations at a station; these include its setting up, leveling up and elimination of parallax, are achieved in four steps: Setting up: fixing the theodolite onto a tripod along with approximate levelling and centering over the station mark. Centering: bringing the vertical axis of theodolite over station mark using a centering plate known as a tribrach. Levelling: leveling of the base of the instrument to make the vertical axis vertical with an in-built bubble-level. Focusing: removing parallax error by proper focusing of objective and eye-piece; the eye-piece only requires adjustment once at a station.

The objective will be re-focused for each subsequent sightings from this station because of the different distances to the target. Sightings are taken by the surveyor, who adjusts the telescope's vertical and horizontal angular orientation so the cross-hairs align with the desired sighting point. Both angles are recorded; the next object is sighted and recorded without moving the position of the instrument and tripod. The earliest angular readouts were from open vernier scales directly visible to the eye; these scales were enclosed for physical protection, became an indirect optical readout, with convoluted light paths to bring them to a convenient place on the instrument for viewing. The modern digital theodolites have electronic displays. Index error The angles in the vertical axis should read 90° when the sight axis is horizontal, or 270° when the instrument is transited. Half of the difference between the two positions is called the index error; this can only be checked on transit instruments.

Horizontal axis error The horizontal and vertical axes of a theodolite must be perpendicular. This can be tested by aligning the tubular spirit bubble parallel to a line between two footscrews and setting the bubble central. A horizontal axis error is present if the bubble runs off central when the tubular spirit bubble is reversed. To adjust, the operator removes half the amount the bubble has run off using the adjusting screw re-level and refine the adjustment. Collimation error The optical axis of the telescope, must be perpendicular to the horizontal axis. If not a collimation error exists. Index error, horizontal-axis error and collimation error are determined by calibration and are removed by mechanical adjustment, their existence is taken into account in the choice of measurement procedure in order to eliminate their effect on the measurement results of the theodolite. The term diopter was sometimes used in old texts as a synonym for theodolite; this derives from an older astronomical instrument called a dioptra.

Prior to the theodolite, instruments such as the groma, geometric square and various other graduated circles and semicircles were used to obtain either vertical or horizontal angle measurements. It was only a matter of time before someone put two measuring devices into a single instrument that could measure both angles simultaneously. Gregorius Reisch showed such an instrument in the appendix of his book Margarita Philosophica, which he published in Strasburg in 1512, it was described in the appendix by Martin Waldseemüller, a German topographer and cartographer, who made the device in the same year. Waldseemüller called his instrument the polimetrum; the first occurrence of the word "theodolite" is found in the surveying textbook A geometric practice named Pantometria by Leonard Digges, published posthumously by his son, Thomas Digges. The etymology of the word is unknown; the first part of the New Latin theo-delitus might stem from the Greek θεᾶσθαι, "to behold or look attentively upon" or θεῖν "to run", but the second part is more puzzling and is attributed to an unscholarly variation of one of the following Greek words: δῆλος, meaning "evident" or "clear", or δολιχός "long", or δοῦλος "slave", or an unattested Neo-Latin compound combining ὁδός "way" and λιτός "plain".

It has been suggested that -delitus is a variation of the Latin supine deletus, in the sense of "crossed out". Another theory is that it may be derived from the Arabic "alidhada" prefixed by the English "the". There is some confusion a


VPB-137 was a Patrol Bombing Squadron of the U. S. Navy; the squadron was established as Bombing Squadron 137 on 17 February 1943, redesignated Patrol Bombing Squadron 137 on 1 October 1944 and disestablished on 20 July 1945. 17 February 1943: VB-137 was established at NAS Alameda, under the operational control of FAW8, as a medium bombing squadron flying the PV-1 Ventura. Squadron personnel underwent intensive ground and flight training through early May when orders were received for the trans-Pacific to Hawaii. 9 May – 30 June 1943: The squadron aircraft and personnel were loaded aboard ship for transport to NAS Kaneohe Bay, arriving on 16 May 1943. Upon arrival, the squadron came under the operational control of FAW-2. On 18 May a detachment of six-aircraft was sent to Midway Island for operational patrols and advanced training. A second detachment of three-aircraft was sent to NAAF Funafuti, in the Ellice Island group, on 30 June, making VPB-137 the first Ventura-equipped squadron to operate in the South Pacific.

2 July – November 1943: VB-137 was transferred to Wallis Island, joining the detachment there. Through the middle of November, the squadron patrolled the areas around Funafuti Islands. During the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, the squadron provided low-altitude reconnaissance for the task force commanders. In mid-November the squadron was flown to a back area in Western Samoa for two weeks of overhaul and change of aircraft engines. December 1943: VB-137 was relocated to Betio, 700 miles from Funafuti, only a week after the end of the Battle of Tarawa. Living conditions were primitive, with the crews sleeping on the ground the first three nights until tents could be erected. Sniper activity continued for weeks. 15 January 1944: VB-137 was relieved for return to NAS Kaneohe Bay, on to the U. S. for home reforming. During combat operations from 18 May 1943 to 13 January 1944, the squadron lost eight aircraft and three crews in combat and two others in accidents. 2 March 1944: VB-137 reformed at NAS Alameda, under the operational control of FAW-8.

On 24 March, the squadron was moved to NAAS Crows Landing, for advanced flight training, returning to NAS Alameda on 1 August 1944. 9 August 1944: VB-137 aircraft and personnel were loaded aboard USS Nassau for transportation to Hawaii, arriving at Ford Island on 15 August. After unloading, all personnel and equipment was delivered to NAS Kaneohe Bay under the operational control of FAW-2. 22 August 1944: A six-aircraft detachment was sent to Midway Island to conduct daily patrols. Three more aircraft augmented this detachment three days later. All nine aircraft returned to NAS Kaneohe Bay on 4 September. 3 September 1944: A three-aircraft/four-crew detachment was sent to Johnston Atoll to conduct daily patrols. A second detachment of three-aircraft replaced the first detachment on 19 September. 15 October 1944: VPB-137 deployed south to Mokerang Airfield, Los Negros Island, Admiralty Island, under the operational control of FAW-17. The squadron became operational on the 31st. 29 November 1944: VPB-137 moved by sections to Morotai, coming under the operational control of FAW-10.

The squadron conducted daily patrols with occasional strikes on Japanese installations on Tobi Island. 1 January 1945: VPB-137 moved to Tacloban Field, Philippines. On 3 January, a surprise air raid damaged two. Missions during this period included daily searches, with occasional taxi hops to Samar, Lingayen, Clark Field and Owi. 17 February 1945: The squadron mounted a four-aircraft strike on Surigao Town, Philippines. 11 March – May 1945: A detachment of six-airplanes was sent to Clark Field, with another detachment of eight aircraft remaining at Tacloban. On 15 April, the Tacloban detachment relocated to Samar. On 27 May the Clark Field detachment joined the Samar detachment. 10–31 May 1945: VPB-137 aircraft attacked the butanol refineries at Mato and Shōka, Formosa. 8 June 1945: VPB-137 was relieved for return to the U. S. arriving at NAS Kaneohe Bay, on 9 June. The squadron remained at NAS Kaneohe Bayuntil arrangements could be made to transport them back to the States. On 2 July the squadron boarded a ship bound for San Diego.

Upon arrival on 9 July, all hands were given leave. 20 Jul 1945: VPB-137 was disestablished at NAS San Diego. The squadron was assigned the following aircraft, effective on the dates shown: PV-1 - March 1943 The squadron was assigned to these home ports, effective on the dates shown: NAS Alameda, California - 17 February 1943 NAS Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii - 16 May 1943 NAS Alameda - January 1944 NAAS Crows Landing, California - 24 March 1944 NAS Alameda - 1 August 1944 NAS Kaneohe Bay - 15 August 1944 NAS San Diego, California - 9 July 1945 Maritime patrol aircraft List of inactive United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of squadrons in the Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons History of the United States Navy This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons

George R. Deveau

George Raymond Deveau was a Canadian politician. He represented the electoral district of Richmond in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1933 to 1937, he was a member of the Nova Scotia Liberal Party. Deveau was born in 1891 at Digby County, Nova Scotia, he was educated at Saint Mary's Laval University. He married Marie Marguerite Fortier in 1919, he was employed as medical officer at Arichat, Nova Scotia. Deveau made two unsuccessful attempts at entering provincial politics, losing the 1920 election in the Richmond riding, the 1925 election in the Richmond and Cape Breton West riding, he ran again in the 1933 election. Deveau did not reoffer in the 1937 election. Deveau died at Halifax, Nova Scotia on November 4, 1983

Texas Ruby

Ruby Agnes Owens, professionally better known as Texas Ruby, was a pioneering country music female vocalist and musician of the late 1930s through to the early 1960s. Her youngest brother became famous as Tex Owens. Ruby was born on a ranch in Wise County, near Decatur; when she was three years old she started to sing together with her two brothers. Her career began when a radio station owner in Kansas City radio station heard her sing in Fort Worth, Texas. In early 1937, she made her debut recording for Decca Records; that year, she met fellow musician Curly Fox in Fort Worth. They were married in 1939; the couple was invited to be members of The Opry in the late 1930s. Ruby was dubbed "radio's original cowgirl"; the husky voice star was something of a cross between Sophie Tucker and Dale Evans and with her husband, fiddler Curly Fox was an enormously popular radio and personal appearances star in the 1940s although she failed to have any hit records. Her best-known song, "Don't Let That Man Get You Down" predates Loretta Lynn's famous stand-up-to-your-man hits by twenty years.

This sassy persona was adopted on most of Ruby's recordings, "Ain't You Sorry That You Lied" and "You've Been Cheating on Me", songs too trailblazing to have been record hits in that conservative era of country music. Most of Texas Ruby's recordings were done for the King Records and Columbia Records labels, her first sessions were in Dallas for Decca Records in February, 1937. Texas Ruby made her first breakthrough in the music industry working with country bandleader Zeke Clements but by the mid forties she and husband Fox had developed their own stage act and were much in demand, including a stint as regulars on the Grand Ole Opry from 1944 to 1948; the Foxes in late 1948 moved to Texas, where most of their concert dates were. The move seemed to push national stardom further away from the duo, who in the early 1960s moved first to Los Angeles and back to Nashville in attempts to return to the limelight. Fox considered one of country music's greatest fiddlers, worked the Opry more as background instrumentalist than as a star.

As he was appearing on the Opry on March 29, 1963, Ruby was killed in a fire at home. It was the most grim month in Opry history as Ruby was the fifth Grand Ole Opry star to die that month, following Patsy Cline, Hawkshaw Hawkins, Cowboy Copas, Jack Anglin. Fox was reinstated as an official Grand Ole Opry member shortly afterward but he retired by 1970. Ruby was the sister of Tex Owens, who composed Eddy Arnold's hit "The Cattle Call." Charles K. Wolfe, Classic Country: Legends of Country Music - 2001


Quidgest is a software engineering company headquartered in Lisbon, Munich and Dili. It was founded in Lisbon, Portugal in 1988. Genio is an agile framework for automating software code generation; this platform purpose is to boost developers’ productivity about 10 times higher than low code platforms, thus enabling customers to be more competitive in their digital transformation processes. This is a platform of continuous evolution, recursive learning and artificial intelligence, to be used to build or modify solutions that can be integrated with existing ones, it can be used to build and operate the enterprise application that integrate with existing systems. 1ERP — Enterprise Resource Planning SoftwareQuidgest 1ERP solutions cover Assets Management, Human Resource Management and Finance, Supply Management, Document Management, Customer Relationship Management. SINGAPERP solution for Public Sector GDPRGDPR Data Protection Management solution QappThe highest productivity on managing Audits QuidHealthQuidHealth is a suite for healthcare management, combining administrative and clinical solutions.

BSC QuidgestBalanced Scorecard — This tool objective is to define relationships between measures, establishing key performance indicators and setting the company strategy. It is designed to support the implementation and control of Harvard Business School Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Scorecard theory, one organization will have a performance management accessed "in one click distance", through the continuous and systematic on-line monitoring regarding its strategy maps, besides stimulating the continuous organization improvement incentivizes to charge responsibilities for the obtained results. QuidNet is an international network of partners sharing Genio, the automatic software generation platform developed by Quidgest. APCER Certifications: Quality Management NP EN ISO 9001:2015, Environmental Management NP EN ISO 14001:2015 and Information Security Management ISO/IEC 27001:2013 COTEC — SME Innovation Network — 2006 is the year that Quidgest entered COTEC Portuguese SME Innovation Network.

DGERT — Certification of Training Organizations — the accreditation of the Employment and Labor Relations Portuguese Directorate General. Microsoft Gold Certified Partner — since 2005. Quidgest became a Microsoft Certified Solution Provider in 1999, Microsoft Certified Partner in 2001. CMMI Level 3 appraisal — in 2014. UK Trade & Investment — Successful Business Internationalization Award 2008. IDG Computerworld & CIO Ibero-American Awards — 2013 Quidgest website Quidgest portuguese website

Elke Christina Roeder

Elke Christina Roeder is a German politician and a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Since January 9, 2018, she is Lord Mayor of the large city Norderstedt, which belongs to the district of Segeberg. Roeder grew up in Wentorf bei Hamburg, she is qualified bank clerk. She completed her law studies at the Leibniz University Hannover, she worked during her legal clerkship in Chemnitz and for the RWE Group in London. She served as M & A strategy manager, she was mayor of Bad Pyrmont from 2006 to 2014. On October 18, 2011, she joined the SPD; the SPD had supported her mayoral candidacy in 2006. In addition, she was chairman of the supervisory board of Stadtwerke Bad Pyrmont. After the mayoral election on 25 May 2014, she was succeeded by Klaus Blome as mayor on 1 November 2014. Roeder is a member of the main committee of the Deutscher Städtetag. On 19 November 2014, Elke Christina Roeder was nominated by the SPD Neumünster as a candidate for mayoral election on 10 May 2015, she lost the election with 34.5% against the non-partisan incumbent Olaf Tauras.

There was no runoff. She worked in the planning and environmental committee of the city and belonged to the SPD Kreisverband Neumünster as a member of the local association West. For the election to the German Bundestag 2017, she ran on place 11 of the SPD Schleswig-Holstein state party list, but did not enter the Bundestag; the SPD selected Roeder as their candidate for the mayoral election in Norderstedt. She succeeded Hans-Joachim Grote, now Minister of the Interior of Schleswig-Holstein. On the first ballot on 5 November 2017, Elke Christina Roeder received 24.17% of the vote. In the election on 26 November 2017, she was elected mayor with 55.33% of the vote. Vorläufiges Ergebnis der Bürgermeister-Direktwahl in der Stadt Bad Pyrmont vom 10. September 2006 Das Wahlergebnis der Bürgermeisterwahl Bad Pyrmont, 10. September 2006 Website von Elke Christina Roeder Vorläufiges Ergebnis der Oberbürgermeisterwahl in der Stadt Norderstedt Die SPD schickt Elke Christine Roeder ins Rennen. In: Hamburger Abendblatt