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Theodore the Studite

Theodore the Studite was a Byzantine Greek monk and abbot of the Stoudios Monastery in Constantinople. He played a major role in the revivals both of Byzantine monasticism and of classical literary genres in Byzantium, he is known as a zealous opponent of iconoclasm, one of several conflicts that set him at odds with both emperor and patriarch. Theodore was born in Constantinople in 759, he was the oldest son of Photeinos, an important financial official in the palace bureaucracy, Theoktiste, herself the offspring of a distinguished Constantinopolitan family. The brother of Theoktiste, Theodore's uncle Platon, was an important official in the imperial financial administration; the family therefore controlled a significant portion, if not all, of the imperial financial administration during the reign of Constantine V. Theodore had two younger brothers and one sister, whose name we do not know, it has been assumed that Theodore's family belonged to the iconodule party during the first period of Byzantine Iconoclasm.

There is however no evidence to support this, their high position in the imperial bureaucracy of the time renders any iconodule position unlikely. Furthermore, when Platon left his office and entered the priesthood in 759, he was ordained by an abbot who, if he was not iconoclastic himself, at the least offered no resistance to the iconoclastic policies of Constantine V; the family as a whole was most indifferent to the question of icons during this period. According to the hagiographical literature, Theodore received an education befitting his family's station and from the age of seven was instructed by a private tutor concentrating in particular on theology, it is however not clear that these opportunities were available to the most well-placed Byzantine families of the eighth century, it is possible that Theodore was at least an autodidact. Following the death of Emperor Leo IV in 780, Theodore's uncle Platon, who had lived as a monk in the Symbola Monastery in Bithynia since 759, visited Constantinople, persuaded the entire family of his sister, Theoktiste, to take monastic vows.

Theodore, together with his father and brothers, sailed back to Bithynia with Platon in 781, where they set about transforming the family estate into a religious establishment, which became known as the Sakkudion Monastery. Platon became abbot of the new foundation, Theodore was his "right hand." The two sought to order the monastery according to the writings of Basil of Caesarea. During the period of the regency of Eirene, Abbot Platon emerged as a supporter of the Patriarch Tarasios, was a member of Tarasios's iconodule party at the Second Council of Nicaea, where the veneration of icons was declared orthodox. Shortly thereafter Tarasios himself ordained Theodore as a priest. In 794, Theodore became abbot of the Sakkudion Monastery, while Platon withdrew from the daily operation of the monastery and dedicated himself to silence. In 794, Emperor Constantine VI decided to separate from his first wife, Maria of Amnia, to marry Maria's kubikularia, Theodote, a cousin of Theodore the Studite. Although the Patriarch may have resisted this development, as a divorce without proof of adultery on the part of the wife could be construed as illegal, he gave way.

The marriage of Constantine and Theodote was celebrated in 795, although not by the patriarch, as was normal, but by a certain Joseph, a priest of Hagia Sophia. A somewhat obscure chain of events followed, in which Theodore initiated a protest against the marriage from the Sakkudion Monastery, appears to have demanded the excommunication, not only of the priest Joseph, but of all who had received communion from him, which, as Joseph was a priest of the imperial church, included implicitly the emperor and his court; this demand had no official weight and Constantine appears to have attempted to make peace with Theodore and Platon, inviting them to visit him during a sojourn at the imperial baths of Prusa in Bithynia. In the event neither appeared; as a result, imperial troops were sent to the Sakkudion Monastery, the community was dispersed. Theodore was flogged, together with ten other monks, banished to Thessaloniki, while Platon was imprisoned in Constantinople; the monks did not remain for long.

Following the accession of Irene, the priest Joseph was stripped of his office, Theodoros was received in the imperial palace. The monks returned to the Sakkudion Monastery, but were forced back to the capital in either 797 or 798 on account of an Arab raid on Bithynia. At this time, Irene offered Theodore the leadership of the ancient Stoudios Monastery in Constantinople, which he accepted. Theodore set about building various workshops within the monastery to guarantee autarky, constructing a library and a scriptorium, restoring and decorating the church, he composed a series of poems on the duties of the various members of the community, which were inscribed and displayed within the monastery. He furthermore composed a rule for the governance of the monastery, made the Studios community the center of an extensive congregation of dependent monasteries, including the Sakkudion, he maintained contact with these other monasteries above all through his prodig

Joseph Battell

Joseph Battell was a publisher and philanthropist from Middlebury, Vermont. Battell is credited with preserving Vermont forest land including the land for Camel's Hump State Park; the Joseph Battell Wilderness in the Green Mountain National Forest bears his name. Battell attended Middlebury College in the early 1860s but he was forced to abandon his studies due to ill health. On the advice of his doctor, Battell spent a weekend at a farmhouse in nearby Ripton where the clear mountain air would help cure his ailing lungs, he so loved the beauty of the surrounding hills that he decided to buy the farmhouse, which became known as the Bread Loaf Inn, named for Bread Loaf Mountain not far away. Over the years, numerous new buildings and barns were added in order to accommodate Battell's many friends and guests; the Inn and the surrounding mountains served as Battell's home and sanctuary for the rest of his long life. Over the years, Battell purchased over 30,000 acres of forest land within and beyond the view of the Bread Loaf Inn.

At his death in 1915, he was the state's largest individual landowner. Battell owned and edited a newspaper, the Middlebury Register, authored several books, including the "American Morgan Horse Register." In addition, he served as a trustee for Middlebury College. Battell is the author of the book, Ellen--or the Whisperings of an Old Pine, a dialogue between a sixteen-year-old girl, a wise old white pine tree. Among the matters they discuss is a refutation of the wave theory of sound propagation, it is illustrated with many photographs including several of Ellen. Her mountain, Mount Ellen, a 4000-footer enclosed within the Sugarbush ski area, can be found at 44.160147°N 72.929307°W / 44.160147. He donated his horse farm to the federal Morgan horse breeding program, is credited by some as saving the breed; the Morgan horse farm, operated by the University of Vermont since 1951, remains operational in 2019. In addition to its role in promoting the breed, the farm produced Morgan hoses for use as cavalry mounts by the US Army in World War I and other conflicts.

Battell left nearly all of his land holdings in trust as "wild lands" to "the citizens of the State of Vermont and the visitors within her borders." In a deed dated 24 January 1911, Battell sold 1,200 acres of virgin forest, including the summit of Camel's Hump, to the State of Vermont. The deed declared that "trees growing on the land herein conveyed are not to be cut...and the whole forest is to be preserved in a primeval state." In effect, Battell had created Vermont’s first natural area protected for its wilderness character. Four years through his last will and testament, Battell added to his legacy by placing over 30,000 acres of Vermont's mountain forests in perpetual trust as "wild lands." Of these, more than 25,000 acres surrounding the Bread Loaf Inn were left to Middlebury College, while another 5,000 acres on the neighboring ridge from Mount Ellen to Mount Abraham were willed to the United States Government for a National Park. Since the federal government declined Battell’s gift, the latter tract of mountain forest went to Middlebury College as well.

In his will, Battell directed the trustees as follows: And it shall be the duty of said trustees to preserve as far as reasonably may be the forests of said park, neither to cut nor permit to be cut thereon any trees whatsoever...to preserve intact said wild lands...as a specimen of the original Vermont forest. Middlebury College sold 20,000 acres of the Battell lands to the U. S. Forest Service in the 1930s plus another 10,000 acres to the agency in the 1950s; these land acquisitions allowed the Forest Service to create the northern unit of the Green Mountain National Forest. In particular, the Breadloaf Wilderness and the Joseph Battell Wilderness, created in 1984 and 2006 include much of the land gifted by Battell in 1915. Battell Hall, a dormitory at Middlebury College, is named for Battell as recognition for the land he bequeathed to the college. A stone bridge in downtown Middlebury that Battell built in 1893 is named in his honor. Battell's stone bridge replaced a wooden one that had burned down in 1891

13th Aero Squadron

The 13th Aero Squadron was a United States Army Air Service unit that fought on the Western Front during World War I. The squadron was assigned as a Day Pursuit Squadron as part of the 2d Pursuit Group, First United States Army, its mission was to engage and clear enemy aircraft from the skies and provide escort to reconnaissance and bombardment squadrons over enemy territory. It attacked enemy observation balloons, perform close air support and tactical bombing attacks of enemy forces along the front lines. After the 1918 Armistice with Germany, the squadron returned to the United States in March 1919 and demobilized. On 16 October 1936 the squadron was re-constituted, consolidated with the United States Army Air Corps 13th Attack Squadron. Today, the current United States Air Force unit which holds its lineage and history is the 13th Bomb Squadron, assigned to the 509th Operations Group, Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri; the 13th Aero Squadron was organised at Kelly Field, Texas on 14 June 1917.

After a short period of organization, which included "snake-chasing and cactus-cutting", the squadron was moved to Wilbur Wright Field, Ohio in the beginning of July where its aviation cadets began flight training on the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny trainer. Training in Ohio lasted until 1 November when it received orders for overseas duty; the squadron proceeded to the Aviation Concentration Center, Garden City, New York, where it awaited transport to Europe. At the end of November, the squadron moved to Philadelphia, where it boarded the SS Northland, departed the United States on 4 December; the ship arrived at Liverpool, England on 25 December where the same day, they boarded a train for Winchester, England where they were temporarily assigned to a Rest Camp. After a cross-channel crossing from Southampton to Le Havre, the squadron boarded a French train south, arriving at the Air Service Replacement Concentration Barracks in St. Maixent, 1 January 1918. At St. Maixent the squadron waited for several weeks and performed construction and other activities designed to improve the newly established base.

At the end of January, orders were received to proceed to the 3d Air Instructional Center at Issoudun Aerodrome for advanced flight and air combat training. For the next four months the squadron trained at Issodun, with detachments sent to French Air Force gunnery ranges at Meucon and Haussimont Aerodromes. In the beginning of June, training was completed and the squadron moved to the 1st Air Depot at Colombey-les-Belles Airdrome where the 13th Aero Squadron was classified as a Pursuit Squadron and received French SPAD XIII aircraft. Once equipped the squadron was ordered to Croix de Metz Aerodrome, near Toul, in the "Zone of Advance". There the 13th received its combat assignment to the 2d Pursuit Group where it joined the 22d, 49th and 139th Aero Squadrons; the 13th was charged with protection of the St. Mihiel sector, its pilots soon were active in intercepting and attacking enemy aircraft that attempted reconnaissance over Allied lines; the Spads escorted Allied observation planes deep into enemy territory where their pilots sometimes engaged enemy planes and attacked hostile balloons.

While participating in the St. Mihiel Offensive, undertaken to eliminate the salient in the front lines around St. Mihiel that had existed since early in the war, the 13th fought with vigor. While ground forces were attacking and destroying, men and morale, the 13th's pilots kept busy destroying enemy aircraft and balloons, making the sky safe for Allied observation planes; the squadron suffered its first combat loss on 13 September when Lt. Robert Converse was shot down on a late afternoon patrol and reported missing in action. On 14 September 1918 a squadron-strength patrol led by Charles Biddle was ambushed by a flight of the red and white Fokker D VII aircraft of Jasta 18, led by Leutnant der Reserve August Raben, one of a number of times the same two opposing squadrons would meet before the Armistice, starting with the aerial action over the St. Mihiel salient. Four original squadron members were downed in a matter of minutes: Lt. Charles Drew, Lt Alton Brody, Lt. Harry B. "Buck" Freeman and Lt. George P. Kull.

Lts. Converse, Drew and Brody were captured and repatriated after the Armistice. George Kull was confirmed killed in the first combat fatality of the 13th Aero Squadron; the Meuse-Argonne campaign was launched on 26 September 1918 to further reduce the St. Mihiel salient; the 13th Aero Squadron moved on 23 September to Belrain Aerodrome, from there inflicted heavy losses upon enemy aircraft and balloons. As its pilots gained domination of the air, their responsibilities were expanded to include protection of ground forces, strafing of enemy troops and bombing of targets that could be observed within enemy lines. During the Meuse Argonne Offensive, the squadron lost Lts. Gerald D. Stivers, Henry Guion Armstrong, Clarence A. Brodie and Robert H. Stiles killed in action. On 7 November, the squadron moved to Souilly Aerodrome and continued combat operations until the Armistice with Germany was signed and combat ended on 11 November 1918; the 13th claimed several "aces" from this period of its history: Charles J Biddle, Murray K Guthrie, Frank K Hays, John J Seerley, William H Stovall.

Major Carl Spaatz, although on orders to return home and received permission to serve with the 13th Aero Squadron as a pursuit pilot. He subordinated himself to men of lower rank, but as a result of his ardent zeal and ability, he was soon a flight leader and was credited with destroying two Fokkers during the St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne Offensive. and is credited with an out of control enemy aircraft After the armistice, the squadron remained at Souilly until 16 December 1918 when o

Lucilia coeruleiviridis

Lucilia coeruleiviridis Phaenecia coeruleiviridis, is known as the green bottle fly, because of its metallic blue-green thorax and abdomen. L. coeruleiviridis was first discovered by French entomologist Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1855. It belongs to the Calliphoridae family and is one of many forensically important Diptera, as it is found on decaying substances. L. coeruleiviridis is one of the most ubiquitous blow fly species in the southeastern United States in the spring and fall months. The name L. caeruleiviridis may be a contraction of the Latin words "caerulei" and "viridis". These words mean cerulean blue, greenish and refer to the color of the fly's body. Like all green bottle flies in its family, the Lucilia coeruleiviridis adult is a metallic blue-green bodied fly; the facial region is white with large red compound eyes. There are bristles present as well as plumose aristae; the thorax contains bristles, all of which are evenly paired. Just behind the head, the anterior spiracle is black in color, as is the thoracic posterior spiracle.

The meron, just below the wing, is bristled. The venation of the wings is "incomplete" in; the basicosta of the wing, or the “shoulder” area, is yellow in coloration, the calypters—the scale-like structures just below the wing base—are white and of unequal size. The legs of the adult are brown to black in color. Like most flies, it has tarsal pulvilli, soft pads at the end of each foot used to “stick” to surfaces; as with all insects, coloration is important in identification of a species, as is the presence of bristles. Sometimes, the presence of a pair of bristles on the thoracic plate is the only reliable way to distinguish one species from another; the white-bodied larvae of L. coeruleiviridis develop in called instars. In each instar, the larva grows larger, its only function in this stage is eating until the final growth stage to adult fly. The marked differences between each instar are seen in the spiracles of the maggot on the posterior end. During the first instar, the larva has “Y-V” shaped spiracles.

The second instar can be characterized by the shape of the spiracles increasing in size as well as number in that the “Y-V” orientation becomes 2 distinct slits on each side. The third instar larva has 3 larger spiracular slits on each side, it has been seen that the larval stages of Lucilia coeruleiviridis are similar to those of Lucilia eximia, though no sufficient data has been collected. Lucilia coeruleiviridis has a Nearctic distribution; this particular blowfly is even the most preponderate of all species of blowflies in the southeastern United States during the spring and fall and will remain active during mild winters. The blowfly, such as Lucilia coeruleiviridis, will deposit their eggs by way of the female's abdomen, which extends to form an ovipositor, in areas around accessible natural body openings such as eyes, ears, mouth and genitals or near wounds; the reason that these maggot mass formations are important is because it can indicate premortem or perimortem trauma. The life cycle of Lucilia coeruleiviridis has four stages of development.

Calliphorids are necrophagous so the eggs are dispatched on rotting animal remains and hatch after twelve hours. The larvae will accumulate and nourish on the decomposing carcass, they will undergo three larval stages, which on average will take eleven to twenty days, if the ambient temperature is eighty degrees Fahrenheit. In the fourth stage, the larvae will pupate; the pupal stage can last from six to twelve days. A single female fly can lay in upwards of two thousand eggs in its life. Many of the species of major connotation are found in three families; some species of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae are known to be parasitic, the prevailing rule for carrion feeding species is scavenging and such is true with Lucilia coeruleiviridis. Lucilia coeruleiviridis is a warm weather fly whose perfect temperature is between 75 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit; the females of this species are attracted to flesh and are potential mechanical vectors. It has been found that the maggots of the green bottle fly prefer necrotic tissue and will leave living tissue alone, so they are used in maggot therapy, or Maggot Debridement Therapy.

This therapy is the intentional introduction of disinfected maggots raised to clean out wounds that will not heal larger wounds. However, Lucilia sericata— the common green bottle fly— is the preferred species; the maggots have three primary duties: to clean out wounds by eating dead tissues, kill off the bacteria, encourage healthy tissue growth. Blow flies are the first to arrive on a carcass and Lucilia coeruleiviridis is no exception; because of this, as with all flies of the family Calliphoridae, these flies are important for time of death estimations. The larvae are the most abundant third-instar calliphorids that are found on a carcass. Not a lot of study has been done on the life cycle of Lucilia coeruleiviridis due to the fact that rearing of larvae has been unsuccessful. Therefore, the PMI for this species is still unknown, despite being an important PMI indicator species; some Calliphorids of forensic importa

John Ormsby-Gore, 1st Baron Harlech

John Ralph Ormsby-Gore, 1st Baron Harlech, was a British peer and Conservative Member of Parliament. Lord Harlech was the eldest son of William Ormsby-Gore, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, Mary Jane Ormsby, he was elected to the House of Commons for Carnarvonshire in 1837, a seat he held until 1841, represented North Shropshire from 1859 to 1876. On 14 January 1876, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Harlech, of Harlech in the County of Merioneth, with remainder to his brother William in the absence of male heirs. Lord Harlech married Sarah, daughter of Sir John Tyssen Tyrrell, 2nd Baronet, on 4 June 1844, they had one child: Hon. Fanny Mary Katherine Ormsby-Gore Lord Harlech died on 15 June 1876, aged 60, having held the title for only five months; as he had no son, he was succeeded according to the special remainder by his brother William. Lady Harlech died in 1898. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Ormsby-Gore

Samuel Revans

Samuel Revans was a notable New Zealand newspaper owner and politician. He was the Father of Journalism in New Zealand. Samuel Revans is known to have been a native of London but, as was common in the early 19th century, the day and the exact year of his birth have been lost to history, he was trained as a printer, worked in London. He joined Henry Samuel Chapman in Canada, where they founded one of the first Canadian daily newspapers, the Montreal Daily Advertiser. Chapman returned to England in 1834, but Revans remained until 1837, when journalist indiscretions in connection with Papineau’s revolt required his hasty return to England. Chapman and Revans were to be reunited in New Zealand. Back in England, Revans was involved in Chartist disturbances, was introduced by J. A. Roebuck to the New Zealand Company, he became secretary of the Executive Committee of the New Zealand Company and the editor of the New Zealand Gazette, which he printed in his London office on 21 August 1839. Revans arrived in New Zealand on the ship Adelaide on 7 March 1840, docking at Wellington Harbour's Port Nicholson.

On 18 April of the same year, he published the second edition of New Zealand Gazette, the first newspaper published in the newly settled islands. He invested in the timber business, established a number of farms, he became more distant from his newspaper, leaving both the printing and the editing to his staff. He began to question the effectiveness of Wakefield's New Zealand Company, his publishing business collapsed, leaving him reliant on his other properties for income. In 1848, Revans became prominent in the newly formed Wellington Settlers' Constitutional Association, which advocated representative government. Revans' involvement was interrupted by a sudden business venture – sailing to San Francisco with a cargo of timber and potatoes, which he hoped to sell to participants in the California gold rush; when this enterprise failed to meet with its expected success, Revans returned to New Zealand, where he and William Mein Smith had established a large station at Huangaroa, near modern Masterton, in Wairarapa.

When self-government for New Zealand was instituted, Revans stood in the first general election. He was successful, represented the Wairarapa and Hawkes Bay electorate in the 1st New Zealand Parliament. In the 2nd New Zealand Parliament, he contested a 27 November 1856 by-election against Robert Hart in the Hutt electorate and gained 96 votes against 24 for Hart. Revans resigned on 22 March 1858. Politically, he supported Isaac Featherston, a prominent Wellingtonian politician, opposed Edward Gibbon Wakefield and his son Jerningham Wakefield. Revans was known for his then-radical views on many subjects, including a strong support for republicanism. Samuel Revans died in relative obscurity in Greytown, Wairarapa at the age of 80. Brief biographical entry from Dictionary of New Zealand Biography Biographical sketch from the 1966 Encyclopedia of New Zealand