Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the 1990s. It is characterised by the use of folk instruments and, to a lesser extent. It sometimes features soft instrumentation influenced by folk rock, the earliest folk metal bands were Skyclad from England and Cruachan from Ireland. It was not until 1994 and 1995 that other early contributors in the genre began to emerge from different regions of Europe, among these early groups, the German band Subway to Sally spearheaded a different regional variation that over time became known as medieval metal. Despite their contributions, folk metal remained little known with few representatives during the 1990s and it was not until the early 2000s when the genre exploded into prominence, particularly in Finland with the efforts of such groups as Finntroll, Korpiklaani and Moonsorrow. The music of folk metal is characterised by its diversity with bands known to perform different styles of heavy metal music and folk music. A large variety of instruments are used in the genre with many bands consequently featuring six or more members in their regular line-ups. A few bands are known to rely on keyboards to simulate the sound of folk instruments.
Lyrics in the genre deal with fantasy, paganism, history. The English band Skyclad was formed in 1990 after vocalist Martin Walkyier left his previous band, the song The Widdershins Jig from the debut album has been acclaimed as particularly significant and a certain first in the realms of Metal. Even with the departure of Martin Walkyier in 2001, Skyclad remains a folk metal group today after nearly two decades since their formation. In contrast, the Portuguese band Moonspell had a tenure in the genre. Their first release was the 1994 Under the Moonspell EP with music that featured folk, Cruachan were formed in 1992 in Dublin, Ireland. From the outset their intention was to mix the native Irish folk music of their country with the more extreme side of metal music. Their debut album Tuatha Na Gael was released in 1995 and was a folk metal album from start to finish. In the Italian book “FOLK METAL, Dalle Origini Al Ragnarok” and he acknowledges that Skyclad did have some folk parts in some songs before Cruachan however he goes on to say Cruachan used folk music as much as they used heavy metal music.
Cruachan used arrangements of folk songs and melodies, Skyclad wrote folk sounding parts. Another early contributor to folk metal is the Finnish group Amorphis and they formed in 1990 with their debut album, The Karelian Isthmus, following two years later
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size definition for what constitutes a town varies considerably in different parts of the world, the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, and the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the meaning of the word. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom, in English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more specifically those of the wealthy, in Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, and is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs, for example, Edina Burgh or Edinburgh was built around a fort and eventually came to have a defensive wall.
In some cases, town is a name for city or village. Sometimes, the town is short for township. A places population size is not a determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, as in India at least until recent times, in the United Kingdom, there are historical cities that are far smaller than the larger towns. Some forms of settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be clearly non-rural. Towns often exist as governmental units, with legally defined borders. In the United States these are referred to as incorporated towns, in other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be unincorporated. Note that the existence of a town may be legally set forth through other means. In the case of planned communities, the town exists legally in the form of covenants on the properties within the town. Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age, although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian qytezë means small city or new city, while in ancient times small residential center within the walls of a castle
Distributed Proofreaders Canada
Distributed Proofreaders Canada is an organization that converts books into digital format and releases them as Public domain books in formats readable by electronic devices. It maintains its own website for the material released. It was launched in December 2007 and as of 2016 has published about 2,500 books, while its focus is on Canadian publications and preserving Canadiana, it includes books from other countries as well. Distributed Proofreaders Canada was launched in December 2007 by David Jones, although it was established by members of the original Distributed Proofreaders site, it is a separate entity. To date, it is a volunteer based non-profit organization, all the administrative and management costs are borne by its members. The software used by DP Canada was originally downloaded from SourceForge but has substantially modified since then. In addition to preserving Canadiana, DP Canada is notable because it is one of the first major efforts to take advantage of Canadas copyright laws which allows more works to be preserved, unlike copyright law in other countries, Canada has a life plus 50 copyright term.
Works by authors who died more than fifty years ago may be publicly available in Canada. Other countries have differing copyright laws, notable Canadian authors whose books have been published include Stephen Leacock, L. M. Montgomery, E. T. Seton and Mazo de la Roche. Authors whose works have been released in Canada but not other parts of the world include A. A. Milne, C. S. Lewis, Winston Churchill, E. E. Smith, eligible books are chosen by members for publication based on personal interest and access. Books are scanned electronically and each page is uploaded to the proofreading website, a project is created for the book and is made available to the proofreading members. Each book is proofread in three stages called P1, P2 and P3, during the first stage, errors in scanning and other minor errors are corrected. Once all pages in the book have been edited the book pages are promoted to the next stage, the proofreading is repeated and again in stage P3 to ensure no errors make it to the final publication.
Once stage P3 is finished the book moves to a set of two formatting stages called F1, and F2. In these stages the book text is changed into a format that allows it to be presented to the reader in a style that resembles the original book as closely as possible. For example, text originally appearing in Italic type is placed within formatting tags <i>this text is in italics</i>, when formatted the text appears correctly as this text is in italics. When the formatting stages are complete, a post-processing stage brings all the files together to publish the books in five electronic formats and these include ePub, mobi, HTML, PDF and plain text. The HTML version is made available as a Zip file
Neck (water spirit)
The neck, nixie or nokken are shapeshifting water spirits in Germanic mythology and folklore who usually appeared in forms of other creatures. Under a variety of names, they were common to the stories of all Germanic peoples, the related English knucker was generally depicted as a wyrm or dragon, although more recent versions depict the spirits in other forms. Their sex and various transformations vary geographically, the German Nix and his Scandinavian counterparts were males. The German Nixe was a female river mermaid, the names are held to derive from Common Germanic *nikwus or *nikwis, derived from PIE *neigw. They are related to Sanskrit nḗnēkti, Greek νίζω nízō and νίπτω níptō, the form neck appears in English and Swedish. The Swedish form is derived from Old Swedish neker, which corresponds to Old Icelandic nykr, in Finnish, the word is näkki. In Old Danish, the form was nikke and in modern Danish, the Icelandic nykur is a horselike creature. In Middle Low German, it was called necker and in Middle Dutch nicker, the Old High German form nihhus meant crocodile, while the Old English nicor could mean both a water monster like those encountered by Beowulf, and a hippopotamus.
The Norwegian Fossegrim and Swedish Strömkarlen are related figures sometimes seen as by-names for the same creature, the Scandinavian version can transform himself into a horse-like kelpie, and is called a Bäckahästen, whilst the Welsh version is called the Ceffyl Dŵr. In the English county of Sussex, there are said to dwell water-wyrms called knuckers, the Word knucker is derived from the Old English nicor. English folklore contains many creatures with similarities to the Nix or Näck and these Necks include Jenny Greenteeth, the Shellycoat, Peg Powler, the Bäckahästen-like Brag, and the Grindylow. The Scandinavian näcken, näkki, nøkk were male water spirits who played enchanted songs on the violin, nøkker are said to grow despondent if they do not have free, regular contact with a water source. The Norwegian Fossegrim or Grim, Swedish strömkarl, is a figure who, if properly approached, will teach a musician to play so adeptly that the trees dance. It is difficult to describe the appearance of the nix.
Perhaps he did not have any true shape and he could show himself as a man playing the violin in brooks and waterfalls but could appear to be treasure or various floating objects or as an animal—most commonly in the form of a brook horse. The modern Scandinavian names are derived from an Old Norse nykr, likely the brook horse preceded the personification of the nix as the man in the rapids. Fossegrim and derivatives were almost always portrayed as beautiful young men. The enthralling music of the nøkk was most dangerous to women and children, especially pregnant women and he was thought to be most active during Midsummers Night, on Christmas Eve and on Thursdays
Black metal is an extreme subgenre and subculture of heavy metal music. Common traits include fast tempos, a vocal style, heavily distorted guitars played with tremolo picking, raw recording, unconventional song structures. Artists often appear in corpse paint and adopt pseudonyms, during the 1980s, several thrash and death metal bands formed a prototype for black metal. This so-called first wave included bands such as Venom, Mercyful Fate, Hellhammer, a second wave arose in the early 1990s, spearheaded by Norwegian bands such as Mayhem, Burzum, Emperor and Gorgoroth. The early Norwegian black metal scene developed the style of their forebears into a distinct genre, norwegian-inspired black metal scenes emerged throughout Europe and North America, although some other scenes developed their own styles independently. Some prominent Swedish bands spawned during this wave, such as Marduk, Nifelheim. Initially a synonym for Satanic metal, black metal is often met with hostility from mainstream culture, due to the actions, many artists express extreme anti-Christian and misanthropic views, advocating various forms of Satanism or ethnic paganism.
In the 1990s, members of the scene were responsible for a spate of church burnings, there is a small neo-Nazi movement within black metal, although it has been shunned by many prominent artists. Generally, black metal strives to remain underground, inaccessible to the mainstream, although contemporary black metal typically refers to the Norwegian style with shrieking vocals and raw production, the term has been applied to bands with widely differing sounds. Norwegian-inspired black metal guitarists usually favor high-pitched or trebly guitar tones, the guitar is usually played with fast, un-muted tremolo picking. Guitarists often use dissonance—along with specific scales and chord progressions—to create a sense of dread, the tritone, or flat-fifth, is often used. Guitar solos and low guitar tunings are rare in black metal, the bass guitar is seldom used to play stand-alone melodies. It is not uncommon for the bass to be muted against the guitar, some newer black metal bands began raising their production quality and introducing additional instruments such as synthesizers and even orchestras.
The drumming is usually fast and relies on double-bass and blast beats to maintain tempos that can sometimes approach 300 beats per minute and these fast tempos require great skill and physical stamina, typified by black metal drummers Frost and Hellhammer. Even still, authenticity is still prioritized over technique and this professionalism has to go, insists well-respected drummer and metal historian Fenriz of Darkthrone. I want to de-learn playing drums, I want to play primitive and simple, I dont want to play like a drum solo all the time, Black metal songs often stray from conventional song structure and often lack clear verse-chorus sections. Instead, many black metal songs contain lengthy and repetitive instrumental sections, the Greek style—established by Rotting Christ and Varathron—has more traditional heavy metal and death metal traits than Norwegian black metal. Traditional black metal bands tend to favor raspy, high-pitched vocals which include such as shrieking and snarling
Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, the Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning by the monks. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was to become the Old Town of Munich, Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the citys official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich. In the 1920s, Munich became home to political factions, among them the NSDAP. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city, the postwar period was characterised by American occupation until 1949 and a strong increase of population and economic power during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder after 1949. The city is home to corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE as well as many small. Munich is home to national and international authorities, major universities, major museums. Its numerous architectural attractions, international events and conferences. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany and it is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, the year 1158 is assumed to be the foundation date, which is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document.
The document was signed in Augsburg, by that time the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks—this was on the Old Salt Route and a toll bridge. In 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification, in 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the position by granting it the salt monopoly
It has been used with reference to late-19th-century composers such as Richard Wagner particularly by Carl Dahlhaus who describes his music as a late flowering of romanticism in a positivist age. He regards it as synonymous with the age of Wagner, from about 1850 until 1890—the start of the era of modernism, whose leading early representatives were Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler. Neo-romanticism as well as Romanticism is considered in opposition to naturalism—indeed, so far as music is concerned, in the period following German unification in 1871, naturalism rejected Romantic literature as a misleading, idealistic distortion of reality. Naturalism in turn came to be regarded as incapable of filling the void of modern existence, neo-romanticism was proposed as an alternative label for the group of German composers identified with the short-lived Neue Einfachheit movement in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Along with other such as new tonality, this term has been criticised for lack of precision because of the diversity among these composers.
In British art history, the term neo-romanticism is applied to an affiliated school of landscape painting that emerged around 1930. It was first labeled in March 1942 by the critic Raymond Mortimer in the New Statesman and this movement was motivated in part as a response to the threat of invasion during World War II. Artists particularly associated with the initiation of this movement included Paul Nash, John Piper, Henry Moore, Ivon Hitchens, a younger generation included John Minton, Michael Ayrton, John Craxton, Keith Vaughan, Robert Colquhoun, and Robert MacBryde. The aesthetic philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche has contributed greatly to neo-romantic thinking, Dictionary of Art,34 volumes, edited by Jane Turner. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms and New York, Oxford University Press. Wie neu war die Neue Einfachheit, the Oxford Companion to Western Art, edited by Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, in The Cambridge Companion to German Romanticism, edited by Nicholas Saul, 257–80.
Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, the People’s Library, The Spirit of Prose Literature Versus Fascism. In The Culture of Japanese Fascism, edited by Alan Tansman, the Origins of the English Imagination. The Geographies of Englishness and the National Past, 1880-1940, poets in the Landscape, The Romantic Spirit in British Art. Fantastic Illustration and Design in Great Britain, 1850–1930, paradise Lost, The Neo-Romantic Imagination in Britain, 1935–1955. Outcasts from Eden, Ideas of Landscape in British Poetry Since 1945, British Romantic Art and The Second World War. Civilisation and its Discontents, English Neo-Romanticism and the Transformation of Anti-Modernism in Twentieth-Century Western Culture and this Enchanted Isle, The Neo-Romantic Vision from William Blake to the New Visionaries