Theodore Thomas was a German-American violinist and orchestrator of German birth. He is considered the first renowned American orchestral conductor and was the founder and first music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Theodore Christian Friedrich Thomas was born in Esens, Germany, on October 11, 1835, the son of Johann August Thomas, his mother, was the daughter of a physician from Göttingen. He received his musical education principally from his father, a violinist of ability, at the age of six years he played the violin in public concerts, his father was the town Stadtpfeifer who arranged music for state occasions. Thomas showed interest in the violin at an early age, by age ten, he was the breadwinner of the family, performing at weddings, in taverns. By 1845, Johann Thomas and his family, convinced there was a better life for a respected musician in America, packed their belongings and made the six-week journey to New York City. In 1848, Thomas and his father joined the Navy Band, but in 1849 his father ceased to support him, he set out on his own.
Thomas soon became a regular member of several pit orchestras, including the Park, the Bowery, the Niblo. He toured the United States performing violin recitals. During this time Thomas served as his own manager, ticket sales, press agent, he reached as far south as Mississippi. Thomas returned to New York in 1850, with the intent of returning to Germany for advanced musical education, he became first violin in the orchestra that accompanied Jenny Lind in that year, Henrietta Sontag in 1852, Giulia Grisi and Giuseppe Mario in 1854. In 1854, at the age of nineteen, he was invited to play with the Philharmonic Society's orchestra, he led the orchestras that accompanied La Grange, Maria Piccolomini, Thalberg through the country. Meanwhile, in 1855, with himself as first violin, Joseph Mosenthal, second violin, George Matzka, Carl Bergmann and William Mason as pianist, he began a series of chamber music soirées which were given at Dodworth's Academy; the Mason-Thomas concerts lasted until his founding of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in 1864.
That orchestra would in turn have a chamber music connection of its own: Joseph Zoellner, at least for a time its concertmaster went on to form the Zoellner Quartet, another pioneering promoter of classical music in the United States. In 1864, Thomas began a series of summer concerts with his orchestra, first in New York City, in Philadelphia, Cincinnati, St. Louis and Chicago; the orchestra toured and received consistent critical and popular acclaim, despite persistent financial setbacks. One such setback occurred on October 9, 1871, when he and his orchestra arrived in Chicago for a new concert series, where they learned large portions of the city were destroyed by fire the night before, including the Crosby Opera House where he was to perform; the orchestra was dissolved in 1888. Thomas was music director of the New York Philharmonic in 1877-78 and from 1879 to 1891, he was director of the Cincinnati College of Music from 1878 to 1879, from 1873 to 1904 the conductor of the biennial May festivals at Cincinnati.
In his Wagner concerts, Thomas used the Deutscher Liederkranz der Stadt New York choir, that he directed from 1882 to 1884 and from 1887 to 1888. To Theodore Thomas is due the popularization of Richard Wagner's works in America, it was he who founded the Wagner union in 1872. Thomas always received an enthusiastic welcome in Chicago. In 1889, Charles Norman Fay, a Chicago businessman and devoted supporter of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra, encountered Thomas in New York and inquired whether he would come to Chicago if he was given a permanent orchestra. Thomas's legendary reply was, "I would go to hell if they gave me a permanent orchestra."On December 17, 1890, the first meeting for incorporation of the Orchestral Association, organized by Fay, was held at the Chicago Club. Less than one year on October 16 and 17, 1891, the first concerts of the Chicago Orchestra, led by Thomas, were given at the Auditorium Theatre; the concert included Wagner's Faust Overture, Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1 with Rafael Joseffy, Beethoven's Symphony No.
5, Dvořák's Hussite Overture. During his tenure, Thomas introduced several new works to his Chicago audiences, including the United States premieres of works of Anton Bruckner, Dvořák, Edward Elgar, Alexander Glazunov, Edvard Grieg, Jules Massenet, Bedřich Smetana and his personal friend Richard Strauss who became the orchestra's first guest conductor, appearing with his wife Pauline de Ahna in April 1904 at Thomas's invitation. During this time, he conducted in other places. For example, on 19 February 1887 at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, he conducted the U. S. premiere of Saint-Saëns's "Organ Symphony". Thomas, never satisfied with the Auditorium Theatre realized his dream of a permanent home, when Orchestra Hall, designed by the Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham, was completed. Thomas led the dedicatory concert on December 14, 1904, he would only lead two weeks of subscription concerts in the new hall, after contracting influenza during rehearsals for the dedicatory concert. Though he continued with his customary vigor, he conducted his beloved Chicago Orchestra for the last time on Chris
Tromsø Idrettslag is a Norwegian professional football club founded in 1920, based in the city of Tromsø. They play their home games at Alfheim Stadion. Tromsø play in the Eliteserien and holds the position as the northernmost top-level football club in the world; the club was first promoted to the Norwegian top division in 1985, where they have played since with the exception of the 2001 and 2014 seasons which were spent in the 1. Divisjon. Tromsø have won the Norwegian Cup twice, in 1986 and 1996, have competed in several UEFA competitions; the Norwegian Cup trophies make Tromsø the northernmost club in the world to have won a nationwide title. The club was founded on 15 September 1920, given the name Tromsø Turnforenings Fotballag, or Turn for short; the first match after the formal foundation was against cross-town rivals a 0 -- 0 draw. However, it would not take long before success came to Turn, in 1927, the club won its first district championship. In 1930, the club changed its name to Tromsø Idrettslag because the Norwegian Sports Association thought the club's name was too close to the name of Tromsø Gymnastics Association.
However, this was only temporary, the club changed its name to Tor in 1931. 1931 would be the year the club won its first Northern Norwegian Cup, the highest possible achievement for a Northern Norwegian club at the time. The club beat Mo IL 3–1 in the final; the year after, the Norwegian Sports Association ruled the club could not be named Tor, so Tromsø Idrettslag was again chosen, this time permanently. Tromsø won its second district championship in 1932, but was eliminated in the semi-finals of the Northern Norwegian Cup; the 1930s proved to be a good decade for Tromsø, as the club won district championships in 1933, 1936 and 1937. However, sports activities came to an end in 1940 because of World War II, the club did not play again before 1945. Tromsø started the post-war years in a good fashion, winning the club's sixth district championship in 1946. In 1949, Tromsø won its second Northern Norwegian cup; this time, the final match was played at Harstad Stadium, Tromsø were to play FK Bodø/Glimt.
Tromsø won 3–1, just like in 1931. Tromsø won five consecutive district championships between 1950–1954, before the club was introduced into the Norwegian league system; the club's third and last Northern Norwegian cup came in 1956. Tromsø met Harstad IL – the champions of the previous three years – in Harstad, making Harstad the favourites. However, Tromsø won the match 2–0. Clubs from Northern Norway were allowed into the Norwegian cup in 1963, Tromsø participated for the first time in 1964, advancing to the second round after beating FK Mjølner; the club was eliminated in the second round by Nidelv IL. The 1960s were a period of stadium expansions for the club, with both Valhall Stadium and Alfheim Stadium getting grass fields; because of the inclusion of Northern Norwegian clubs in the Norwegian Cup, the Northern Norwegian Cup was dropped. Tromsø played its last Northern Norwegian Cup match in 1969. With Northern Norwegian clubs accepted in the cup, the only thing left to be included in was the top division.
This occurred in 1972, when FK Mjølner moved to the 1. Divisjon. However, at the time, Tromsø was fighting in the bottom of the Northern Norwegian 2nd division, was relegated. In 1975, Tromsø would be back in the 2. Divisjon after winning promotion the year before. However, the club was once more relegated, this time after only one season in the second highest level of the league system. Tromsø was back in the 2. Divisjon in 1978, won it this time. However, the qualification matches against the two southern teams Hamarkameratene and Fredrikstad FK were lost 3–0 and 1–0 respectively; the next year, 1979, marked the first year with an all-Norwegian 2. Divisjon, giving equal chances for all teams, regardless of geographical position. Tromsø was again relegated. Tromsø was promoted back to the 2. Divisjon after not losing a single match in the 3. Divisjon in 1980. Followed relegation in 1981 and promotion in 1982, before the club managed to establish itself in the 2nd division. Two decent seasons in 1983 and 1984 were followed by a second-place finish in 1985, which meant the club would again play qualification matches for the top division.
First, Sogndal were beaten 1–0. Tromsø won the decisive match against Moss FK 1–0, after a legendary penalty kick save by goalkeeper Bjarte Flem. Tromsø became the third and, for the time being, latest Northern Norwegian club to qualify for the top division, the other two being FK Mjølner and FK Bodø/Glimt; the first season in the top division would be hard for Tromsø, the club had to play qualification to survive. The club was successful in the cup the same year, beating top division champions Lillestrøm SK 4–1 in the final match, a match, thought to be a walk in the park for Lillestrøm before it was played. An experiment in the 1987 season proved valuable to Tromsø: tied matches would be decided on penalty shootouts, awarding three points for a win, two for a shootout win, one for a shootout loss and zero for a loss. Thanks to Bjarte Flem's exceptional penalty saves, Tromsø won seven out of nine shootouts this year; the experiment was dropped after the season
The World Cube Association is the worldwide organization that regulates and holds competitions for mechanical puzzles that are operated by twisting groups of pieces known as twisty puzzles. The most famous of those puzzles is the Rubik's Cube; the WCA was founded by Ron van Bruchem of the Netherlands and Tyson Mao of the United States. The goal of the World Cube Association is to have "more competitions in more countries with more people and more fun, under fair conditions." In 2017, they started work to become a non-profit organization and on November 20, 2017 the state of California accepted the initial registration of the World Cube Association. The organization is run by the board members, it assigns different teams and committees as well as delegates who can organize official competitions. The presence of a delegate is required in order to make the competition official; as of January 2020, more than 138,000 people from around the world have participated in WCA competitions. As of November 4, 2019 The WCA Board of Directors is the leadership team of the WCA and its highest authority.
WCA Directors are Officers of the WCA. The WCA Board is responsible for the WCA organization as a whole; as part of their day-to-day work, they advise the committees. The WCA Board oversees that the applications to hold WCA Competitions meet fair conditions to give all the world similar chances to compete, approves and announces the competitions accordingly. After competitions, they read reports from the WCA delegates about competitions in order to be up to date on the WCA activity worldwide and take part in the discussion of any incidents that occur; the Board is responsible for helping WCA fulfill its mission: “more competitions in more countries with more people and more fun, under fair and equal conditions.” This means spreading cubing to new communities and countries and working together with the Senior Delegates to open up cubing to more people. The WCA Communications Team is in charge of overseeing and supporting communications of the WCA with the community and general public; this includes answering general requests that are submitted via the WCA website and maintaining the social media accounts of the WCA.
The team responds to multiple emails a day from all around the world regarding starting cubing competitions in new areas, what to do for your first competition, big media requests about competitive speedcubing, many other issues. Many requests are forwarded to the appropriate WCA team or delegate if they are in regard to a particular competition or specialization; the WCA Competition Announcement Team is responsible for approving and announcing WCA Competitions and ensure such announcements adhere to WCA quality standards. They Review and announce competition submissions in WCA, they train Delegates to properly utilize the tools. The WCA Disciplinary Committee investigates a variety of situations and proposes solutions including punishments when necessary. Among other topics, these situations could be serious violations of WCA regulations or community issues, they deal with many instances of cheating, general conduct, or disputes in the way that delegates and organizers run events. They are responsible for issues that may occur in the WCA internally.
They can be contacted by WCA officials or community members to be made aware of possible violations at WCA competitions. Initial contact with the team is through emails or directly from any competitor or delegate. If the Team Leader agrees that this case falls under the WDC’s jurisdiction, a WDC case is initiated; the team attempts to correspond with everyone involved, to get all sides of the story and to provide an independent report for the investigation. Once the case is closed and the decision made, they inform all relevant persons of any actions and make a public announcement, if necessary; the WCA Financial Committee is responsible for everything regarding finances within the WCA. As an Advisory Committee, they manage the finances and accounts of the WCA in accordance with an approved annual budget proposal, their work to provide on a regular basis; the Financial Committee pays invoices and taxes that are directed to the WCA, after consultation and with permission of the WCA Board. On a quarterly basis they report and advise the WCA Board on all finances of the WCA, to give them a summary of the scope of financial possibilities and options that the WCA has.
The WCA Regulations Committee was founded to support the WCA Board in maintaining the WCA Regulations in 2011. Over the years, their area of responsibility has been broadened, so that they handle all issues which are related to the application, the improvement and the development of the WCA Regulations today, they support delegates on any kind of procedural matters happening at competitions and decide on unresolved and uncovered incidents. The WRC publishes WCA internal reports to help all delegates and improve their knowledge of the Regulations; this includes regulation changes based on feedback from the WCA staff and the community, while taking into account their own insights and reports of incidents that occur during WCA competitions. New versions of the Regulations are published on a periodic basis. Another part of their work is to encourage members of the WCA community to create and maintain translations of the Regulations; the WCA Results Team is responsible for managing all data in the databases of the WCA, most competition results and person data.
The most time-consuming regular task of the WCA Results Team is posting results of WCA competitions to the WCA website, on