Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
Baltimore Museum of Art
The Baltimore Museum of Art, located in Baltimore, United States, is an art museum, founded in 1914. While founded with a single painting, today the BMA has over 95,000 works of art—including the largest public holding of works by Henri Matisse. Collection highlights include a selection of American and European painting and decorative arts; the BMA’s galleries showcase examples from one of the nation’s collections of prints and photographs and textiles from around the world. The museum has a landscaped 2.7-acre sculpture garden. The museum encompasses a 210,000 sq. ft. building, built in 1929, in the "Roman Temple" architectural style, under the design of famous American architect John Russell Pope. The museum is located between Charles Village, to the east, Remington, to the south, Hampden, to the west; the highlight of the museum is the Cone Collection, brought together by Baltimore sisters Dr. Claribel and Etta Cone. Accomplished collectors, the sisters amassed a wealth of works by artists including Matisse, Picasso, Cézanne, Degas, Giambattista Pittoni, van Gogh, Renoir, nearly all of which were donated to the museum.
The museum is the permanent home of the George A. Lucas collection of 18,000 works of French mid-nineteenth-century art, acclaimed by the museum as a cultural "treasure" and "among the greatest single holdings of French art in the country."The BMA is led by Director Christopher Bedford, appointed in May 2016, after a year-long search. Prior to joining the BMA, Bedford led the Rose Art Museum at Brandeis University in Massachusetts for four years, he helped the Rose Art Museum out of international controversy in 2009 when, during the economic recession, the museum proposed selling off their top-notch art collection to help with its struggling finances. Since October 2006, the Baltimore Museum of Art and the Walters Art Museum, have offered free general admission year-round as a result of grants given by Baltimore City, Baltimore County, several foundations; the Baltimore Museum of Art is the site of Gertrude's Restaurant and operated by chef John Shields. In February, 1904, a major fire destroyed much of the central part of the downtown business district of the city of Baltimore.
In response, the municipal government established a city-wide congress to develop a master plan for the city's recovery and future growth and development. The congress, headed by Dr. A. R. L. Dohme, decided that a major deficiency of the city was the lack of an art museum; this decision led to the formation of an 18-person Committee on the Art Museum, with art dealer and industrialist Henry H. Wiegand as chairman. Ten years the museum was incorporated on November 16, 1914. Along with Minneapolis and Cleveland, Baltimore's museum was "modeled after two prominent 1870s predecessors, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston". According to a booklet published at the time of incorporation, it was stated that Baltimore lagged behind other cities “in regard to matters of aesthetic interest.” Still without a permanent site, the fledgling museum was founded with but a single painting, William-Sergeant Kendall's Mischief, donated by Dr. Dohme himself; as the museum's founders were confident that more art would be acquired, the nearby Peabody Institute agreed to hold the collection for a time until a permanent home was established.
The committee began planning a permanent home for the museum's holdings. In 1916, a building was purchased on the southwest corner of North Charles and West Biddle Streets as a possible location for the museum. Although an architect was employed to remodel it, it was never occupied. By 1915 the group had decided to permanently house the museum in the Wyman Park area, west of the named Peabody Heights neighborhood. By 1917, the group had received a promise from Johns Hopkins University for the land further south of the new Georgian Revival architecture-Federal styled campus they were in the process of moving to; this prospective plot was near the old Homewood Mansion of 1800 and the Italianate style mansion of "Wyman Villa" of a Hopkins donor and trustee, William Wyman, which would see them leave their downtown site at North Howard Street and West Centre, which they had occupied since 1876. However, before moving into its permanent home in 1929, the museum was temporarily moved in July 1922 to the former home of their prime benefactor and foundress, Mary Elizabeth Garrett, at 101 West Monument Street, on the southwest corner with Cathedral Street.
Garrett, a famous philanthropist in her own right who further endowed the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, was the only daughter of John Work Garrett, the Civil War-era President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, scion of the noted Robert Garrett banking firm in the city. In 1923, the museum’s inaugural exhibition opened there with attendance topping 6,775 during its first week; the house was offered by Miss M. Cary as a home for the "collections" and a meeting place for the board of trustees; the old Garrett mansion was acquired in 1925 by the group of art enthusiasts who bought the property for the purpose of keeping the museum intact. Despite having limited space, the mus
American Impressionism was a style of painting related to European Impressionism and practiced by American artists in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. American Impressionism is a style of painting characterized by vivid colors; the style depicted landscapes mixed with scenes of upper-class domestic life. Impressionism emerged as an artistic style in France in the 1860s. Major exhibitions of French impressionist works in Boston and New York in the 1880s introduced the style to the American public; some of the first American artists to paint in an impressionistic mode, such as Theodore Robinson and Mary Cassatt, did so in the late 1880s after visiting France and meeting with artists such as Claude Monet. Others, such as Childe Hassam, took notice of the increasing numbers of French impressionist works at American exhibitions; as railroads and other new technology emerged, American impressionists painted vast landscapes and small towns in an effort to return to nature.
Before the invention of collapsible paint tubes artists were confined to using subjects in their studios or painting from memory. With the invention of paint tubes in 1841, artists could transport their paint and paint in nature. From the 1890s through the 1910s, American impressionism flourished in art colonies—loosely affiliated groups of artists who lived and worked together and shared a common aesthetic vision. Art colonies tended to form in small towns that provided affordable living, abundant scenery for painting, easy access to large cities where artists could sell their work; some of the most important American impressionist artists gathered at Cos Cob and Old Lyme, both on Long Island Sound. American impressionist artists thrived in California at Carmel and Laguna Beach; some American art colonies remained vibrant centers of impressionist art into the 1920s. However, impressionism in America lost its cutting-edge status in 1913 when a historic exhibition of modern art took place at the 69th Regiment Armory building in New York City.
The “Armory Show”, as it came to be called, heralded a new painting style regarded as more in touch with the fast-paced and chaotic world with the outbreak of World War I, The Great Depression and World War II. Unlike early Renaissance painters, American Impressionists favored asymmetrical composition, cropped figures, plunging perspectives in their works in order to create a more "impressionist" version of the subject. In addition, American impressionists used pure color straight from the tubes to make the works more vibrant, used broken brushstrokes, practiced "impasto"- a style of painting characterized by thick raised strokes. European impressionists painted the lower and middle classes. American impressionists focused on landscapes like the European impressionists, but unlike their European counterparts, American impressionists painted scenes that depicted the upper class in an effort to show off America's economic prowess. Prominent impressionist painters, from the United States include: Impressionism Pennsylvania Impressionism Hoosier Group Richmond Group Ten American Painters Gerdts, William H..
American Impressionism. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers. ISBN 0-7892-0737-0. Moure, Nancy. California Art: 450 Years of Painting and Other Media. Los Angeles: Dustin Publications. ISBN 0-9614622-4-8. Gerdts, William H.. California Impressionism. New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-7892-0176-3. Landauer, Susan. California Impressionists. Athens, Ga.: The Irvine Museum and Georgia Museum of Art. ISBN 0-915977-25-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Larkin, Susan G.. The Cos Cob Art Colony. New York: the National Academy of Design. ISBN 0-300-08852-3. Weinberg, Barbara H.. Childe Hassam: American Impressionist. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 1-58839-119-1. Westphal, Ruth Lilly. Plein Air Painters of California: The North. Irvine, Calif.: Westphal Publishing. ISBN 0-9610520-1-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Westphal, Ruth Lilly. Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland. Irvine, Calif.: Westphal Publishing. ISBN 0-9610520-0-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Peterson, Brian H.. Pennsylvania Impressionism.
Philadelphia: James A. Michener Art Museum and University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3700-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list American Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, a digitized 3 volume exhibition catalog American impressionism and realism: a landmark exhibition from the Met, a 1991 exhibition catalog from the Metropolitan Museum of Art libraries smARThistory: Cassatt's The Cup of Tea Weir Farm:Home of an American Impressionist, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan Impressionism at the Smithsonian American Art Museum "The Artist's Garden: American Impressionism," Exhibition on Screen "American Impressionism," Florence Griswold Museum "American Impressionism of the Late 1800s and early 1900s," National Gallery of Art "American Impressionism," The Met Museum "Finding Beauty in Land," The New York Times
Smithsonian American Art Museum
The Smithsonian American Art Museum is a museum in Washington, D. C. part of the Smithsonian Institution. Together with its branch museum, the Renwick Gallery, SAAM holds one of the world's largest and most inclusive collections of art, from the colonial period to the present, made in the United States; the museum has more than 7,000 artists represented in the collection. Most exhibitions take place in the museum's main building, the old Patent Office Building, while craft-focused exhibitions are shown in the Renwick Gallery; the museum provides electronic resources to schools and the public through its national education program. It maintains seven online research databases with more than 500,000 records, including the Inventories of American Painting and Sculpture that document more than 400,000 artworks in public and private collections worldwide. Since 1951, the museum has maintained a traveling exhibition program; the Smithsonian American Art Museum has had many names over the years—Smithsonian Art Collection, National Gallery of Art, National Collection of Fine Arts, National Museum of American Art.
The museum adopted its current name in October 2000. The collection, begun in 1829, was first on display in the original Smithsonian Building, now nicknamed the "Castle"; the collection grew as the Smithsonian buildings grew, the collection was housed in one or more Smithsonian buildings on the National Mall. By the 1920s, space had become critical: "Collections to the value of several millions of dollars are in storage or temporarily on exhibition and are crowding out important exhibits and producing a congested condition in the Natural History, Industrial Arts, Smithsonian Buildings". In 1924, architect Charles A. Platt – who designed the 1918 Freer Gallery for the Smithsonian – drew up preliminary plans for a National Gallery of Art to be built on the block next to the Natural History Museum. However, this building was never constructed; the Smithsonian American Art Museum first opened to the public in its current location in 1968 when the Smithsonian renovated the Old Patent Office Building in order to display its collection of fine art.
American Art's main building, the Old Patent Office Building, is a National Historic Landmark located in Washington, D. C.'s downtown cultural district. It is considered an example of Greek Revival architecture in the United States, it was designed by architects Robert Mills, Thomas U. Walter. During the 1990s, the Smithsonian Institution worked on restoring the building; the Smithsonian completed another renovation of the building in July 1, 2006. The 2000-2006 renovation restored many of the building’s exceptional architectural features: restoring the porticos modeled after the Parthenon in Athens, a curving double staircase, vaulted galleries, large windows, skylights as long as a city block. During the renovation, the Lunder Conservation Center, the Luce Foundation Center for American Art, Nan Tucker McEvoy Auditorium, the Robert and Arlene Kogod Courtyard were added to the building. In 2008, the American Alliance of Museums awarded reaccreditation to the Smithsonian American Art Museum; the Smithsonian American Art Museum shares the historic Old Patent Office building with the National Portrait Gallery, another Smithsonian museum.
Although the two museums' names have not changed, they are collectively known as the Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture. Under the auspices of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Renwick Gallery is a smaller, historic building on Pennsylvania Avenue across the street from the White House; the building housed the collection of the Corcoran Gallery of Art. In addition to displaying a large collection of American contemporary craft, several hundred paintings from the museum’s permanent collection — hung salon style: one-atop-another and side-by-side — are featured in special installations in the Grand Salon. Part of the Smithsonian Institution, the museum has a broad variety of American art, with more than 7,000 artists represented, that covers all regions and art movements found in the United States. SAAM contains the world's largest collection of New Deal art. Among the significant artists represented in its collection are Nam June Paik, Jenny Holzer, David Hockney, Georgia O'Keeffe, John Singer Sargent, Albert Pinkham Ryder, Albert Bierstadt, Edmonia Lewis, Thomas Moran, James Gill, Edward Hopper, John William "Uncle Jack" Dey, Karen LaMonte and Winslow Homer.
SAAM describes itself as being "dedicated to collecting and enjoying American art. The museum celebrates the extraordinary creativity of artists whose works reflect the American experience and global connections." The American Art's main building contains public spaces. The museum has two innovative public spaces; the Luce Foundation Center for American Art is a visible art storage and study center, which allows visitors to browse more than 3,300 works of the collection. The Lunder Conservation Center is "the first art conservation facility to allow the public permanent behind-the-scenes views of the preservation work of museums"; the Luce Foundation Center, which opened in July 2000, is the first visible art storage and study center in Washington, D. C. and the fourth center to bear the Luce Family
Grez-sur-Loing is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in north-central France. The Church of Notre-Dame et Saint-Laurent was the church of a priory dependent on Saint Peter in Sens, it houses some tombs of the sixteenth century. The Tower of Ganne, built by Louis VI the fat in 1127, at the same time as the castle; the Old bridge, former bridge of Grez-en-Gâtinais built between the 12th century and the 14th century. Destroyed several times it was rebuilt identically in 1980. Tacot des Lacs, a narrow-gauge heritage railway running about lakes on plains of the Loing river, it is located 70 km south of Paris and is notable for the artists and musicians who have lived or stayed there. The Swedish artist Carl Larsson met his wife Karin Bergöö. Others include Irish artist Frank O'Meara, Swedish artists Karl Nordström, Carl Larsson, Emma Chadwick, Julia Beck and Bruno Liljefors as well as writer August Strindberg, the Danish and Norwegian members of the Skagen Painters, Robert Louis Stevenson. American artists were John Singer Sargent, Francis Brooks Chadwick, Robert Vonnoh, Edward Simmons, Will Hicox Low, Theodore Robinson, Willard Metcalf, Bruce Crane, Kenyon Cox.
Grez is featured in many paintings by The Glasgow Boys, where the bridge over the river is featured. They were resident in the village in the early years of the 20th century. Musicians migrated to Grez-sur-Loing; the English composer Frederick Delius lived here and dictated a number of works to his amanuensis, Eric Fenby, here. Their house was portrayed in the 1968 Ken Russell film Song of Summer; the American soprano and folk song fieldworker Loraine Wyman spent several years here starting in 1928, following her retirement from singing. Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department INSEE 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF French Ministry of Culture list for Grez-sur-Loing Map of Grez-sur-Loing on Michelin
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is a museum and art school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is the first and oldest art museum and art school in the United States; the academy's museum is internationally known for its collections of 19th- and 20th-century American paintings and works on paper. Its archives house important materials for the study of American art history and art training; the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor William Rush, other artists and business leaders. The growth of the Academy of Fine Arts was slow. For many years it held its exhibitions in an 1806 building, designed by John Dorsey with pillars of the Ionic order, it stood on the site of the American Theater at Chestnut and 10th streets. The academy opened as a museum in 1807 and held its first exhibition in 1811, where more than 500 paintings and statues were displayed; the first school classes held in the building were with the Society of Artists in 1810.
The Academy had to be reconstructed after the fire of 1845. Some 23 years leaders of the academy raised funds to construct a building more worthy of its treasures, they commissioned the current Furness-Hewitt building, constructed from 1871. It opened as part of the 1876 Philadelphia Exposition. In 1876, former Academy student and artist Thomas Eakins returned to teach as a volunteer. Fairman Rogers, chairman of the Committee on Instruction from 1878 to 1883, made him a faculty member in 1878, promoted him to director in 1882. Eakins revamped the certificate curriculum to. Students in the certificate program learned fundamentals of drawing, painting and printmaking for two years. For the next two years, they had conducted independent study, guided by frequent critiques from faculty and visiting artists. From 1811 to 1969, the Academy organized important annual art exhibitions, from which the museum made significant acquisitions. Harrison S. Morris, Managing Director from 1892 to 1905, collected contemporary American art for the institution.
Among the many masterpieces acquired during his tenure were works by Cecilia Beaux, William Merritt Chase, Frank Duveneck, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, Edmund Tarbell. Work by The Eight, which included former Academy students Robert Henri and John Sloan, is well represented in the collection, it provides a transition between 19th- and 20th- century art movements. From 1890 to 1906, Edward Hornor Coates served as the tenth president of the Academy. In 1915, Coates was awarded the Academy's gold medal. Painter John McLure Hamilton, who began his art education at the Academy under Thomas Eakins, in 1921 described the contributions Coates made during his tenure: The reign of Mr. Coates at the Academy marked the period of its greatest prosperity. Rich endowments were made to the schools, a gallery of national portraiture was formed, some of the best examples of Gilbert Stuart's work acquired; the annual exhibitions attained a brilliancy and éclat hitherto unknown... Mr. Coates wisely established the schools upon a conservative basis, building unconsciously the dykes high against the oncoming flow of insane novelties in art patterns...
In this last struggle against modernism the President was ably supported by Eakins, Grafly, Thouron and Chase... His unfailing courtesy, his disinterested thoughtfulness, his tactfulness, his modesty endeared him to scholars and masters alike. No sacrifice of time or of means was too great, if he thought he could accomplish the end he always had in view—the honour and the glory of the Academy, it was under Mr. Coates' enlightened direction, fulfilled the expressed wish of Benjamin West, the first honorary Academician, that "Philadelphia may be as much celebrated for her galleries of paintings by the native genius of the country, as she is distinguished by the virtues of her people. During World War I, Academy students were involved in war work. "About sixty percent of the young men enlisted or entered Government service, all of the young women and all the rest of the young men were directly or indirectly engaged in war work." A war service club was formed by students and a monthly publication, The Academy Fling, was sent to service members.
George Harding, a former PAFA student, was commissioned captain during the war and created official combat sketches for the American Expeditionary Forces. The 1844 Board of Directors' declaration that women artists "would have exclusive use of the statue gallery for professional purposes" and study time in the museum on Monday and Friday mornings signified a significant advance towards formal training in art for women. Prior to the founding of the Academy, there were limited opportunities for women to receive professional art training in the United States; this period between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries shows a remarkable growth of formally trained women artists. Sarah Miriam Peale was an American portrait painter, considered the first American woman to succeed as a professional artist. Sarah Miriam Peale was accepted to the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1824 along with her sister Anna Claypoole Peale, the first women to achieve this distinction. Peale exhibited her first full-size portrait at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1818.
Six years she and her sister Anna Claypoole Peale, a miniaturist, became the first two female members of the Academy, an enormously inf
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching. He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting and his vast output references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was born in Paris on July 16, 1796, in a house at 125 Rue du Bac, now demolished, his family were bourgeois people—his father was a wigmaker and his mother a milliner—and unlike the experience of some of his artistic colleagues, throughout his life he never felt the want of money, as his parents made good investments and ran their businesses well. After his parents married, they bought the millinery shop where his mother had worked and his father gave up his career as a wigmaker to run the business side of the shop; the store was a famous destination for fashionable Parisians and earned the family an excellent income. Corot was the second of three children born to the family, who lived above their shop during those years.
Corot received a scholarship to study at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen, but left after having scholastic difficulties and entered a boarding school. He "was not a brilliant student, throughout his entire school career he did not get a single nomination for a prize, not for the drawing classes." Unlike many masters who demonstrated early talent and inclinations toward art, before 1815 Corot showed no such interest. During those years he lived with the Sennegon family, whose patriarch was a friend of Corot's father and who spent much time with young Corot on nature walks, it was in this region. At nineteen, Corot was a "big child and awkward, he blushed. Before the beautiful ladies who frequented his mother's salon, he was embarrassed and fled like a wild thing... He was an affectionate and well-behaved son, who adored his mother and trembled when his father spoke." When Corot's parents moved into a new residence in 1817, the 21-year-old Corot moved into the dormer-windowed room on the third floor, which became his first studio as well.
With his father's help Corot apprenticed to a draper, but he hated commercial life and despised what he called "business tricks", yet he faithfully remained in the trade until he was 26, when his father consented to his adopting the profession of art. Corot stated, "I told my father that business and I were incompatible, that I was getting a divorce." The business experience proved beneficial, however, by helping him develop an aesthetic sense through his exposure to the colors and textures of the fabrics. Out of boredom, he turned to oil painting around 1821 and began with landscapes. Starting in 1822 after the death of his sister, Corot began receiving a yearly allowance of 1500 francs which adequately financed his new career, studio and travel for the rest of his life, he rented a studio on quai Voltaire. During the period when Corot acquired the means to devote himself to art, landscape painting was on the upswing and divided into two camps: one―historical landscape by Neoclassicists in Southern Europe representing idealized views of real and fancied sites peopled with ancient and biblical figures.
In both approaches, landscape artists would begin with outdoor sketching and preliminary painting, with finishing work done indoors. Influential upon French landscape artists in the early 19th century was the work of Englishmen John Constable and J. M. W. Turner, who reinforced the trend in favor of Realism and away from Neoclassicism. For a short period between 1821 and 1822, Corot studied with Achille Etna Michallon, a landscape painter of Corot's age, a protégé of the painter Jacques-Louis David and, a well-respected teacher. Michallon had a great influence on Corot's career. Corot's drawing lessons included tracing lithographs, copying three-dimensional forms, making landscape sketches and paintings outdoors in the forests of Fontainebleau, the seaports along Normandy, the villages west of Paris such as Ville-d'Avray. Michallon exposed him to the principles of the French Neoclassic tradition, as espoused in the famous treatise of theorist Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, exemplified in the works of French Neoclassicists Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin, whose major aim was the representation of ideal Beauty in nature, linked with events in ancient times.
Though this school was on the decline, it still held sway in the Salon, the foremost art exhibition in France attended by thousands at each event. Corot stated, "I made my first landscape from nature...under the eye of this painter, whose only advice was to render with the greatest scrupulousness everything I saw before me. The lesson worked. After Michallon's early death in 1822, Corot studied with Michallon's teacher, Jean-Victor Bertin, among the best known Neoclassic landscape painters in France, who had Corot draw copies of lithographs of botanical subjects to learn precise organic forms. Though holding Neoclassicists in the highest regard, Corot did not limit his training to their tradition of allegory set in imagined nature, his notebooks reveal precise renderings of tree trunks and plants which show the influence of Northern realism. Throughout his career, Corot demonstrated an inclination to apply both traditions in his work, sometimes combining the