Theodore Dehone Judah was an American railroad and civil engineer, a central figure in the original promotion and design of the First Transcontinental Railroad. He found investors for; as chief engineer, he performed much of the land survey work to determine the best route for the railroad over the Sierra Nevada mountains, completed six years after his death. Theodore Judah was born in 1826 in Bridgeport, the son of Mary and The Rev. Henry Raymond Judah, an Episcopal clergyman. After his family moved to Troy, New York, Judah attended Rensselaer Institute for a term and developed at a young age a passion for engineering and railroads. At age 21 Judah married Anne Pierce on May 10, 1849. Theirs was the first wedding in the new St James Episcopal Church of Greenfield, Massachusetts. After studying at Rensselaer, Judah went to work on a number of railroads in the Northeast, including locating and building the Niagara River Gorge Railroad, he was elected member of the American Society of Civil Engineers on May 1853.
Judah was hired in 1854 at age 28 as the Chief Engineer for the Sacramento Valley Railroad in California. He and his wife Anne sailed to Nicaragua, crossed over to the Pacific, caught a steamer to San Francisco. Under his charge, it became. Throughout the mid and late 1850s, Judah was known as "Crazy Judah" for his idea to build a railroad through and over the Sierra Nevada, linking the Pacific Ocean with the Atlantic, a project which many people at the time considered impossible. On January 1857 in Washington DC, Judah published "A practical plan for building The Pacific Railroad", in which he outlined the general plan and argued for the need to do a detailed survey of a specific selected route for the railroad, not a general reconnaissance of several possible routes, done earlier. Nominated in the 1859 California Pacific Railroad Convention in San Francisco, Judah was sent to Washington DC to lobby in general for the Pacific Railroad. Congress showed little interest, he returned noting that he had to find a specific practical route and some private financial backing to do a detailed engineering survey.
In 1860, he set out to make general reconnaissance, using a barometer to measure elevation, of several possible routes through the Sierra. That Fall, with the help of Daniel W. Strong, a storekeeper in Dutch Flat, Judah found a practical trans-Sierra railroad route. In November 1860, Judah published "Central Pacific Railroad to California", in which he declared "the discovery of a practicable route from the city of Sacramento upon the divide between Bear River and the North Fork of the American, via Illinoistown, Dutch Flat, Summit Valley to the Truckee River", he advocated the chosen Dutch Flat-Donner Pass route as the most practical one with maximum grades of one hundred feet per mile and 150 miles shorter than that recommended in governmental reports. Whereas most of the Sierra was double-ridged, meaning two summits separated by a valley, Donner Pass was not and thus more suitable for a railroad. From Dutch Flat, the Pacific road would climb up to the Pass before winding down following the Truckee River out of the mountains into the Great Basin of Nevada.
Failing to raise funds for the Central Pacific project in San Francisco, Judah succeeded in signing up four Sacramento merchants known as the "Big Four": Leland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker. On June 28, 1861, the Central Pacific Railroad was incorporated with Judah as the chief engineer. At this point in time, Judah had the CPRR backing to survey the route over the Sierra Nevada along which the railroad was to be built during the late 1860s as well as barometric reconnaissance of two other routes, which turned out to be inferior. In a report dated October 1, 1861, Judah discussed the results of the survey, the merits of the chosen Dutch Flat-Donner Pass route, the estimated costs from Sacramento to points as far as Salt Lake City. On October 9, 1861, the CPRR directors authorized Judah to go back to Washington DC, this time as the agent of CPRR, to procure "appropriations of land and U. S. Bonds from the Government to aid in the construction of this road"; the next day, Judah published a strip map, 30 inches tall by 66 feet long, of the proposed alignment of the Central Pacific Railroad.
On October 11, 1861, Judah boarded a steamer in San Francisco headed for Panama. At Washington DC, Judah began an active campaign for a Pacific Railroad bill, he was made the clerk of the House subcommittee on the bill and obtained an appointment as secretary of the Senate subcommittee. On July 1, 1862, President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law, which authorized the issuance of land grants and U. S. bonds to CPRR and the newly chartered Union Pacific Railroad for the construction of a transcontinental railroad. Judah went to New York to order supplies and sailed back to California on July 21, 1862, having accomplished his mission in less than a year. Judah died of yellow fever on November 2, 1863, he contracted the disease in Panama on a voyage with his wife to New York City becoming infected during their land passage across the Isthmus of Panama. He was traveling to New York to seek alternative financing to buy out the Big Four investors. Anna took his body back to Greenfield, where he was buried in the Pierce family plot in the Federal Street Cemetery.
He died before his d
Uppsala Monitoring Centre, located in Uppsala, Sweden, is the field name for the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring. UMC works by collecting and communicating information from member countries' national pharmacovigilance centres in regard to the benefits, harm and risks of drugs. Since 1978, responsibility for managing the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring has been carried by UMC. In the early years the staff consisted of just three pharmacists based at the Swedish Medical Products Agency; the founding chairman and acting Director was Professor Åke Liljestrand. From 1990 to 2009 the Director was Professor Ralph Edwards. Since September 2009 Dr. Marie Lindquist is the Director; the Chief Medical Officer is Dr. Pia Caduff and the Head of Research is Dr. Niklas Norén; the work of the UMC is: To co-ordinate the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring and its more than 100 member countries. To collect and communicate information from member countries about the benefits and risks of drugs and other substances used in medicine to improve patient therapy and public health worldwide To collaborate with member countries in the development and practice of the science of pharmacovigilance.
The main focus and source of data in pharmacovigilance are reports of ICSRs from healthcare providers and patients in member countries of the WHO Programme. A WHO global individual case safety report database is maintained and developed on behalf of the WHO by UMC. UMC develops and provides several tools and classifications for use by organisations involved in drug safety, including the WHO Drug Dictionary, WHOART – with a bridge to the MedDRA terminology, tools for searching in the database, a program for case report management, VigiFlow. UMC's research covers three areas: data-driven discovery, dis-proportionality analyses, interaction detection and duplicate case detection), safety surveillance and signaling and benefit—risk analysis; the centre has been active in presenting research in the medical literature which has included some seminal works in the field. The Uppsala centre has published books in the field of drugs safety including a regular newsletter. In 2010 the 2nd edition of a crisis management guide was published, entitled'Expecting the Worst'.
UMC's role in drug safety has not been without controversy for both medicines agencies and pharmaceutical companies, despite an open approach willing to engage with many parties in the pharmaceutical world. They are involved in outreach to developing countries and other areas where pharmacovigilance is not yet handled. 1968 WHO Programme established. International ADR terminology and drug dictionary 1969 Definition of ADR 1978 Operations transferred to the UMC. Regular WHO Programme member meetings 1981 Computerised version of WHO Drug Dictionary available to all 1982 ATC classification coding of all medicinal products 1985 International expert review panel created 1991 On-line WHO database search programme available to national centres 1991 Definitions of adverse event, side effect and causality assessment terms 1993 Windows-based client server program for online database searches 1993 Regular training and educational activities 1994 Methodology for use of denominator data for calculation of ADR reporting rates 1997 Knowledge-detection tool for automated signal detection 1997 Promotion of communication as a necessary discipline in pharmacovigilance: the'Erice Declaration' 1998 Internet discussion group for national centres 2001 Start of VigiBase Online project 2002 New database system 2004 Pattern recognition using the BCPNN on health databases to find safety information.
2005 Launch of expanded WHO Drug Dictionary with additional data fields.
Hans Robert Fritz Hahn, nicknamed "Assi" was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during World War II, a fighter ace credited with 108 enemy aircraft shot down in 560 combat missions. He claimed 66 victories over the Western Front. Of the 42 victories he recorded over the Eastern Front, at least seven were Il-2 Sturmovik ground-attack aircraft. Born in Gotha, Hahn volunteered for military service in the Wehrmacht of the Third Reich in 1934. Serving in the Heer, he transferred to the Luftwaffe in late 1935. Following flight training, he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 134 "Horst Wessel" in April 1936. In November 1937, Hahn was posted as a flight instructor to the Jagdfliegerschule at Werneuchen. On 1 February 1939, he was transferred to the Stabstaffel of I. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 3, based at Merseburg. Hahn transferred to Jagdgeschwader 2 "Richthofen" on 11 October 1939 and on 15 December, he was appointed Staffelkapitän of 4. Staffel of JG 2 "Richthofen". There he claimed his first victory on 14 May 1940, during the Battle of France, over a Royal Air Force Hawker Hurricane fighter.
He claimed five victories during the French campaign and further victories during the Battle of Britain which led to the presentation of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 20 September 1940. On 29 October 1940, Hahn took command of III. Gruppe of JG 2 "Richthofen" as Gruppenkommandeur. Following his 41st aerial victory he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 14 August 1941, it was Germany's highest military decoration at the time of its presentation to Hahn. On 16 September 1942, Hahn claimed his 66th and last victory on the Western Front. Hahn was appointed Gruppenkommandeur of II. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 54 operating on the Eastern Front. Over the next three months, he claimed 42 further victories, which included his 100th on 27 January 1943. On 21 February 1943, Hahn made a forced landing following combat with Soviet fighters and was taken prisoner of war, he remained in captivity until late 1950. Following his release, Hahn wrote his memoirs "I Speak the Truth" recounted his detailed life in Soviet captivity.
He became a successful businessman before retiring in 1977 to the south of France. He died of cancer on 18 December 1982 in Munich. Hahn was born on 14 April 1914 in Gotha, at the time in Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, present-day in Thuringia, his parents were Arthur, a Finanzrat, his mother Helene. He had an older sister named Käte. A talented athlete, he was selected to participate in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin in the Pentathlon, but he had to withdraw due to illness, his friends nicknamed him "Hansi", a diminutive of his first name Hans, which over time was abbreviated and altered to "Assi". Hahn enlisted in the Reichswehr on 1 April 1934, as a Fahnenjunker in 14. Infanterie-Regiment. On 1 December 1934, he was promoted to Unteroffizier. From January to October 1935 he attended the Kriegsschule in Munich and was promoted to Oberfähnrich on 1 October 1935. In November 1935, Hahn transferred to the Luftwaffe, underwent flight training at Celle, he was promoted to Leutnant on 1 April 1936. On 15 April 1936, Hahn was posted to 4.
Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 134 "Horst Wessel", named after the martyr of the Nazi movement Horst Wessel. The unit was based at Werl near Dortmund. There he flew the Arado Ar 65, Ar 68 and the new Messerschmitt Bf 109, first the B the D-1 variant; this assignment ended on 31 October 1937. From 1 November 1937 to 1 April 1938, Hahn served as a flight instructor and Staffelführer of 1. Staffel in the newly created Jagdfliegerschule at Werneuchen. Acknowledging his leadership skill, he was promoted to Oberleutnant on 1 February 1939, he was transferred to the Stabstaffel of I. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 3, based at Merseburg. There Hahn introduced his personal emblem of a rooster's head. Hahn in German translates in English to rooster. On 11 October 1939, II. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 2 "Richthofen", named after the after World War I fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, was formed from elements of I. Gruppe of JG 2 "Richthofen" and I. Gruppe of JG 3, at Zerbst. Hahn was appointed Staffelkapitän of 4. Staffel of JG 2 "Richthofen" on 15 December 1939.
World War II in Europe began on 1 September 1939, when German forces invaded Poland. In February 1940, II. Gruppe of JG 2 "Richthofen" relocated to Nordholz. Following the start of the Battle of France on 10 May, the Gruppe moved to Münster and to airfields in Belgium. Hahn claimed his first victory on 14 May 1940 over a Royal Air Force Hawker Hurricane fighter. Hahn would claim five victories during the Battle of France, before becoming more successful in the Battle of Britain. After 20 claims by September 1940, Hahn was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, promoted to the rank of Hauptmann and Gruppenkommandeur of III./JG 2. Hauptmann Hahn was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves in August 1941 for 41 victories; the presentation was made on 27 August 1941 by Hitler at the Führer Headquarter Wolfsschanze in Rastenburg. Present at t
I Need You or I Need U may refer to: I Need You, a 1944 German film I Need You, a 2001 album by LeAnn Rimes, the title song I Need You, the title song, 2012 I Need You, the title song, 1966 "I Need You", 1965 "I Need You", 1965 "I Need You", 1996 by the Euclid Beach Band "I Need You", 1972 "I Need You", 2000 "I Need You", 2002 "I Need You", 2002 "I Need You", 2003 "I Need You", 2009 "I Need You", 2007 "I Need You", 2007 "I Need You", 2018 single "I Need You", by The Eurythmics, Savage, 1987 "I Need You", by Alicia Keys from As I Am "I Need You", by Billy Squier from Don't Say No "I Need You", by B. V. S. M. P. "I Need You", a 2015 song by Char Avell. "I Need You", by The D. E. Y. from The DEY Has Come "I Need You", by The Hedrons "I Need You", by Lita Roza "I Need You", by Lynyrd Skynyrd from Second Helping "I Need You", by M83 from the Divergent soundtrack "I Need You", by The Naked Brothers Band from the film The Naked Brothers Band: The Movie "I Need You", by Paul Carrack "I Need You", by Paul Revere & The Raiders from Alias Pink Puzz "I Need You", by Paula Abdul from Forever Your Girl "I Need You", by Pat DiNizio of The Smithereens "I Need You", by Timbuk3 "I Need You", by Trisha Yearwood from Everybody Knows "I Need You", by Westlife from Westlife "I Need You", by The Who from A Quick One "I Need You" and "I Need You", by Pendulum from 3 Knocks "I Need You", from the soundtrack of the film That Thing You Do!
The Droitwich transmitting station is a large broadcasting facility for long-wave and medium-wave transmissions, established in 1934 in the civil parish of Dodderhill, just outside the village of Wychbold, near Droitwich in Worcestershire, England. The site is the location of the British Broadcasting Corporation's most powerful long-wave transmitter, which together with the two Scottish long-wave transmitters at Burghead and Westerglen forms a network broadcasting on the same frequency; the masts can be seen to the east from the M5 motorway, between Droitwich and Bromsgrove, as well as to the west from the Herefordshire/Worcestershire border. At night, the two sets of aircraft warning lights are visible from a long distance. Due to the bright red lights illuminated at night, some locals have renamed the site "the devil horns of Wychbold"; the station is operated by Arqiva. The long-wave frequency used was 200 kilohertz until 1 February 1988 when it was changed to 198 kilohertz, the power is 500 kilowatts.
The carrier frequency is controlled by a rubidium atomic frequency standard in the transmitter building, enabling the transmission to be used as an off-air frequency standard. For long-wave, a T-aerial is used, suspended between two 213-metre-high guyed steel lattice radio masts, which stand 180 metres apart from each other. There are two guyed mast radiators at the site, which are used for transmitting AM medium-wave radio programmes on 693 kilohertz, 1053 kilohertz and 1215 kilohertz. BBC Radio 4 Longwave is transmitted on 198 kHz; this signal carries radio data encoded using phase modulation, giving a time-of-day signal, radio teleswitch control signals for Economy 7 electric-heating systems. BBC Radio 5 Live is broadcast on 693 kHz medium wave, providing coverage for most of the English Midlands and Wales at a signal strength, one of the strongest for that station, equal to Brookmans Park and second only to Moorside Edge. During World War II coded messages, read during normal programme broadcasts, were sent to the French Resistance using the transmitter.
In 2011 as part of the BBC cuts it was announced that there would be no re-investment in long wave which may mean an eventual end to BBC Radio 4 in this part of the radio spectrum. The Guardian published a story in October 2011 saying that the transmitter relies upon a pair of glass valves, of which there are fewer than 10 left in the world, the BBC did not believe it was safe enough to manufacture more; the Radio 4 LW signal from Droitwich covers most of Wales. There are supplementary long-wave transmitters in Scotland, with medium-wave transmitters in various parts of England and Northern Ireland; the station can be heard in most of the Republic of Ireland along eastern and southern counties. Reception is possible in Western Europe, including Italy and Sweden. List of masts List of radio stations in the United Kingdom List of tallest buildings and structures in Great Britain Radio teleswitch The Transmission Gallery: Droitwich Transmitter photographs and information Radio Teleswitch Services Radio Rewind Droitwich Page Specification of BBC phase-modulated transmissions on long-wave Station History Droitwich The World's Most Modern Long Wave Transmitter
Munira Hassam Wilson is a British Liberal Democrat politician, elected as the Member of Parliament for Twickenham at the 2019 general election. She succeeded the former Liberal Democrat leader Sir Vince Cable as MP. Munira Wilson attended a state grammar school in north London, she went on to study at St Catharine's College, Cambridge from 1996 to 2000, where she graduated with a degree in Modern Languages, including a year abroad as an English assistant in two secondary schools in southern France. After graduation, she trained as a tax consultant with Young, she switched to working for the Liberal Democrats, becoming the campaigns organiser for Sue Doughty and the Guildford Liberal Democrats in 2004-5, ahead of Doughty losing her Guildford seat at the 2005 general election. She went on to work for newly elected MP Nick Clegg for the first six months of 2006, she subsequently went on to spend over a decade as a lobbyist, until her election to Parliament in 2019, firstly for Save the Children for Beating Bowel Cancer, Novartis, where she rose to become head of government affairs – pharmaceuticals.
She entered the public sector as a strategic account manager at NHS Digital from 2015–6, before returning to lobbying in 2016-9 as corporate affairs director, UK & Ireland for the German science and technology company Merck KGaA Darmstadt. Wilson served a term as a councillor on Richmond upon Thames London Borough Council from 2006 to 2010, she contested Twickenham's neighbouring constituency of Feltham and Heston in the 2010 general election, where she came third. In the 2012 London Assembly election she stood in South West constituency, she was selected in 2019 to replace Sir Vince Cable as the Liberal Democrat candidate in his Twickenham constituency, went on to hold the seat with an increased majority at the 2019 United Kingdom general election. She won the seat with 36,166 votes; the Green Party in Twickenham had voted to stand aside to support Wilson. Wilson has opposed plans for a third runway at Heathrow Airport, has worked to improve rail services in South West London. Twickenham is on a flight path to Heathrow, Wilson has stated that "We are 100% opposed to Heathrow expansion."
She was given two Liberal Democrat spokesperson roles by acting leader Ed Davey in January 2020, taking on the Transport brief, as well as Health and Social Care. Munira Hassam married Michael Wilson at St Stephen's, Twickenham, in 2007, she was raised a Muslim and now identifies as a committed Christian