The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Battle of Antioch on the Meander
The Battle of Antioch on the Meander was a military engagement near Antioch-on-the-Meander between the forces of the Empire of Nicaea and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. The Turkish defeat ensured continued Nicaean hegemony of the Aegean coast of Asia Minor; the Seljuk sultan, Kaykhusraw I, was killed on the field of battle. The battle took place near the modern town of Yamalak in Kuyucak district in Aydın Province. Following the capture of Constantinople by the forces of the Fourth Crusade and the partition of the Byzantine Empire, Theodore Laskaris, crowned emperor in 1208, built up a power base in the former Byzantine territory of western Anatolia; this new polity was to become known as the Empire of Nicaea. Nicaea was one of the two main Greek successor states that claimed the heritage of the Byzantine Empire, along with Epirus in western Greece. Nicaea was threatened from the north by the new Latin Empire established by the Crusaders, from the east by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum; the peace with the Seljuks was disturbed through the arrival, in early 1211, of the former Byzantine Emperor Alexios III, at the port of Attaleia.
The subsequent events are described in some detail by a number of near-contemporary sources, chiefly the chroniclers Ibn al-Athir and Ibn Bibi on the Seljuk side and the histories of George Akropolites and Nikephoros Gregoras on the Byzantine side, as well as references in other chronicles and the orations in honour of Theodore Laskaris by Niketas Choniates. Alexios had fled Constantinople on the approach of the Crusaders in 1203, but had not given up on his rights to the throne, was determined to reclaim it. In 1203–1205, he had wandered across Greece, seeking the support of powerful local grandees, before being captured by Boniface of Montferrat and held captive until ransomed by his first cousin, Michael of Epirus, in 1210. Although Theodore Laskaris was Alexios's son-in-law, having married his daughter Anna, Alexios resolved to seek the aid of the Seljuk sultan, Kaykhusraw I, with whom he had close relations: Alexios had sheltered him in Constantinople during the latter's exile, George Akropolites claims that the two fled from Constantinople together in 1203.
The sultan welcomed Alexios warmly, the deposed emperor, after reminding the sultan of the succour he had given him, promised him rich rewards if he would help restore him to his throne. Kaykhusraw, having found in supporting Alexios's cause a perfect pretext for attacking Nicaean territory, sent an emissary to Theodore at Nicaea, calling upon him to relinquish his domains to the legitimate emperor. Theodore refused to reply to the sultan's demands, the sultan assembled his army and invaded Laskaris' domains. Kaykhusraw's army, with Alexios III in tow, laid siege to Antioch on the Maeander, which he hoped to use as a base to subdue the rest of the Meander Valley; the size of the Seljuk force is unknown. The hagiographer George of Pelagonia in his hagiography estimates it at 60,000 an impossible figure, Gregoras's 20,000 seems to be exaggerated, it was a larger force than the army Theodore managed to scrape together: both Gregoras and Akropolites put it at 2,000 men, of whom 800 were Latin and the rest Byzantine Greeks.
Laskaris marched his army from Nicaea over the Mysian Olympus and reached Philadelphia in eleven days There he learned that Antioch was about to fall, led his army in a forced march towards the town, discarding all baggage except for a few days' rations. According to Gregoras, Laskaris intended to catch the Turks off guard by his rapid approach, but Akropolites relates that the Nicaean ruler sent Kaykhusraw's ambassador, whom he had taken along, to inform his master of his arrival; the sultan at first appeared incredulous, but abandoned the siege and drew up his forces for battle. The Turks were constrained by the narrowness of the valley and could not deploy their full force their cavalry. Hence, the sultan decided to await the Nicaean attack instead; as the Nicaean army drew close to the Turks, Laskaris's Latin mercenary cavalry launched an impetuous charge on the Turkish centre. Kaykhusraw, soon managed to restore discipline among his troops, shaken by the sudden Latin onslaught, used his superior numbers to surround and annihilate the Latins.
The Turks turned on the rest of the Nicaean army, after suffering casualties, began to retreat and break up. As the sources narrate, at this moment of victory, the Seljuk sultan sought out Laskaris, hard pressed by the attacking Turkish troops. Kaykhusraw charged his enemy and gave him a heavy blow on the head with a mace, so that the Nicaean emperor, fell from his horse. Kaykhusraw was giving orders to his retinue to carry Laskaris away, when the latter regained his composure and brought Kaykhusraw down by hacking at his mount's rear legs; the sultan too was beheaded. His head was impaled on a lance and hoisted aloft for his army to see, causing the Turks to panic and retreat, it is unclear who delivered the fatal blow to the sultan: Choniates and Gregoras attribute this deed to Laskaris himself, Ibn Bibi to an unknown Frankish mercenary.
Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
The Ecumenical Patriarch is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church. The term Ecumenical in the title is a historical reference to the Ecumene, a Greek designation for the civilised world, i.e. the Roman Empire, it stems from Canon 28 of the Council of Chalcedon. The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history; the ecumenical patriarchs in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity and the resolution of various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages they played a major role in the affairs of the Eastern Orthodox Church, as well as in the politics of the Orthodox world, in spreading Christianity among the Slavs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and the Eastern Orthodox doctrine, the patriarchs are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of Orthodox Christian traditions.
Within the five apostolic sees of the Pentarchy, the Ecumenical Patriarch is regarded as the successor of Andrew the Apostle. The current holder of the office is Bartholomew I, the 270th bishop of that see; the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is first among equals, or first in honor among all Eastern Orthodox bishops, who presides in person—or through a delegate—over any council of Orthodox primates or bishops in which he takes part and serves as primary spokesman for the Orthodox communion in ecumenical contacts with other Christian denominations. He has no direct jurisdiction over the other patriarchs or the other autocephalous Orthodox churches, but he, alone among his fellow primates, enjoys the right of convening extraordinary synods consisting of them or their delegates to deal with ad hoc situations and has convened well-attended Pan-Orthodox Synods in the last forty years, his unique role sees the Ecumenical Patriarch referred to as the spiritual leader of the Orthodox Church in some sources, though this is not an official title of the patriarch nor is it used in scholarly sources on the patriarchate.
The Orthodox Church is decentralized, having no central authority, earthly head or a single Bishop in a leadership role, having synodical system canonically, is distinguished from the hierarchically organized Catholic Church whose doctrine is the papal supremacy. His titles primus inter pares "first among equals" and "Ecumenical Patriarch" are of honor rather than authority and in fact the Ecumenical Patriarch has no real authority over Churches other than the Constantinopolitan; the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is the direct administrative superior of dioceses and archdioceses serving millions of Greek, Ukrainian and Albanian believers in North and South America, Western Europe and New Zealand, Korea, as well as parts of modern Greece which, for historical reasons, do not fall under the jurisdiction of the Church of Greece. The Orthodox Church in America, while acknowledging the Ecumenical Patriarch's role in "guiding and preserving the worldwide unity of the family of self-governing Orthodox Churches" emphasizes that he carries no sacramental or juridical power over bishops outside of his own Patriarchate, further states that "it is possible that in the future this function may pass to some other church."His actual position is Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, one of the fourteen autocephalous and several autonomous churches and the most senior of the four orthodox ancient primatial sees among the five patriarchal Christian centers comprising the ancient Pentarchy of the undivided Church.
In his role as head of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, he holds the title Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome. The Ecumenical Patriarchate is sometimes called the Greek Patriarchate of Constantinople to distinguish him from the Armenian Patriarchate and the extinct Latin Patriarchate, created after the Latin capture of Constantinople in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade; the see of Byzantium, whose foundation was ascribed to Andrew the Apostle, was a common bishopric. It gained importance when Emperor Constantine elevated Byzantium to a second capital alongside Rome and named it Constantinople; the see's ecclesiastical status as the second of five Patriarchates were developed by the Ecumenical Councils of Constantinople in 381 and Chalcedon in 451. The Turkish government recognizes him as the spiritual leader of the Greek minority in Turkey, refer to him as the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Fener; the Patriarch was subject to the authority of the Ottoman Empire after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, until the declaration of Turkish Republic in 1923.
Today, according to Turkish law, he is subject to the authority of the state of Turkey and is required to be a citizen of Turkey to be Patriarch. The Patriarch of Constantinople has been dubbed the Ecumenical Patriarch since the 6th century; the exact significance of the style, used for other prelates since the middle of the 5th century, is nowhere defined but, according to the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, the title has been criticized in the Catholic Church as incompatible with its own claims by the Holy See. The monastic communities of Mount Athos are stauropegic and are directly under the jurisdiction of Ecumenical Patriarch, the only bishop with jur
The Empire of Romania, more known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261; the Latin Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as the titular Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first Latin emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204; the Latin Empire failed to attain political or economic dominance over the other Latin powers, established in former Byzantine territories in the wake of the Fourth Crusade Venice, after a short initial period of military successes it went into a steady decline. Weakened by constant warfare with the Bulgarians and the unconquered sections of the empire, it fell when Byzantines recaptured Constantinople under Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261.
The last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century. The original name of this state in the Latin language was Imperium Romaniae; this name was used based on the fact that the common name for the Eastern Roman Empire in this period had been Romania. The names Byzantine and Latin were not contemporaneous terms, they were invented much by historians seeking to differentiate between the classical period of the Roman Empire, the medieval period of the Eastern Roman Empire, the late medieval Latin Empire, all of which called themselves "Roman." The term Latin has been used because the crusaders were Roman Catholic and used Latin as their liturgical and scholarly language. It is used in contrast to the Eastern Orthodox locals who used Greek in both liturgy and common speech. After the fall of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, the crusaders agreed to divide up Byzantine territory. In the Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae, signed on 1 October 1204, three eighths of the empire — including Crete and other islands — went to the Republic of Venice.
The Latin Empire claimed the remainder and exerted control over: areas of Greece, divided into vassal fiefs: the Kingdom of Thessalonica the Principality of Achaea the Duchy of Athens the Duchy of the Archipelago the short-lived Duchy of Philippopolis in north Thrace two further duchies were projected for Nicaea and Philadelphia in Asia Minor, but they were forestalled by the establishment of the Empire of Nicaea. The Doge of Venice did not rank as a vassal to the Latin Empire, but his position in control of three-eighths of its territory and of parts of Constantinople itself ensured Venice's influence in the Empire's affairs. However, much of the former Byzantine territory remained in the hands of rival successor states led by Byzantine Greek aristocrats, such as the Despotate of Epirus, the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire of Trebizond, each bent on reconquest from the Latins; the crowning of Baldwin I and the establishment of the Latin Empire had the curious effect of creating three existing entities claiming to be successors of the Roman Empire: the Latin Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, the remnants of the Byzantine Empire.
None of these polities controlled the city of Rome, which remained under the temporal authority of the Pope. The initial campaigns of the crusaders in Asia Minor resulted in the capture of most of Bithynia by 1205, with the defeat of the forces of Theodore I Laskaris at Poemanenum and Prusa. Latin successes continued, in 1207 a truce was signed with Theodore, newly proclaimed Emperor of Nicaea; the Latins inflicted a further defeat on Nicaean forces at the Rhyndakos river in October 1211, three years the Treaty of Nymphaeum recognized their control of most of Bithynia and Mysia. The peace was maintained until 1222, when the resurgent power of Nicaea felt sufficiently strong to challenge the Latin Empire, by that time weakened by constant warfare in its European provinces. At the battle of Poimanenon in 1224, the Latin army was defeated, by the next year Emperor Robert of Courtenay was forced to cede all his Asian possessions to Nicaea, except for Nicomedia and the territories directly across from Constantinople.
Nicaea turned to the Aegean, capturing the islands awarded to the empire. In 1235 the last Latin possessions fell to Nicaea. Unlike in Asia, where the Latin Empire faced only an weak Nicaea, in Europe it was confronted with a powerful enemy: the Bulgarian tsar Kaloyan; when Baldwin campaigned against the Byzantine lords of Thrace, they called upon Kaloyan for help. At the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205, the Latin heavy cavalry and knights were crushed by Kaloyan's troops and Cuman allies, Emperor Baldwin was captured, he was imprisoned in the Bulgarian capital Tarnovo until his death in 1205. Kaloyan was murdered a couple of years during a siege of Thessalonica, the Bulgarian threat conclusively defeated with a victory the following year, which allowed Baldwin's successor, Henry of Flanders, to reclaim most of the lost territories in Thrace until 1210, when peace was concluded with the marriage of Henry to Maria of Bulgaria, tsar Kaloyan's daughter. At the same time, another Greek successor state, the Despotate of Epirus, under Michael I Komnenos Doukas, posed a threat to the empire's vassals in Thessalonica and Athens.
Manuel Komnenos Maurozomes was a Byzantine nobleman who in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade tried to found an independent principality in Phrygia. His daughter was married to the Seljuk sultan Kaykhusraw I, he became governor of part of the region under Seljuk control. Little is known of Manuel's early life; the Maurozomai, a family of Peloponnesian origin, rose to prominence in the 12th century and belonged to the aristocracy. Manuel has traditionally been identified as a son of Theodore Maurozomes, who served as a general under Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, while earlier scholars, following Paul Wittek, made him the husband of an illegitimate daughter of the emperor, more recent scholars follow the reconstruction of Konstantinos Varzos, which makes her Manuel Maurozomes' mother, thus explaining his claim to the prestigious Komnenos name. Around 1200, when the deposed Seljuk sultan Kaykhusraw I came to Constantinople, Maurozomes held, according to the Seljuk chronicler Ibn Bibi, the rank of Caesar in the Byzantine court.
During his stay in the Byzantine capital, Kaykhusraw was baptized a Christian with Emperor Alexios III Angelos as his godfather, married Manuel's daughter. When Alexios III fled Constantinople at the approach of the Fourth Crusade in 1203, Kaykhusraw too abandoned the city and sought refuge with Manuel in his unidentified "fortress" or "island". Following the capture of Constantinople by the Crusaders and the death of Kaykhusraw's brother Rukn al-Din Suleyman, Kaykhusraw was recalled to Iconium, Maurozomes accompanied him, they were detained at Nicaea, where the local ruler had concluded a treaty with the new Seljuk sultan, Kilij Arslan III, but they managed to escape and restore Kaykhusraw to the sultanate. With Seljuk backing, Maurozomes tried now to carve out a principality for himself in Phrygia, tried to expand his control over the rich Meander valley. There he came into conflict with the Nicaeans under Theodore Laskaris, who decisively defeated Maurozomes' Turkish troops in summer 1205.
This victory, his success over another Byzantine rival, David Komnenos, at Nicomedia shortly before that, allowed Laskaris to consolidate his rule over western Asia Minor, have himself proclaimed Byzantine emperor. However, early in the next year, as Kaykhusraw and Theodore Laskaris concluded a treaty, the Seljuk sultan secured for his father-in-law a sizeable domain in the upper valley of the Meander, including the cities of Chonae and Laodicea. Maurozomes remained a Seljuk vassal until his death in c. 1230, played an important role in the affairs of the Seljuk state: he received the rank of emir, helped secure the accession of his grandson Kayqubad I in 1220, participated in the Seljuk campaigns against the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Claude Cahen identifies Maurozomes with a certain Emir Komnenos, who appears over the following decades as a Christian supporter of Kaykhusraw and Kayqubad, his descendants remained active in the Seljuk court until the end of the 13th century, although they retained their Christian faith: a John Komnenos Maurozomes, his son Isaac-John and his grandson Michael are attested in Michael's funerary inscription, dating to 1297.
Brand, Charles M.. "The Turkish Element in Byzantium, Eleventh-Twelfth Centuries". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. 43: 1–25. Doi:10.2307/1291603. JSTOR 1291603. Kazhdan, Alexander. "Maurozomes". In Kazhdan, Alexander; the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 1319–1320. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. Cahen, Claude. Pre-Ottoman Turkey: A General Survey of the Material and Spiritual Culture and History c. 1071-1330. New York: American Council of Learned Societies. ISBN 978-1-59740-456-3. Magoulias, Harry J. ed.. O City of Byzantium. Annals of Niketas Choniates. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1764-2. Varzos, Konstantinos. Η Γενεαλογία των Κομνηνών. A. Thessaloniki: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki. Vougiouklaki, Penelope. "Manuel Maurozomes". Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Retrieved 26 September 2012
Henry of Flanders
Henry was the second emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. He was a younger son of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, Margaret I of Flanders, sister of Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders. Having joined the Fourth Crusade in about 1201, he distinguished himself at the sieges of Constantinople and elsewhere. During the July 1203 siege, Henry was one of eight division generals, the others including Boniface of Montferrat, Doge Enrico Dandolo, Louis of Blois, Henry's own brother, Baldwin of Flanders, who controlled the largest division. During the 1204 siege, Henry led a chevauchée expedition to gain supplies and raided a castle in Philia, near the Black Sea with, according to Robert de Clari, about 30 knights and an unspecified number of mounted sergeants. An ambush was laid for him by Emperor Alexius V "Murzuphlus" Ducas, but Henry and his force routed the Greeks soundly, captured a revered icon containing relics of Christ, returned to the crusader camp, he soon became prominent among the princes of the new Latin Empire.
When his elder brother, the emperor Baldwin I, was captured at the Battle of Adrianople in April 1205 by the Bulgarians, Henry was chosen regent of the empire, succeeding to the throne when the news of Baldwin’s death arrived. He was crowned 20 August 1206. Upon Henry's ascension as Latin Emperor, the Lombard nobles of the Kingdom of Thessalonica refused to give him allegiance. A two-year war ensued and after defeating the Templar-supported Lombards, Henry confiscated the Templar castles of Ravennika and Zetouni (Lamia. Henry was a wise ruler, whose reign was passed in successful struggles with Kaloyan, Tsar of Bulgaria, with his rival, Theodore I Lascaris, emperor of Nicaea, he fought against Boril of Bulgaria and managed to defeat him in the Battle of Philippopolis. Henry campaigned against the Nicean Empire, expanding a small holding in Asia Minor with campaigns in 1207 and in 1211–1212, where he captured important Nicean possessions at Nymphaion. Though Theodore I Laskaris could not oppose this campaign, it appears that Henry decided it best to focus on his European problems, for he sought a truce with Theodore I in 1214, amicably divided Latin from Nicean possessions to the favour of Nicea.
Domestically, Henry appears to have a different character than many of the other Crusader nobles as seen in his even-handed and pragmatic treatment of the Greeks. George Akropolites, the contemporary 13th century Greek historian, notes that Henry "though a Frank by birth, behaved graciously to the Romans who were natives of the city of Constantine, ranked many of them among his magnates, others among his soldiers, while the common populace he treated as his own people." Indeed, when a Papal legate arrived in Constantinople in 1213 and began to imprison Orthodox clergy and to close churches on the orders of Pope Innocent III, Henry countermanded the orders on the request of the city's Greek clergy. Henry appears to have been brave but not cruel, tolerant but not weak, possessing "the superior courage to oppose, in a superstitious age, the pride and avarice of the clergy." The emperor died, poisoned, it is said, by Oberto II of Biandrate, ex-regent of Thessaloniki, on 11 June 1216. Gardner suggests this happened at the instigation of Maria of Bulgaria.
On his death his brother-in-law Peter Courtenay was crowned emperor in Rome, but never arrived in Constantinople. In the years 1217 to 1219, the Latin Empire was ruled by Yolanda, Henry's sister and Peter's wife, in regency; the last two Latin emperors were Yolanda's sons. Henry first married Agnes of Montferrat, daughter of Boniface of Montferrat, the Crusade leader, but she had died before her father's death in 1207. Henry's only child by his first wife Agnes died in childbirth with his motherSome contemporary historians say that Henry made a peace with Bulgarians after the death of Kaloyan, a marriage was arranged in 1213 between Henry and Maria of Bulgaria, daughter of Kaloyan and stepdaughter of Boril, Tsar of Bulgaria. Henry had a daughter with an unnamed mistress; this daughter, whose name is not recorded married Alexii Slav who established his own state in the Rodophe mountains. He was given the title of despot. Akropolites, George; the History. Translated by Macrides, Ruth. Oxford University Press.
Coureas, Nicholas. "The Latin and Greek Churches in former Byzantine Lands under Latin Rule". In Tsougarakis, Nickiphoros I.. A Companion to Latin Greece. Brill. Fine, J. V. A.. The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. Gardner, A.. The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile. Methuen. Harris, Jonathan. Byzantium and the Crusades. Bloomsbury. Joinville and Villehardouin. Chronicles of the Crusades. Translated by Shaw, M. R. B. Penguin. Nicol, Donald M.. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge University Press. Sturdza, M. D.. Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople. Chez l'auteur
Kaloyan of Bulgaria
Kaloyan known as Kalojan, Johannitsa or Ioannitsa was emperor of Bulgaria from 1196 to 1207. He was a younger brother of Theodor and Asen who led the anti-Byzantine uprising of the Bulgarians and Vlachs in 1185; the uprising ended with the restoration of the independence of Bulgaria. He spent years as a hostage in Constantinople in the late 1180s. Theodor made him his co-ruler after Asen was murdered in 1196. A year Theodor-Peter was assassinated, Kaloyan became the sole ruler of Bulgaria. To obtain an imperial crown from the Holy See, Kaloyan entered into correspondence with Pope Innocent III, offering to acknowledge papal primacy, his expansionist policy brought him into conflict with the Byzantine Empire and Hungary. Emeric, King of Hungary allowed the papal legate who delivered a royal crown to Kaloyan to enter Bulgaria only at the Pope's demand; the legate crowned Kaloyan "King of the Bulgarians and Vlachs" on 8 November 1204, but Kaloyan continued to regard his realm as an empire. Kaloyan took advantage of the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders in 1204.
He captured fortresses in Macedonia and Thrace and supported the local population's riots against the crusaders. He defeated Baldwin I, Latin emperor of Constantinople, in the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205. Baldwin was captured, he launched new campaigns against the crusaders and captured or destroyed dozens of their fortresses. He was thereafter known as Kaloyan the Romanslayer, because his troops murdered or captured thousands of Romaioi, he died under mysterious circumstances during the siege of Thessalonica in 1207. Kaloyan was the younger brother of Theodor and Asen, noted as the instigators of the uprising of the Bulgarians and Vlachs against the Byzantine Empire in 1185. Theodor was crowned emperor and adopted the name Peter in 1185. Asen became Peter's co-ruler before 1190, they secured the independence of their realm with the assistance of Cuman warriors from the Pontic steppes. Kaloyan, still a teenager in 1188, must have been born around 1170, according to historian Alexandru Madgearu.
He was baptised Ivan, but he was called Johannitsa because Ivan was the baptismal name of his elder brother Asen. Kaloyan derived from the Greek expression for John the Handsome, his Greek enemies called him Skyloioannes, which gave rise to references to Tsar Skaloyan or Scaluian in frescos in the Dragalevtsi Monastery and the Sucevița Monastery. After the Byzantines captured Asen's wife, Kaloyan was sent as a hostage to Constantinople in exchange for her in the spring of 1188; the date of his release is not known. He was back in his homeland when a boyar, murdered Asen in Tarnovo in 1196. Ivanko attempted to obtain the throne with Byzantine support, but Theodor-Peter forced him to flee to the Byzantine Empire; the Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates mentioned that Theodor-Peter designated Kaloyan "to assist him in his labors and share in his rule" at an unspecified time. Kaloyan became the sole ruler of Bulgaria after Theodor-Peter was murdered in 1197. Shortly afterwards he attacked the Byzantine province of Thrace and launched frequent raids against it during the following months.
Around this time, he sent a letter to Pope Innocent III, urging him to dispatch an envoy to Bulgaria. He wanted to persuade the pope to acknowledge his rule in Bulgaria. Innocent eagerly entered into correspondence with Kaloyan because the reunification of the Christian denominations under his authority was one of his principal objectives; the Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos made Ivanko the commander of Philippopolis. Ivanko seized two fortresses in the Rhodopi Mountains from Kaloyan, but by 1198 he had made an alliance with him. Cumans and Vlachs from the lands to the north of the river Danube broke into the Byzantine Empire in the spring and autumn of 1199. Choniates, who recorded these events, did not mention that Kaloyan cooperated with the invaders, so it is that they crossed Bulgaria without his authorization. Kaloyan captured Braničevo, Velbuzhd and Prizren from the Byzantines, most in that year, according to historian Alexandru Madgearu. Innocent III's envoy arrived in Bulgaria in late December 1199, bringing a letter from the Pope to Kaloyan.
Innocent stated that he was informed that Kaloyan's forefathers had come "from the City of Rome". Kaloyan's answer, written in Old Church Slavonic, has not been preserved, but its content can be reconstructed based on his correspondence with the Holy See. Kaloyan styled himself "Emperor of the Bulgarians and Vlachs", asserted that he was the legitimate successor of the rulers of the First Bulgarian Empire, he demanded an imperial crown from the Pope and expressed his wish to put the Bulgarian Orthodox Church under the pope's jurisdiction. The Byzantines captured Ivanko and occupied his lands in 1200. Kaloyan and his Cuman allies launched a new campaign against Byzantine territories in March 1201, he destroyed captured Varna. He supported the rebellion of Dobromir Chrysos and Manuel Kamytzes against Alexios III, but they were both defeated. Roman Mstislavich, prince of Halych and Volhynia, invaded the Cumans' territories, forcing them to return to their homeland in 1201. After the Cuman's retreat, Kaloyan concluded a peace treaty with Alexios III and withdrew his troops from Thrace in late 1201 or in 1202.
According to Kaloyan's letter to the Pope, Alexios III was willing to send an imperial crown to him and to acknowledge the aut