SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Theological virtues

Theological virtues are virtues associated in Christian theology and philosophy with salvation resulting from the grace of God. Virtues are qualities which dispose one to conduct oneself in a morally good manner. Traditionally they have been named Faith and Charity, can trace their importance in Christian theology to Paul the Apostle in 1 Corinthians 13, who pointed out that “the greatest of these is love.” The medieval Catholic philosopher Thomas Aquinas explained that these virtues are called theological virtues "because they have God for their object, both in so far as by them we are properly directed to Him, because they are infused into our souls by God alone, as finally, because we come to know of them only by Divine revelation in the Sacred Scriptures". A person receives the theological virtues by their being "infused"—through Divine grace—into the person; the theological virtues are so named. Faith is the infused virtue, by which the intellect, by a movement of the will, assents to the supernatural truths of Revelation, not on the motive of intrinsic evidence, but on the sole ground of the infallible authority of God revealing.

According to Hugh Pope "hat God says is supremely credible, though not supremely intelligible for us." The First Vatican Council stated that "faith is a supernatural virtue by which we with the inspiration and assistance of God's grace, believe those things to be true which He has revealed...although the assent of faith is in no sense blind, yet no one can assent to the Gospel teaching in the way necessary for salvation without the illumination of the Holy Spirit..." It is a gratuitous gift of God. Hope is defined as a Divinely infused virtue, acts upon the will, by which one trusts, with confidence grounded on the Divine assistance, to attain life everlasting, its opposite is the sin of despair. Charity is a divinely infused virtue, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, man for the sake of God. To love God is to wish Him all honour and glory and every good, to endeavour, as far as one can, to obtain it for Him. John 14:23 notes a unique feature of reciprocity which makes charity a veritable friendship of man with God.

"Whoever loves me will keep my word, my Father will love him, we will come to him and make our dwelling with him." Lack of love may give place to wrath or indifference. The first mention in Christian literature of the three theological virtues is in St. Paul's first letter to the Thessalonians 1:3, "...calling to mind your work of faith and labor of love and endurance in hope..." In 1 Thessalonians 5:8, he refers to this triad of virtues again, "But since we are of the day, let us be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love and the helmet, hope for salvation."In 1 Corinthians 13, Paul places the greater emphasis on Charity. "So faith, love remain, these three. First, because it informs the other two: "It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things." According to Augustine of Hippo, from a temporal perspective, love lasts, while "Hope isn't hope if its object is seen", faith gives way to possession. This view is shared by Gregory of Nyssa. Aquinas found an interconnection of moral virtue.

This is termed "the Unity of the Virtues."Aquinas stated that theological virtues are so called "because they have God for their object, both in so far as by them we are properly directed to Him, because they are infused into our souls by God alone, as finally, because we come to know of them only by Divine revelation in the Sacred Scriptures". In his treatment of the virtues, Aquinas viewed the theological virtues as being the product of habitual grace. According to Aquinas, this grace, through the theological virtues, allows humanity to become agents in meritorious action, beyond their own natural ability. In this way it is supernatural. Aquinas says "Faith has the character of a virtue, not because of the things it believes, for faith is of things that appear not, but because it adheres to the testimony of one in whom truth is infallibly found". Aquinas further connected the theological virtues with the cardinal virtues, he views the supernatural inclinations of the theological virtues, caused by habitual grace, to find their fulfillment in being acted upon in the cardinal virtues.

The moral virtues are acquired by habit. Catholic moral theology holds that the theological virtues differ from the cardinal virtues in that they cannot be obtained by human effort, but are infused by God into a person. Like the cardinal virtues, an individual who exercises these virtues strengthens and increases them, i.e. they are more disposed to practice them. Following St. Augustine, Aquinas recognized a separate but related type of moral virtue, infused by God; the distinction lies both in their end. The moral virtue of temperance recognizes food as a good that sustains life, but guards against the sin of gluttony; the infused virtue of temperance disposes the individual to practice abstinence. The infused moral virtues are connected to the theological virtue of Charity. Pope Benedict XVI wrote three encyclicals about the theological virtues: Deus caritas est, Spe salvi, Lumen fidei. Cardinal virtues Seven deadly sins Seven virtues Christian ethics This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..

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Starbeck

Starbeck is an area of Harrogate in North Yorkshire, England. The population of Starbeck Ward taken at the 2011 census was 6,226, it has many facilities, including Starbeck railway station. Frequent services depart to Harrogate and York. Starbeck reputedly takes its name from the'Star Beck', which flows into the Crimple Beck, a tributary of the Nidd. Starbeck was a hamlet in the township of Bilton with Harrogate in the ancient parish of Knaresborough; the township was part of the ancient Royal Forest of Knaresborough, situated to the south of the River Nidd. In 1896 Starbeck became a separate civil parish, but in 1938 the civil parish was abolished and Starbeck was absorbed into the Municipal Borough of Harrogate; the railway came to Starbeck in 1848. The railway buildings increased, with them came a corn mill, malt house and water bottling plant; the population expanded in this period, most families owing their livelihood in some way to the railway. In the 1950s the decline set in. In 1951 the Nidd Valley Line closed to passengers and the loop line to Pannal closed completely.

In September 1959 the engine shed and marshalling yard closed. In 1967 the passenger service to Ripon was withdrawn; the last goods train travelled the old Leeds to Thirsk railway line from Starbeck to Northallerton on 9 October 1969, leaving only the current Harrogate Line. By 1969 the station was no longer staffed and the station buildings, goods shed and coal depot were demolished in 1978; the High Street shops include a chemist, post office, butchers' outlets, general stores, car dealership, motorcycle shop, veterinary practice, numerous fast food take-aways and a chimney sweep who sells wood-burning stoves. There is only one public house, after the British Heritage Society-listed Henry Peacock Pub, named after the master of the local workhouse, due to be demolished in 2016, was turned into a terrace of apartments with retail stores on the ground floor. Taylors of Harrogate's Yorkshire Tea factory, Betty's Craft Bakery, a large Morrisons supermarket and a branch of Currys/PC World lie within a nearby industrial estate.

There are historical public baths in Spa Lane, in keeping with the spa history of the Harrogate area. Starbeck has been a frequent winner of the Royal Horticultural Society "In Bloom" award in the Urban Community Category; the Forest Lane level crossing in Starbeck was used by Yorkshire Television for the filming of a scene in the Beiderbecke Affair. Starbeck featured in a 1989 episode of Yorkshire Television's The New Statesman. St Andrew's Starbeck Starbeck Conservation Area Character Appraisal. Harrogate.gov.uk. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2018. Harrogate Advertiser, Friday 2 January 2009

Charters Towers Stock Exchange Arcade

Charters Towers Stock Exchange Arcade is a heritage-listed shopping arcade at 76 Mosman Street, Charters Towers, Charters Towers Region, Australia. It was designed by Sydney architect Mark Cooper Day and built in 1888 by Sandbrook Brothers of Sydney, it was known as the Royal Arcade. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992, it was designed for the local civic leader Alexander Malcolm and was connected to the rest of the world via telegraph. It operated until 1916, when it had to be shut down due to the diminishing returns from the gold mines and population; the Stock Exchange Arcade was built in 1888 to the design of Sydney architect, Mark Cooper Day for Alexander Malcolm as a shop and office arcade and named the Royal Arcade. In 1890 the Stock Exchange took up its offices in the arcade which became the focus of gold-mining investment during the peak period of Queensland's most important goldfield. Gold was discovered at the site of Charters Towers in late 1871 by a prospecting party composed of Hugh Mosman, George Clark, James Fraser and an Aboriginal boy called Jupiter who worked for Mosman.

By early 1872 a rush was in progress with an estimated 4,500 on the field by the end of the year. In 1874, following goldfield regulations, a business area was marked out in an area believed to be non-auriferous. In 1877 when Charters Towers petitioned for incorporation as a municipality, this business area was defined as covering one square mile, measured as a half mile in each compass direction from the intersection of Gill and Mosman Streets; this area was the key business and social centre of the town. The economics of Charters Towers were bound up with the geology of the field; the gold was not in the form of reefs of gold-bearing ore. This meant that equipment to dig shafts was needed from the start. There were several major reefs and they sloped downwards with loops and branches; the ore near the surface was extracted first. Deeper and deeper shafts were necessary to find and extract the gold. At first, small syndicates of miners, crushing mills and local business men financed the mines; as the lodes ran deeper, more capital was needed to exploit them.

In 1885 several Mining Agents formed themselves into a Mining Exchange. This made speculation through the selling of mine shares possible. In 1886, a display featuring ore samples from the Charters Towers mines was set up at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London. At the time, some mines were producing extraordinary quantities of gold; the response from British investors resulted in a speculation boom. This did not hold, collapsing in 1888, but as the fabled Brilliant Reef was discovered in the following year, the fortunes of the field were not depressed for long; the boom had encouraged a number of local businessmen to replace their timber buildings with more substantial brick structures. Alexander Malcolm, on the field since the early 1870s was one of these, replacing his Malcolm's Buildings in Mosman Streets with an elegant arcade of shops and offices; the arcade was named the Royal Arcade. In 1890 the Stock Exchange looked for new premises; the Royal Arcade was a wise choice, being centrally placed in the main business area and close to agents and banks.

The Exchange signed an initial three year lease for the use of an office and the courtyard for their evening call at a rent of ten pounds a month. To begin with, two calls a day were made, one at noon and another, open to the public, in the evening. Public interest was such. In 1892 the introduction of the McArthur-Forrest cyanide process boosted gold production for the field which peaked in 1899 at 319,572 ounces; the population peaked in this year at around 26,500. Charters Towers was now the second most important city in Queensland and an internationally noted goldfield. After 1899, the yield of Charters Towers mines diminished and increasing costs, due to the great depths at which gold was being mined, saw the return to investors falling. In 1912 the Warden reported; the population fell as many people moved to coastal towns. In 1916, with little interest in new ventures from investors, the stock exchange closed. Falling real estates values and vacant buildings allowed a number of private schools to establish themselves, providing a new economic life for Charters Towers as an educational centre.

Lack of pressure for expansion and development in Charters Towers meant that many of the buildings dating from the period when it was a world famous goldfield survived remarkably intact. However, the arcade was too large and grand for the reduced population and the type of business that they supported; the cost of maintenance exceeded income from the building and it fell into disrepair. In 1971 it was acquired by the Charters Towers City Council as trustee for the Charters Towers and Dalrymple Historical Society, it was restored in conjunction with the National Trust of Queensland and when a National Trust Branch was formed in Charters Towers, ownership of the arcade was transferred to the National Trust. The first stage of the conservation repaired the section facing the street, completed in 1972; the second stage conserved the rest of the building in 1975. The building is now used for shops; the art gallery which occupies the upper floor is named for architect Don Roderick, who has strong associations with Charters Tower and worked on a voluntary basis with the builder, Bob Aitken, to carry out the urgent work which saved the buildi