President of Germany
The President of Germany, officially the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, is the head of state of Germany. Germany has a system of government in which the Chancellor is the nations leading political figure. However, the President has a role which, while not an executive post, is more than ceremonial, Presidents have extensive discretion regarding the way they exercise their official duties. The President gives direction to general political and societal debates and has some important reserve powers in case of political instability. Furthermore, all laws must be signed by the President before they can come into effect. The President, by his or her actions and public appearances, represents the state itself, its existence, its legitimacy, the Presidents office involves an integrative role and the control function of upholding the law and the constitution. In order to exercise power, he/she traditionally acts above party politics. The 12th and current officeholder is Frank-Walter Steinmeier who was elected on 12 February 2017, the convention consists of all Bundestag members as well as an equal number of electors elected by the state legislatures in proportion to their respective population.
However it is not required that state electors themselves be members of a legislature, the body is convened and chaired by the President of the German Bundestag. From 1979 to 2009, all these conventions were held on 23 May, in the first two rounds of the election, the Federal Convention attempts to elect a president by an absolute majority of votes cast. If, after two votes, no candidate has received this level of support, in the third. The result of the election is determined by party politics. Usually, the candidate of the majority party or coalition in the Bundestag is considered to be the likely winner, however, if the opposition has turned in a strong showing in state elections, it can potentially have enough support to defeat the governments candidate. For this reason, presidential elections can indicate the result of a general election. According to a long-standing adage in German politics, if you can create a president, you can form a government. The office of president is open to all Germans who are entitled to vote in Bundestag elections and have reached the age of 40, but no one may serve more than two consecutive five-year terms.
As yet, only four Presidents have been elected for a second term, the president must not be a member of the federal government or of a legislature at either the federal or state level. On taking office the President must take the oath, stipulated by Article 56 of the Basic Law, in a joint session of the Bundestag
Evangelical Church in Germany
In 2015, the EKD had a membership of 22,271,000 members, or 27. 1% of the German population. It constitutes one of the largest national Protestant bodies in the world, behind the Church of England, there had been successful royal efforts at unity in various German states, beginning with Prussia and several minor German states in 1817. These unions resulted in the first united and uniting churches, a new development within Protestantism which spread to parts of the world. This utterly failed, with the Confessing Church and the German Christians-led Reichskirche opposing each other, other Protestant churches aligned themselves with one of these groups, or stayed neutral in this church strife. In 1948, the Evangelical Church in Germany was organized in the aftermath of World War II to function as a new organization for German Protestant churches. As a result of tensions between West and East Germany, the churches in East Germany broke away from the EKD in 1969. In 1991, following German reunification, the East German churches rejoined the EKD, as for church governance, the Lutheran churches typically practise an episcopal polity, while the Reformed and the United ones a mixture of presbyterian and congregationalist polities.
Most member churches are led by a bishop, only one member church, the Evangelical Reformed Church, is not restricted to a certain territory. In some ways, the member churches resemble dioceses of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. Literally, evangelisch means of the Gospel, denoting a Protestant Reformation emphasis on sola scriptura, dr. Martin Luther encouraged this term alongside Christian. From the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 to the end of the First World War and this changed somewhat with growing religious freedom in the 19th century, especially in the republican states of Bremen, Frankfurt, Lübeck, and Hamburg. The greatest change came after the German Revolution, with the formation of the Weimar Republic, the Peoples Church Union quickly split along territorial lines after the churches relationship with the new governments improved. It was realised that one mainstream Protestant church for all of Germany was impossible, the churches met in Dresden in 1919 and created a plan for federation, and this plan was adopted in 1921 at Stuttgart.
Then in 1922 the 28 territorially defined Protestant churches founded the German Evangelical Church Confederation, at the time, the federation was the largest Protestant church federation in Europe with around 40 million members. In July 1933, the German Evangelical Church was formed under the influence of the German Christians, the Confessing Church arose in resistance to the Nazi regimes ideology. The National Socialists had much influence over the decisions of the first National Synod, in 1948, freed from the German Christians influence, the Lutheran and United churches came together as the Evangelical Church in Germany at the Conference of Eisenach. In June 1991, following German reunification, the BEK merged with the EKD, a modern English translation, would be regional church. This turned the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union into an umbrella, being itself a member of EKD but covering some regional church bodies
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its constituent 16 states. With a population of approximately 3.5 million, Berlin is the second most populous city proper, due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world, following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, media. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations. Berlin serves as a hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination, significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras and its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.
The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts. Since 2000 Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene, the name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920, the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document,1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Chancellor of Germany
The Chancellor of Germany is the head of government of Germany. The official title in German is Bundeskanzler, sometimes shortened to Kanzler, the term, dating from the early Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin term cancellarius. In German politics, the Chancellor is equivalent to that of a minister in many other countries. German has two equivalent translations of prime minister and Ministerpräsident, while Premierminister usually refers to heads of governments of foreign countries, Ministerpräsident may refer to the heads of government of most German states. The current Chancellor is Angela Merkel, who is serving her term in office. She is the first female chancellor, thus being known in German as Bundeskanzlerin, the role of the Chancellor has varied greatly throughout Germanys modern history. Today, the Chancellor is the effective leader. The office of Chancellor has a history, stemming back to the Holy Roman Empire. The title was, at times, used in several states of German-speaking Europe, the modern office of Chancellor was established with the North German Confederation, of which Otto von Bismarck became Chancellor in 1867.
After the Unification of Germany in 1871, the became known in German as Reichskanzler. With Germanys constitution of 1949, the title Bundeskanzler was revived in German, during the various eras, the role of the Chancellor has varied. From 1871 to 1918, the Chancellor was only responsible to the Emperor, with the founding of the republic and the constitutional reform in 1918, the Parliament was granted the right to dismiss the Reichskanzler. According to the Weimar Constitution of 1919, the Chancellor was appointed by the President and responsible to Parliament, when the Nazis came to power on 30 January 1933, the Weimar Constitution was de facto set aside. After the death of President Hindenburg in 1934, Adolf Hitler, the 1949 constitution gave the Chancellor much greater powers than during the Weimar Republic, while strongly diminishing the role of the President. Since 1867,33 individuals have served as heads of government of Germany or its predecessor, due to his administrative tasks, the head of the clerics at the chapel of an Imperial palace during the Carolingian Empire was called Chancellor.
The chapels college acted as the Emperors chancery issuing deeds and capitularies and these three Prince-Archbishops were Prince-electors of the Empire electing the King of the Romans. Already in medieval times, the German Chancellor had political power like Archbishop Willigis or Rainald von Dassel under Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. In 1559, Emperor Ferdinand I established the agency of an Imperial chancellery at the Vienna Hofburg Palace, upon the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, Emperor Ferdinand II created the office of an Austrian Court Chancellor in charge of the internal and foreign affairs of the Habsburg Monarchy
Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with approximately 123,000 residents, the city on the Neckar is a former Imperial Free City and is the seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is the center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Heilbronn is known for its industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt. Heilbronn is located in the corner of the Neckar basin at the bottom of the Wartberg. It occupies both banks of the Neckar, and the highest spot inside city limits is the Schweinsberg with a height of 372 meters, Heilbronn is adjacent to Swabian-Franconian Forest Nature Park and is surrounded by vineyards. Heilbronn and its surroundings are located in the part of the larger Stuttgart metropolitan area. The city is the center of the Heilbronn-Franken region and is one of fourteen such cities in the Baden-Württemberg master plan of 2002. The city is divided into nine boroughs, The oldest traces of humans in, the fertile Neckar floodplains in the Heilbronn basin aided early settlement by farmers and ranchers.
The city limits of present-day Heilbronn contain many sites of Bronze Age finds, on, but still before AD, the Celts already mined here for salt from brine. Under Roman Emperor Domitian the Romans pushed east away from the Rhine, a castle in todays borough of Böckingen was part of that limes, and nearby numerous Roman villas and plantations were built. Around 260, the Romans surrendered the limes, and the Alamanni became rulers of the Neckar basin, between the 4th and 7th centuries, the area became part of the Frankish Empire, and the first settlement was built in the general vicinity of the present center of town. In 741 Heilbronn is first mentioned in a document of the Diocese of Würzburg as villa Helibrunna. The name Heilbrunna hints to a well that is located not far from the basilica, in 1225 Heilbronn was incorporated into the Hohenstaufen Empire as oppidum Heilecbrunnen. Oppidum signified a city fortified by parapet and trenches, during the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights obtained ownership of a large area south of Heilbronn which would remain owned by that order until German Mediatisation in 1805.
Starting in 1268, the built the Deutschhof there as one of its residences. After the demise of the Staufen dynasty, King Rudolf I returned city status to Heilbronn in 1281, in addition to the advocate he put a council in place that was headed up by a mayor. Around 1300, the first city hall was erected in the market place, the Neckar privilege gave the city the right to modify the flow of the river in 1333, which meant it now had the right to construct dams and mills
Reichstag (Weimar Republic)
The Reichstag was a legislative body of Weimar Germany from 1919, when it succeeded the Weimar National Assembly, until the Nazi takeover in 1933. Constitutionally, the Reichsrat represented the governments of the federal German states, according to the 1919 Weimar Constitution, the members of the Reichstag were to be elected by general universal suffrage according to the principle of proportional representation. Votes were cast for party lists. Elections were to be held at the end of a session of four years. Because of some special requirements, there were inconsistencies between the total share of votes received by a party and its share of the seats. Hitler was not in power yet, there was no hard and fast threshold for winning a seat in the Reichstag. In practice, a party could do so with as little as 0.4 percent of the national seat for some 60,000 votes. While this provision was intended to reduce wasted votes, it resulted in a large number of parties being represented in the chamber. Combined with the nationwide party-list system, this made it difficult to form a stable government.
Moreover, each party wanted to pull Germany in a different direction and parties often refused to compromise with, or even recognize. Whereas some looked at pocketbooks, others at the pigmentation of the skin or the index of the skull, when the speaker of one party indulged in his oratory, the others walked out. It was not worth while to listen to somebodys opinion when you knew that his premises were all wrong, the grim determination to silence the unconvincible enemy by execution or imprisonment already existed prior to 1933 in many parties. The parliament passed legislation and the government budget, as well as making declarations of war, the members of the German cabinet, or government, were responsible to the Reichstag, which could force the resignation of ministers or even the whole cabinet by a motion of no confidence. It could revoke emergency decrees by the Reich President according to Article 48 of the constitution -—however, in contrast, the Reichsrat, the house of state representatives, had minor significance.
The constitution provided for the possibility of referenda, but the hurdles to overcome were high, there were only two plebiscites, which were both unsuccessful. All too often, when a Chancellor was removed from office and this was especially pronounced in the 1930s, when Chancellors had to resort to Article 48 just to conduct the ordinary business of government. In the election of 1928, the Nazi Party won only 12 seats in the Reichstag, over the following two years it gained another 95. At the election of 1932, the Nazis and the Communist Party, with this latter enabling act, the Reichstag formally gave up its exclusive responsibility for the exercise of the legislative power
Economics is a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production and consumption of goods and services according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work, consistent with this focus, textbooks often distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics examines the behaviour of elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, firms, macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues. Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, as in business, health care, Economic analyses may be applied to such diverse subjects as crime, the family, politics, social institutions, war and the environment. At the turn of the 21st century, the domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The ultimate goal of economics is to improve the conditions of people in their everyday life. There are a variety of definitions of economics. Some of the differences may reflect evolving views of the subject or different views among economists, to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue for the publick services. Say, distinguishing the subject from its uses, defines it as the science of production, distribution. On the satirical side, Thomas Carlyle coined the dismal science as an epithet for classical economics, in this context and it enquires how he gets his income and how he uses it. Thus, it is on the one side, the study of wealth and on the other and more important side, a part of the study of man. He affirmed that previous economists have usually centred their studies on the analysis of wealth, how wealth is created and consumed, but he said that economics can be used to study other things, such as war, that are outside its usual focus. This is because war has as the goal winning it, generates both cost and benefits, resources are used to attain the goal.
If the war is not winnable or if the costs outweigh the benefits. Some subsequent comments criticized the definition as overly broad in failing to limit its subject matter to analysis of markets, there are other criticisms as well, such as in scarcity not accounting for the macroeconomics of high unemployment. The same source reviews a range of included in principles of economics textbooks. Among economists more generally, it argues that a particular definition presented may reflect the direction toward which the author believes economics is evolving, microeconomics examines how entities, forming a market structure, interact within a market to create a market system
Reinhold Maier was a German politician and the leader of the FDP from 1957–1960. From 1946 to 1952 he was Minister President of Württemberg-Baden and the 1st Minister President of the new state of Baden-Württemberg until 1953, who was of Protestant denomination, was born as a son of the municipal architect Gottlieb Maier in Schorndorf. After attending grammar school in Schorndorf Reinhold Maier joined the Dillmann-Gymnasium in Stuttgart and he studied law at the Grenoble Alpes University and at the University of Tübingen. There he was a member of the South German liberalism related Tübingen frat Academic Society Stuttgardia Tübingen, here he met political cronies as Eberhard Wildermuth, Karl Georg Pfleiderer, Konrad Wittwer and Wolfgang Haussmann. He absolved the referendary in Ravensburg, he received his doctorate in law in Heidelberg, at the First World War he took part as a soldier at the foot artillery regiment 13. In 1920 he settled in Stuttgart practicing as a lawyer, in 1924 he was inducted into the Masonic Lodge Zu den 3 cedars in Stuttgart.
During the Nazi era he worked as a lawyer, his wife Gerta Goldschmidt flew with the two children to England, Reinhold Maier divorced from her under the pressure of the Nazis and married her again 1946. Already engaged since 1912 in the Progressive Peoples Party FVP during the imperial period, Maier joined in 1918 at the newly formed left-wing liberal German Democratic PartyDDP. The DVP joined the FDP in 1948, from 1957 to 1960 he was Chairman of the FDP, until his death honorary chairman. Maier was 1932-1933 a member of parliament for the German state party, at the same time he was from 1932 to 1933 a member of the Württemberg Landtag. On March 23,1933, he voted for the Enabling Act together with the four liberal Reichstag deputies Hermann Dietrich, Theodor Heuss, Heinrich Landahl. He argued yes to the Enabling Act of 1933, the final sentence of his speech was, For the sake of people and country and in anticipation of a legitimate development, we will return our serious concerns and approve the Enabling Act.
According to the informations of Theodor Heuss in his memoirs, the five liberal Reichstag deputies have initially been divided with respect to the so-called Enabling Act, Heuss had formulated two explanations, one for rejection, one for abstention. At his side, was only Hermann Dietrich, Heinrich Landahl, Ernst Lemmer and Reinhold Maier voted in the Reichstag group for approval. Heuss and Dietrich were overruled, so all Liberal MPs voted for the Enabling Act, in the Weimar Republic Maier was a member of the German Democratic Party. In 1945 he was a founder of the Democratic Peoples Party, which is now the Baden-Württemberg-Organisation of the FDP. Sigurd Janssen and Reinhold Maier Freiburg university 1952 He died in Stuttgart
Brackenheim is a town in the Landkreis Heilbronn in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is 15 kilometres southwest of Heilbronn, with 826 hectares of vineyards, it is the biggest grape-growing municipality of Württemberg. Brackenheim is situated on the river Zaber in the Zabergäu in southwestern district of Heilbronn, in the north of Baden-Württemberg, the landscape is characterized by extensive vineyards. Neighbouring towns and municipalities, Cleebronn, Güglingen, Schwaigern, Lauffen, apart from Brackenheim itself, it consists of the following, Botenheim Dürrenzimmern Hausen an der Zaber Haberschlacht Meimsheim Neipperg Stockheim. The communal land of Brackenheim has been settled for 5, 000-6,000 years and Meimsheim were mentioned in the 12th century, Brackenheim was mentioned in 1246. Brackenheim received its rights by King Rudolf I. von Habsburg in 1280. After a big fire in 1691 burning down 112 houses, the town had to be rebuilt in many places, owing to the communal reform from 1971 to 1974, the previous independent communities now representing districts were incorporated.
The active construction of building has filled in the spaces previously between the districts and led to a increase of the population in Brackenheim. During 1995-2004 the town increased by about 2,700 inhabitants, Brackenheim is the seat of Church District Brackenheim of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg. In Brackenheim, Botenheim, Dürrenzimmern, Hausen and Neipperg there are separate parishs of each of these districts, in Stockheim there is the Catholic Parish St. Ulrich, which contains Haberschlacht and a district of Eppingen called Kleingartach. Neipperg belongs to the Parish St. Martinus in Schwaigern, the parish of Brackenheim contains the remaining districts, both a free church and a Methodistic church is represented. Elections in May 2014, In red a silver hound with a black collar, the municipality colours are white and red. Even the oldest preserved seal of the 13th century shows a hound, in the course of the centuries, the dog was employed in different positions - standing, jumping and so on - and with different extras like a collar or a necklace.
In 1953, the arms were laid down in the current form by the district council,1962, The contemporary district Neipperg concluded a partnership with the French municipality Marsan. 1978, Brackenheim concluded a partnership with the French town Charnay-lés-Mâcon,1996, The town concluded a further partnership with the Italian municipality Castagnole delle Lanze. 2001, The town concluded a treaty with the Polish municipality Zbrosławice. Besides there are relationships with Le Lude and Port Talbot. By the chapel in the castle, the association Kulturforum Brackenheim e. V. has its own scene with 200 seats for its disposal since 1994 and its employed to show concert and theatre games
The Neckar is a 367-kilometre-long river in Germany, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse. The Neckar is a right tributary of the Rhine. From Plochingen to Stuttgart the Neckar valley is populated and industrialised, with several well-known companies, e. g. Daimler AG. Between Stuttgart and Lauffen the Neckar cuts a scenic, after passing Heidelberg, the Neckar discharges on average 145 m3/s of water into the Rhine, making the Neckar its 4th largest tributary, and the 10th largest river in Germany. The name Neckar was derived from Nicarus and Neccarus from Celtic Nikros, from about 1100 Black Forest timber was rafted downstream as far as Holland, for use in shipyards. During the 19th century, traditional horse-drawn boats were replaced by steam-powered chain boats that used a 155 km long chain in the river to haul themselves upstream towing barges. After 1899 a railway made it possible to transport timber to the port of Heilbronn, due to the construction of 11 locks, ships up to 1500 t could travel to Heilbronn in 1935.
Other important ports include Stuttgart and Heilbronn, the rivers course provides a popular route for cyclists, especially during the summer months. Its steep valley sides are used for vineyards, mainly for the cultivation of Trollinger, Kerner, old Bridge, in Heidelberg The Neckar is mentioned prominently in Gustav Mahlers Rheinlegendchen, composed in August 1893
German Democratic Party
In 1930 the party changed to the Deutsche Staatspartei. The Democrats were a more left-wing or social liberal party, whereas the German Peoples Party was right-wing liberal, many of the leading figures in the party had been supporters of Imperial Germanys aim of Weltpolitik and Mitteleuropa. Along with the Social Democrats and the Centre Party, the Democratic party was most committed to maintaining a democratic and its social basis were middle class entrepreneurs, civil servants, teachers and craftsmen. The party was the one voted for by most Jews, the party was attacked by some for being a party of Jews and professors. Other well-known politicians of the DDP were Hugo Preuß, the author of the Weimar constitution. Hjalmar Schacht, president of the Reichsbank and one of the founders of the party, left the party in 1926 and became a supporter of Adolf Hitler. Nearly all German governments from 1918 to 1931 included ministers from the DDP, such as Walther Rathenau, Eugen Schiffer, Hugo Preuss, Kurt Riezler, Otto Gessler, Max Weber and Erich Koch-Weser.
From their 18% share of the first elections under proportional representation in 1919, the party merged with the more right-leaning Young German Order to form the German State Party in 1930. With Ludwig Quidde and others the party had a pacifist wing which left the Party in 1930 and founded the Radical Democratic Party, after 1945 former politicians of the DDP joined mainly the new Free Democratic Party, as did the liberals from the German Peoples Party. First Federal President Theodor Heuss, a journalist and professor in history, had been a German State Party deputy in 1933, in the Soviet occupation zone the liberal leader was former DDP minister Wilhelm Külz. Other DDP members went to the Christian Democrats, such as Ernst Lemmer, Democratic Party of Germany Liberalism List of liberal parties Liberalism in Germany Weimar Republic Frye, Bruce B