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Theodore Frelinghuysen

Theodore Frelinghuysen was an American politician who represented New Jersey in the United States Senate. He was the Whig vice presidential nominee in the election of 1844, running on a ticket with Henry Clay. Born in Somerset County, New Jersey, Frelinghuysen established a legal practice in Newark, New Jersey after graduating from the College of New Jersey, he was the son of Senator Frederick Frelinghuysen and the adoptive father of Secretary of State Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen. He served as the New Jersey Attorney General from 1817 to 1829 and as a United States Senator from 1829 to 1835. In the Senate, Frelinghuysen opposed President Andrew Jackson's policy of Indian removal. After leaving the Senate, he served as the Mayor of Newark from 1837 to 1838. Frelinghuysen was selected as Clay's running mate at the 1844 Whig National Convention. In the 1844 election, the Whig ticket was narrowly defeated by the Democratic ticket of James K. Polk and George M. Dallas. Frelinghuysen served as President of New York University from 1839 to 1850, as president of Rutgers College from 1850 to 1862.

Upon its incorporation in 1848, Frelinghuysen Township, New Jersey was named after him. He was born in 1787 in Franklin Township, Somerset County, New Jersey, to Frederick Frelinghuysen and Gertrude Schenck, his siblings include: Catharine Frelinghuysen. His great-grandfather Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen was a minister and theologian of the Dutch Reformed Church, influential in the founding of Queen's College, now Rutgers University, one of four key leaders of the First Great Awakening in Colonial America. Theodore was the uncle of Frederick T. Frelinghuysen and great-great-grandfather of Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.. Rodney Frelinghuysen, who represented New Jersey's 11th congressional district, is a descendant. Frelinghuysen married Charlotte Mercer in 1809, they had no children together, but when Theodore's brother, Frederick Frelinghuysen died, Theodore adopted his son, Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, who would become Secretary of State. Theodore Frelinghuysen remarried in 1857 to Harriet Pumpelly.

He graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1804 and studied law under his brother John Frelinghuysen, Richard Stockton. He was admitted to the bar as an attorney in 1808 and as a counselor in 1811, set up a law practice in Newark during this time period. In the War of 1812, he was a captain of a company of volunteers, he became Attorney General of New Jersey in 1817, turned down an appointment to the New Jersey Supreme Court and became a United States Senator in 1829, serving in that capacity until 1835. As a Senator, he led the opposition to Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830, his six-hour speech against the Removal Act was delivered over the course of three days, warned of the supposed dire consequences of the policy: Let us beware how, by oppressive encroachments upon the sacred privileges of our Indian neighbors, we minister to the agonies of future remorse. Frelinghuysen was chided for mixing his evangelical Christianity with politics, the Removal Act was passed.1He was Mayor of Newark, New Jersey from 1837 until 1838.

At the 1844 Whig National Convention, competing with Millard Fillmore, John Davis and John Sergeant, he was selected as the Whig vice-presidential candidate. He took the lead on the first ballot and never lost it being chosen by acclamation; the Whig presidential candidate, Henry Clay, was not present at the convention and expressed surprise upon hearing the news. Frelinghuysen's rectitude might have been intended to correct for Clay's reputation for moral laxity, but his opposition to Indian removal may have put off those southern voters who had suffered from their raids. Frelinghuysen was unpopular with Catholics as groups of which he was a member, such as the Protestant American Bible Society promulgated the idea that Catholics should convert to Protestantism; the two went down to defeat in the 1844 election. He was the second President of New York University between 1839 and 1850 and seventh President of Rutgers College between 1850 and 1862, he was President of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, President of the American Bible Society, President of the American Tract Society, Vice President of the American Sunday School Union, Vice President of the American Colonization Society.

He believed in temperance and opposed slavery. His moniker was the "Christian Statesman." He died in New Brunswick, New Jersey on April 12, 1862 and he was buried there at the First Reformed Church Cemetery. ^1 Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians, pp. 68–9, Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians, Volume I, pp. 204–5. Media related to Theodore Frelinghuysen at Wikimedia CommonsUnited States Congress. "Theodore Frelinghuysen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Theodore Frelinghuysen at Find a Grave Leadership on the Banks: Rutgers' Presidents, 1766–2004 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congr

Haute Cour of Jerusalem

The Haute Cour was the feudal council of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It was sometimes called the curia generalis, the curia regis, or the parlement; the Haute Cour was a combination of judicial powers. It had its basis in medieval parliamentarian ideals: a sovereign desired the consent of his subjects in certain matters, such as taxation and obligations to conduct military service; the court developed during the early 12th century CE, along with the kingdom itself, in the aftermath of the First Crusade. Technically all vassals of the king which were subject to its decisions had the right to sit and vote, but in practice only the more wealthy nobles did so; this developed into a system of higher nobles and lesser nobles, with different privileges depending on idiosyncratic circumstances. Anyone who had committed perjury or had broken an oath forfeited his right to vote. Only four votes were required to form a quorum; the court could meet wherever necessary, not in Jerusalem. After around 1120 the court included bishops, according to tradition new crusaders were entitled to sit and vote.

The masters of the military orders were entitled to sit and vote as well. During the 12th century there was a smaller group of advisors to the king, but by the end of the century this group had fallen out of use; the court levied taxes on the inhabitants of the kingdom, voted on military expeditions. A formal vote for war would mobilize all the vassals of the kingdom; the court was the only judicial body for the nobles of the kingdom, hearing cases of murder, assault, debt, recovery of slaves and purchases of fiefs and horses, default of service and treason. Punishments included forfeiture in extreme cases death, it was possible to escape punishment from the court by challenging all the appointed judges to a trial by combat and defeating them. The court was responsible for minting coins. Most the court elected the king or his regent, or settled disputes between various claimants; each new reign began with a meeting of the court, to formally recognize the new king and to swear an oath of homage to him.

They gave advice to the king and developed proper procedures for doing so, but in practise they could disagree with the king and override his wishes. The king was only "first among equals" while sitting in the court, although he was recognized as its head. There tended to be two factions within the court, a so-called "court party," consisting of the royal family, the Patriarch, their supporters, the "nobles' party," consisting of the higher nobility and the military orders. Disputes between the two factions were frequent. There was a major dispute during the co-reign of Melisende and her son Baldwin III, when Melisende refused to give up the crown after Baldwin came of age. Baldwin gained the support of the nobility and was recognized as sole king. A second major dispute arose during the regency of Raymond III of Tripoli for the child-king Baldwin V, when the relative newcomer Guy of Lusignan was chosen by the court party over more experienced nobles; this decision would lead to increased conflict with the Muslims and the fall of Jerusalem itself in 1187.

The most important piece of legislation passed by the court was Amalric I's Assise sur la ligece. The Assise formally prohibited the illegal confiscation of fiefs and required all of the king's vassals to ally against any lord who did so; such a lord would instead be stripped of his land or exiled. It made all nobles direct vassals of the king, eliminating the previous distinction between higher and lesser nobles; this distinction still existed in reality, although lesser nobles now had an equal voice in the court, the more powerful barons refused to be tried by lesser lords who were not their peers. The higher nobles were still able to judge the less powerful lords themselves. There were about 600 men eligible to vote in the Court according to the Assise. There was a Cour des Bourgeois in the kingdom but in the 12th century the two do not seem to have met together, they began to do so in the 13th century when the capital of the kingdom had been moved to Acre, the leaders of the merchant colonies in the coastal cities were allowed to sit.

By this time central authority had eroded so much that the more powerful nobles had their own courts. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II opposed the authority of the court while he was staying in Acre during the Fifth Crusade, it was temporarily abolished from 1232 to 1244. In its place the Commune of Acre was set up, which invoked the Assise against him, although his army was much larger than any force the remnant of the kingdom could muster; the Commune, unlike the Court, included the burgesses. Meanwhile, the Haute Cour of the Kingdom of Cyprus adopted the same structure. Most of our information on the court comes from John of Ibelin's description of it, written in the 1260s, his description was an idealized explanation of the laws and procedures, based on the idea that Godfrey of Bouillon, the first king of Jerusalem, had established it and that it had remained unchanged since (

Kostov Government

The eighty-fourth cabinet of Bulgaria ruled from May 21, 1997 to July 24, 2001. The government was formed by the United Democratic Forces, an electoral alliance led by the Union of Democratic Forces, after they won a landslide victory in the 1997 parliamentary election winning 49.15% of the votes and 137 seats in the National Assembly. The cabinet was chaired by the UDF leader Ivan Kostov who shared the cabinet posts between his party and his allies; this was the largest margin of victory to this day. Kostov's government was the first since 1990 to serve its entire four-year mandate. In the previous parliamentary election the Bulgarian Socialist Party won a majority of the seats and the UDF was reduced to 69 seats. Up to that point in time the UDF had formed government only once, under Philip Dimitrov, governed for one year only; the tide turned on the socialists, after the economic meltdown during the winter of 1996-1997 and the government was forced to step down. After declaring their intentions to form a new government, the UDF and other opposition parties staged mass rallies demanding snap elections.

The Socialists bowed to the pressure and agreed. After a caretaker government was appointed in February, early parliamentary elections were scheduled for April, two years before otherwise scheduled; the result was a landslide victory for Ivan Kostov's electoral alliance. In December 1999 the National Security Agency released a report following a sweeping investigation, written by Tsvetlin Iovchev, outlining possible security threats. Michael Cherney, an Uzbekistan-born Israeli businessman, was expelled from the country and forbidden from reentering for 10 years for his ties to foreign criminal money-laundering schemes. Three diplomats from the Russian embassy were expelled from the country and their spy was arrested, accused of leaking classified documents to the Russians; the following changes were made to the Cabinet: The Ministry of Transportation was transformed into the Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Antoni Slavinski was chosen to be the new minister; the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform was transformed into the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry.

Ventsislav Vurbanov remained the Minister. The Ministry of Justice and Euro-integration was reorganized into the Ministry of Justice. Teodosy Symeonov became the new minister; the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Tourism and Trade were merged to become the Ministry of Economy. The new minister was Petar Zhotev, he became deputy Prime Minister, the only one to hold that office in the second half of the government. Prime Minister Ivan Kostov takes over the Ministry of Public Administration; the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works is taken over by Evgeni Chachev. Dimitar Dimitrov became the new Minister of Science. Boyko Noyev was appointed as the new Minister of Defence. Emanuyl Yordanov was appointed as the new Minister of Interior. Ilko Semerdzhiev was appointed as the new Minister of Health. Aleksander Pramatarski was appointed as a minister without portfolio. Composition of the Cabinet History of Bulgaria since 1989