National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
Schweinfurt is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the navigable Main River, spanned by several bridges here, 44 km northeast of Würzburg. The city was first documented in the year 790, although as early as 740 a settlement called Villa Suinfurde was mentioned. In the 10th century Schweinfurt was the seat of a margraviate. After the defeat of count Henry of Schweinfurt in 1002/1003, in the feud against King Henry II of Germany, his family lost its leading position in the town. In the first half of the 13th century Schweinfurt expanded to become a proper city with city wall and city gates. At that time the Nikolaus hospital was founded, a mint was established and construction work on the Saint Johannis church began. Around 1250 Schweinfurt was destroyed during a feud between the Count of Henneberg and the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. In the following years it was reconstructed. A document from 1282 signed by Rudolf I of Habsburg states that Schweinfurt was a free city within the Holy Roman Empire.
At least since the coat of arms of Schweinfurt has been an imperial white eagle. In 1309 the city was given to the Count of Henneberg, but in the 1360s the city regained its independence and joined the Swabian–Franconian Confederation. In 1397 King Wenzel entitled the town to utilize the River Main, in 1436–1437 Schweinfurt acquired the village of Oberndorf, as well as the Teutonic Order Fort on the Peterstirn and a small piece of land – including the villages of Zell and Weipoltshausen; some years there was the first uprising of Schweinfurt's citizens against the town council, followed by a second in 1513–1514. This time the issuing of a constitution was allowed; the city joined Martin Luther's Reformation in 1542. Schweinfurt was again destroyed in the course of the Second Margrave War, in 1554; the years up to 1615 were spent by the citizens for its reconstruction. Schweinfurt joined the Protestant Union in 1609. In the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, who erected fortifications, the remains of which are still extant.
In 1652 the four doctors Johann Laurentius Bausch, Johann Michael Fehr, Georg Balthasar Wolfahrt and Balthasar Metzger founded the Academia Curiosorum in Schweinfurt, known today as the German Academy of Life Scientists, "Leopoldina". At some point Schweinfurt became a predominantly Roman Catholic city owing to migration from the surrounding Catholic territories, only again to receive a large section of Lutheran refugees/expellees after 1945 from Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line; the latest addition to the Lutheran churches in Schweinfurt arrived during the last years of the Soviet Union. In 1777, Johann Martin Schmidt began to produce white lead. Schweinfurt suffered from heavy casualties during the Napoleonic Wars of 1796–1801. Schweinfurt remained a free imperial city until 1802. Assigned to the grand duke of Würzburg in 1810, it was granted to the Kingdom of Bavaria four years later; the first railway junction was opened in 1852. In the following years Schweinfurt became a world leading centre for the production of ball bearings.
This was to lead to grievous consequences for the city during World War II. In 1939 Schweinfurt produced most of Nazi Germany's ball bearings, factories such as the Schweinfurter Kugellagerwerke became a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II to cripple tank and aircraft production. Schweinfurt was bombed 22 times during Operation Pointblank by a total of 2,285 aircraft; the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission caused an immediate 34% loss of production and all plants but the largest were devastated by fire. Efforts to disperse the surviving machinery began and the Luftwaffe deployed large numbers of interceptors along the corridor to Schweinfurt. Bombing included the Second Raid on Schweinfurt on 14 October 1943 and Big Week in February 1944. Although losses of production bearings and machinery were high and much of the industrial and residential areas of the city were destroyed, killing more than a thousand civilians, the factories were restored to production and the industry dispersed.
Although German planners thought it essential to purchase the entire output of the Swedish ball-bearing industry, losses in the production of bearings were made up from surpluses found within Germany in the aftermath of the first raid. The decentralized industry was able to restore output to 85% of its pre-bombing level. Hitler made restoration of ball bearing production a high priority and massive efforts were undertaken to repair and rebuild the factories in bomb-proof underground facilities; the 42nd Infantry Division entered Schweinfurt on 11 April 1945 and engaged in house-to-house fighting. On 12 April an internment camp at Goethe-Schule held male civilians aged 16–60. After the war Schweinfurt became a stronghold of their dependants, thus Schweinfurt recovered quickly from its third period of destruction. Schweinfurt hosted the U. S. Army Garrison Schweinfurt, which the U. S. Army closed on 19 September 2014 due to an ongoing effort to concentrate the U. S. military's footprint in Germany to fewer communities.
In post-war years, the new suburbs of Bergl and Steinberg were developed to settle a growing population. In 1954 the city laid the foundation stone for the new town hall and commemorated the 700th and 500th anniversaries of the two earlier periods of destruction as well as the ongoing reconstruction following World War II. In 1998 German and American veterans and s
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
The Deutscher Werkbund is a German association of artists, architects and industrialists, established in 1907. The Werkbund became an important element in the development of modern architecture and industrial design in the creation of the Bauhaus school of design, its initial purpose was to establish a partnership of product manufacturers with design professionals to improve the competitiveness of German companies in global markets. The Werkbund was less an artistic movement than a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with England and the United States, its motto Vom Sofakissen zum Städtebau indicates its range of interest. The Deutscher Werkbund emerged when the architect Joseph Maria Olbrich left Vienna for Darmstadt, Germany, in 1899, to form an artists’ colony at the invitation of Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse; the Werkbund was founded by Olbrich, Peter Behrens, Richard Riemerschmid, Bruno Paul and others in 1907 in Munich at the instigation of Hermann Muthesius, existed through 1934 re-established after World War II in 1950.
Muthesius was the author of the exhaustive three-volume "The English House" of 1905, a survey of the practical lessons of the English Arts and Crafts movement. Muthesius was seen as something of a cultural ambassador, or industrial spy, between Germany and England; the organization included twelve architects and twelve business firms. The architects include Peter Behrens, Theodor Fischer, Josef Hoffmann, Bruno Paul, Richard Riemerschmid. Other architects affiliated with the project include Heinrich Tessenow and the Belgian Henry van de Velde; the Werkbund commissioned van de Velde to design a theatre for the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne. The exhibition was closed and the buildings dismantled, ahead of schedule, because of the outbreak of WW I. Eliel Saarinen was made corresponding member of the Deutscher Werkbund in 1914 and was invited to participate in the 1914 Cologne exhibition. Among the Werkbund's more noted members was the architect Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, who served as Architectural Director.
1907, Establishment of the Werkbund in Munich 1910, Salon d'Automne, Paris 1914, Werkbund Exhibiiton, Cologne 1920, Lilly Reich becomes the first female Director 1924, Berlin exhibition 1927, Stuttgart exhibition 1929, Breslau exhibition 1938, Werkbund closed by the Nazis 1949, Reestablishment The Verband Deutscher Industrie Designer and the Bund Deutscher Grafik-Designer Federation of German Graphic Designers held a joint meeting to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Deutscher Werkbund. A juried exhibition and opening was held on March 14, 2008; the collections and archives of the Werkbund are housed at the Museum der Dinge in Berlin. The museum is focused on design and objects used in everyday life in the 20th century up to the present. Among other exhibits, it includes a Frankfurt kitchen. New Objectivity Modern architecture Lucius Burckhardt; the Werkbund. Hyperion Press. ISBN 0-85072-108-3 Frederic J. Schwartz; the Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture Before the First World War. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
ISBN 0-300-06898-0 Mark Jarzombek. "Joseph August Lux: Werkbund Promoter, Historian of a Lost Modernity," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 63/1: 202-219. Ot Hoffmann im Auftrag des DWB: Der Deutsche Werkbund – 1907, 1947, 1987. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-433-02268-2. Yuko Ikeda: Vom Sofakissen zum Städtebau. Hermann Muthesius und der Deutsche Werkbund. Modern Design in Deutschland 1900–1927. Ausstellungskatalog; the National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto 2002, ISBN 4-87642-165-X. Karl-Ernst-Osthaus-Museum Hagen und Kaiser-Wilhelm-Museum Krefeld: Das Schöne und der Alltag – Deutsches Museum für Kunst in Handel und Gewerbe. Ausstellungskatalog. Pandora Snoeck-Ducaju & Zoon, Gent 1997, ISBN 90-5325-090-5. Media related to Deutscher Werkbund at Wikimedia Commons Official website Werkbundarchiv: Museum der Dinge - official site
Bruno Julius Florian Taut was a prolific German architect, urban planner and author active during the Weimar period. He is known for his theoretical works as well as his buildings. Taut was born in Königsberg in 1880. After secondary school, he studied at the Baugewerkschule. In the following years, Taut worked in the offices of various architects in Wiesbaden. In 1903 he was employed by Bruno Möhring in Berlin, where he acquainted himself with Jugendstil and new building methods combining steel with masonry. From 1904 to 1908, Taut studied urban planning, he received his first commission through Fischer in 1906, which involved renovation of the village church in Unterriexingen. In 1908, he returned to Berlin to study art history and construction at the Royal Technical Higher School of Charlottenburg, now Technical University of Berlin. A year he established the architecture firm Taut & Hoffmann with Franz Hoffmann. Taut's first large projects came in 1913, he became a committed follower of the Garden City movement, evidenced by his design for the Falkenberg Estate.
Taut adopted the futuristic ideals and techniques of the avante-garde as seen in the prismatic dome of the Glass Pavilion, which he built for the association of the German glass industry for the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne. His aim was to make a whole building out of glass instead of using glass as a surface or decorative material, he created glass-treaded metal staircases, a waterfall with underlighting, colored walls of mosaic glass. His sketches for the publication "Alpine Architecture" are the work of an unabashed utopian visionary, he is classified as a Modernist and, in particular, as an Expressionist. Much of Taut's literary work in German remains untranslated into English. In 1910 after training in Berlin, working for Theodor Fischer's firm in Stuttgart, establishing his own firm in Berlin, the experienced architect Hermann Muthesius suggested that Taut visit England to learn the garden city philosophy. Muthesius introduced him to some of the Deutscher Werkbund group of architects, including Walter Gropius.
Taut had socialist sympathies, before World War I this hindered his advancement. Taut's practical activity changed with World War I, he so avoided military service. He began to write and sketch, less to escape from the brutalities of war than to present a positive utopia in opposition to this reality. Taut designed an immense circular garden city with a radius of about 7 km for three million inhabitants; the "City Crown" was to be in the center. "Mighty and inaccessible", it would have been the culmination of a community and cultural center, a skyscraper-like, purpose-free "crystal building". "The building contains nothing but one beautiful room which can be reached by either of two staircases to the right and to the left of the theatre and the little community center. How can I begin to describe what it is only possible to construct!", said Taut of the City Crown. Taut completed two housing projects in Magdeburg from 1912 through 1915, which were influenced directly by the humane functionalism and urban design solutions of the garden city philosophy.
The reform estate, created for a housing trust, was built in 1912–15 in the southwest of Magdeburg. The estate consists of one-storey terrace houses and was the first project in which Taut used colour as a design principle; the construction of the estate was continued by Carl Krayl. Taut served as city architect in Magdeburg from 1921 to 1923. During his time a few residential developments were built, one of, the Hermann Beims estate with 2,100 apartments. Taut designed the exhibition hall City and Countryside in 1921 with concrete trusses and a central skylight. A lifelong painter, Taut was distinguished from his European modernist contemporaries by his devotion to color; as in Magdeburg, he applied lively, clashing colors to his first major commission, the 1912 Gartenstadt Falkenberg housing estate in Berlin, which became known as the "Paint Box Estates". The 1914 Glass Pavilion, an illustration of the new possibilities of glass, was brightly colored; the difference between Taut and his Modernist contemporaries was never more obvious than at the 1927 Weissenhofsiedlung housing exhibition in Stuttgart.
In contrast to the pure-white entries from Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius, Taut's house was painted in primary colors. Le Corbusier is reported to have exclaimed, "My God, Taut is colour-blind!"In 1924 Taut was made chief architect of GEHAG, a Berlin public housing cooperative, was the main designer of several successful large residential developments in Berlin, notably the 1925 Hufeisensiedlung, named for its configuration around a pond, the 1926 Onkel Toms Hütte Development in Zehlendorf, named for a local restaurant and set in a thick grove of trees. Both of these constructions became prominent examples of the use of colorful details in architecture. Taut worked for the city architect of Berlin, Martin Wagner, on some of Berlin's Modernist Housing Estates, now recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the designs featured controversial modern flat roofs. Political conservatives complained that these developments were too opulent for'simple people'; the progressive Berlin mayor, Gustav Böss, defended them: "We want to bring the lower levels of society higher."Between 1924 and 1931, Taut's team completed more than 12,000 dwellings.
In tribute to Taut, GEHAG incorporated an abstracted graphic of the Horseshoe Estate
Technical University of Munich
The Technical University of Munich is a research university with campuses in Munich and Freising-Weihenstephan. It is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of technology. TUM is ranked 4th overall in Reuters 2017 European Most Innovative University ranking. TUM's alumni include 18 Leibniz Prize winners and 22 IEEE Fellow Members. Timeline1868 - the University was founded by King Ludwig II. 1877 - Awarded the designation Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule München. 1901 Granted the right to award doctorates. 1902 Approval of the election of the Principal by the teaching staff. 1930 Integration of the College of Agriculture and Brewing in Weihenstephan. 1949–1954: Reconstruction of the main building of the Technische Universität by Robert Vorhoelzer after WWII. Construction of a new administrational building and library. 1957 Given the status of a ‘public legal body’. 1958 Research Reactor Munich, Garching assigned to the TH München. 1967 Establishment of a faculty of medicine 1970 Renamed to ‘Technische Universität München’.
1993 Establishment of a faculty of informatics 2000 Establishment of Weihenstephan Science Centre for Life & Food Sciences, Land Use and Environment belonging to the TUM. 2002 - The German Institute of Science and Technology was founded in Singapore. 2004 - the official opening of Forschungsreaktor München II, a leading neutron source, on March 2. 2005 - TUM Institute for Advanced Study founded 2006 - TUM one of three successful universities in Germany's excellence initiative 2009 - TUM School of Education established 2012 - TUM again one of now 11 successful universities in Germany's excellence initiative In its capacity as an academic stronghold of technology and science, the Technical University of Munich has played a vital role in Bavaria's transition from an agricultural state to an industrial state and Hi-Tech centre. To the present day, it is still the only state university dedicated to technology. Numerous excellent TUM professors have secured their place in the history of technology, many important scientists, architects and entrepreneurs studied there.
Such names as Karl Max von Bauernfeind, Rudolf Diesel, Claude Dornier, Walther von Dyck, Hans Fischer, Ernst Otto Fischer, August Föppl, Robert Huber, Carl von Linde, Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Walther Meissner, Rudolf Mössbauer, Willy Messerschmitt, Wilhelm Nusselt, Hans Piloty, Friedrich von Thiersch, Franz von Soxhlet are connected with the TUM. The prerequisites for an academic training in engineering were created at the start of the 19th century when the advancement of technology on the basis of exact sciences commenced. There were calls for a'university for all technical studies' in Bavaria. The'polytechnic schools' set up in Augsburg and Nuremberg, which bridged the gap between middle schools and higher education colleges in their capacity as'lyceums', were the first approach. For further qualification purposes, a'technical college' was set up in 1833 as part of the Faculty of State Finance of the Ludwig Maximilian University, transferred from Landshut to Munich seven years previously; the experiment failed.
Instead, an advanced'engineering course' was established at the Polytechnic School Munich in 1840, the forerunner of what was to become the'Technische Hochschule München'. In 1868, King Ludwig II founded the newly structured Polytechnische Schule München, which had the status of a university, in Munich, it was allowed to call itself Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule München as from the academic year 1877–78. The first Principal was the former Head of Karl Max von Bauernfeind. In the year of its foundation, the college took up residence in the new building in Arcisstrasse, designed by Gottfried v. Neureuther. In those days, more than 350 students were taught by 21 lecturers; the college was divided into five sections: I. General Department, II. Engineering Department, III. Department of Architecture, IV. Mechanical/Technical Department, V. Chemical/Technical Department. Department VI. was added in 1872. Two of the university's long-standing requests were met by the state after the beginning of the 20th century: it was granted the right to award doctorates in 1901, in 1902 the election of the principal by the teaching staff was approved.
With an average of about 2,600 to 2,800 students, the TH München ranked ahead of the TH Berlin as the largest German technical college for a while. The first female undergraduate matriculated in architecture in 1905, after the Bavarian government allowed women to study at a technical college in the German Reich. However, the proportion of female students remained negligible. During the Weimar Republic, the TH München was obliged to make do with low funds and was drawn into radical political struggles in 1918–19 and again between 1928 and 1933. In the winter term of 1930–31, the National Socialist German Student Union became the strongest group within the AStA general student organisation of the THM for the first time; the TH München was able to broaden its spectrum of subjects by taking over several smaller colleges that were no longer viable. In 1922, the former commercial college'Handelshochschule München' became the VII Department of Economics; the forme