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Theory of Games and Economic Behavior

Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, published in 1944 by Princeton University Press, is a book by mathematician John von Neumann and economist Oskar Morgenstern, considered the groundbreaking text that created the interdisciplinary research field of game theory. In the introduction of its 60th anniversary commemorative edition from the Princeton University Press, the book is described as "the classic work upon which modern-day game theory is based." The book is based on earlier research by von Neumann, published in 1928 under the German title "Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele". The derivation of expected utility from its axioms appeared in an appendix to the Second Edition. Von Neumann and Morgenstern used objective probabilities, supposing that all the agents had the same probability distribution, as a convenience; however and Morgenstern mentioned that a theory of subjective probability could be provided, this task was completed by Jimmie Savage in 1954 and Johann Pfanzagl in 1967. Savage extended von Neumann and Morgenstern's axioms of rational preferences to endogenize probability and make it subjective.

He used Bayes' theorem to update these subject probabilities in light of new information, thus linking rational choice and inference. Pfanzagl, J. "Subjective Probability Derived from the Morgenstern-von Neumann Utility Theory". In Martin Shubik. Essays in Mathematical Economics In Honor of Oskar Morgenstern. Princeton University Press. Pp. 237–251. Pfanzagl, J. in cooperation with V. Baumann and H. Huber. "Events and Subjective Probability". Theory of Measurement. Wiley. Pp. 195–220. Morgenstern, Oskar. "Some Reflections on Utility". In Andrew Schotter. Selected Economic Writings of Oskar Morgenstern. New York University Press. Pp. 65–70. Morgenstern Oskar. "The Collaboration Between Oskar Morgenstern and John von Neumann on the Theory of Games". Journal of Economic Literature. 14: 805–816. JSTOR 2722628. Commemorative edition of the book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior Copeland A. H.. "Review of'The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 51: 498–504. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1945-08391-8.

Hurwicz Leonid. "The Theory of Economic Behavior". American Economic Review. 35: 909–925. JSTOR 1812602. Kaysen Carl. "A Revolution in Economic Theory?". Review of Economic Studies. 14: 1–15. Doi:10.2307/2295753. Marschak Jacob. "Neumann's and Morgenstern's New Approach to Static Economics". Journal of Political Economy. 54: 97–115. Doi:10.1086/256327. Stone Richard. "The Theory of Games". Economic Journal. 58: 185–201. JSTOR 2225934. Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, full text at archive.org

Capuchin monkey

The capuchin monkeys are New World monkeys of the subfamily Cebinae. They are identified as the "organ grinder" monkey, have been used in many movies and television shows; the range of capuchin monkeys includes some tropical forests in Central America and South America as far south as northern Argentina. In Central America, they occupy the wet lowland forests on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and Panama and deciduous dry forest on the Pacific coast; the word "capuchin" derives from a group of friars named the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, an offshoot from the Franciscans, who wear brown robes with large hoods. When Portuguese explorers reached the Americas in the 15th century, they found small monkeys whose coloring resembled these friars when in their robes with hoods down, named them capuchins; when the scientists described a specimen they noted that: "his muzzle of a tanned color... with the lighter color around his eyes that melts into the white at the front, his cheeks... give him the looks that involuntarily reminds us of the appearance that in our country represents ignorance and sensuality."

The scientific name of the genus, Cebus comes from the Greek word kêbos, meaning a long-tailed monkey. The species-level taxonomy of this genus remains controversial, alternative treatments than the one listed below have been suggested. In 2011, Jessica Lynch Alfaro et al. proposed that the robust capuchins be placed in a separate genus, from the gracile capuchins which retain the genus Cebus. Other primatologists, such as Paul Garber, have begun using this classification. According to genetic studies led by Lynch Alfaro in 2011, the gracile and robust capuchins diverged 6.2 million years ago. Lynch Alfaro suspects that the divergence was triggered by the creation of the Amazon River, which separated the monkeys in the Amazon north of the Amazon River, who evolved into the gracile capuchins; those in the Atlantic Forest south of the river evolved into the robust capuchins. Gracile capuchins have longer limbs relative to their body size than robust capuchins, have rounder skulls, whereas robust capuchins have jaws better adapted for opening hard nuts.

Robust capuchins have crests and the males have beards. Genus CebusWhite-fronted capuchin, Cebus albifrons Ecuadorian capuchin, Cebus albifrons aequatorialis Cebus albifrons albifrons Shock-headed capuchin, Cebus albifrons cuscinus Trinidad white-fronted capuchin, Cebus albifrons trinitatis Cebus albifrons unicolor Varied capuchin, Cebus albifrons versicolor Colombian white-faced capuchin, Cebus capucinus Panamanian white-faced capuchin, Cebus imitator Kaapori capuchin, Cebus kaapori Wedge-capped capuchin, Cebus olivaceus Genus SapajusBlack-capped, brown or tufted capuchin, Sapajus apella Guiana brown capuchin, Sapajus apella apella Sapajus apella fatuellus Large-headed capuchin, Sapajus apella macrocephalus Margarita Island capuchin, Sapajus apella margaritae Sapajus apella peruanus Sapajus apella tocantinus Blond capuchin, Sapajus flavius* Black-striped capuchin, Sapajus libidinosus Sapajus libidinosus juruanus Sapajus libidinosus libidinosus Sapajus libidinosus pallidus Sapajus libidinosus paraguayanus Black capuchin, Sapajus nigritus Sapajus nigritus cucullatus Sapajus nigritus nigritus Crested capuchin or robust tufted capuchin, Sapajus robustus Golden-bellied capuchin, Sapajus xanthosternos* Rediscovered species.

Capuchins are black, buff or whitish, but their exact color and pattern depends on the species involved. Capuchin monkeys are dark brown with a cream/off white coloring around their necks, they reach a length of 30 to 56 cm, with tails. On average, they live up to 25 years old in their natural habitats. Like most New World monkeys, capuchins are arboreal. With the exception of a midday nap, they spend their entire day searching for food. At night, they sleep in the trees, wedged between branches, they can thus be found in many differing areas. The capuchin monkey feeds on a vast range of food types, is more varied than other monkeys in the family Cebidae, they are omnivores, consume a variety of plant parts such as leaves and fruit, pith, woody tissue, sugarcane and exudates, as well as arthropods, molluscs, a variety of vertebrates, primates. Recent findings of old stone tools in Capuchin habitats have suggested that the Capuchins have switched from small nuts, such as cashews, to larger and harder nuts.

Capuchins have been observed to be good at catching frogs. They are characterized as innovative and extreme foragers because of their ability to acquire sustenance from a wide collection of unlikely food, which may assure them survival in habitats with extreme food limitation. Capuchins living near water will eat crabs and shellfish by cracking their shells with stones. Capuchin monkeys inhabit other parts of Latin and Central America. Capuchin monkeys live in large groups of 10 to 35 individuals within the forest, although they can adapt to places colonized by humans; the Capuchins have discreet hierarchies that are distinguished by sex. A single male will dominate the group, they have primary rights to mate with the females of their group. However, the white-headed capuchin groups are led by both an alpha female; each group will cover a large territory. These primates are territorial animals, distinctly marking a central area of their territory with urine and defe

Daniel Coonan

Daniel Coonan is a British actor. Coonan was brought up in Haringey, in north London, moving to Plymouth, Devon in his teens, where he took up acting lessons, he trained at the London Academy of Dramatic Art. After graduating, Coonan spent over ten years working exclusively in theatre, working with companies including The National Theatre, The Royal Court Theatre and Howard Barker's theatre company, The Wrestling School. Coonan had roles in various television series, including a wrongly convicted murderer in Silent Witness, an investigating policeman in the BBC crime drama Mayday, a violent alcoholic in Mike Leigh's revival of his classic play Ecstasy, which Leigh directed. In 2013, Coonan joined the cast of the BBC soap opera EastEnders, playing Carl White, having played David Priors in 2011, he was contracted to appear in 28 episodes as Carl over a six-month period, but filmed over 60 episodes. Coonan was axed from the show in September 2013 and departed in January 2014. Since leaving, Coonan has again returned to the stage, playing'Marco' in Arthur Miller's classic play'A View From the Bridge' at The Liverpool Playhouse and'Black Dog' in The Royal National Theatre's 2015 production of'Treasure Island'.

In 2016 Coonan appeared in the Discovery Channel miniseries Harley and the Davidsons playing William A. Davidson, one of the founders of the Harley Davidson motorcycle company, he will be involved in filming History Channel's eight part drama documentary'The War on Drugs' in early 2017 as well as the BBC drama'Hard Sun', created by Neil Cross, the writer of'Luther'. Http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/live-feed/discovery-channel-rounds-cast-harley-875027 Daniel Coonan on IMDb PW Productions

Common hill myna

The common hill myna, sometimes spelled "mynah" and simply known as hill myna or myna bird, is the myna most seen in aviculture, where it is simply referred to by the latter two names. It is a member of resident in hill regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia; the Sri Lanka hill myna, a former subspecies of G. religiosa, is now accepted as a separate species G. ptilogenys. The Enggano hill myna and Nias hill myna are widely accepted as distinct, many authors favor treating the Southern hill myna from the Nilgiris and elsewhere in the Western Ghats of India as a separate species; this is a stocky jet-black myna, with bright orange-yellow patches of naked skin and fleshy wattles on the side of its head and nape. At about 29 cm length, it is somewhat larger than the common myna, it is overall green-glossed black plumage, purple-tinged on the neck. Its large, white wing patches are obvious in flight, but covered when the bird is sitting; the bill and strong legs are bright yellow, there are yellow wattles on the nape and under the eye.

These differ conspicuously in shape from the naked eye-patch of the common myna and bank myna, more subtly vary between the different hill mynas from South Asia: in the common hill myna, they extend from the eye to the nape, where they join, while the Sri Lanka hill myna has a single wattle across the nape and extending a bit towards the eyes. In the Southern hill myna, the wattles curve towards the top of the head; the Nias and Enggano hill mynas differ in details of the facial wattles, size that of the bill. Sexes are similar. With the Southern and Enggano hill mynas as separate species, the common hill myna, Gracula religiosa, has seven or eight subspecies which differ only slightly, they are: G. r. andamanensis Beavan 1867 – Andaman hill myna, Andaman Islands, central group of the Nicobar Islands G. r. batuensis – Batu and Mentawai Islands G. r. halibrecta Oberholser 1926 – Great Nicobar hill myna, Great Nicobar Little Nicobar and adjacent islets in the Nicobar Islands, Doubtfully distinct from G. r. andamanensis.

G. r. intermedia – northwestern Indochina and adjacent northeastern India and southern China G. r. palawanensis – Palawan in the Philippines G. r. peninsularis – Bastar hill mynah, central India, G. r. religiosa – Greater Sundas and Peninsular Malaysia G. r. venerata – western Lesser Sundas The common hill myna is detected by its loud, descending whistles followed by other calls. It is most vocal at dawn and dusk, when it is found in small groups in forest clearings high in the canopy. Both sexes can produce an extraordinarily wide range of loud calls – whistles, wails and gurgles, sometimes melodious and very human-like in quality; each individual has a repertoire of three to 13 such call types, which may be shared with some near neighbours of the same sex, being learned when young. Dialects change with distance, such that birds living more than 15 km apart have no call-types in common with one another. Unlike some other birds, such as the greater racket-tailed drongo, the common hill myna does not imitate other birds in the wild, although it is a held misconception that they do.

On the other hand, in captivity, they are among the most renowned mimics on par only with the grey parrot. They can learn to reproduce many everyday sounds the human voice, whistled tunes, with astonishing accuracy and clarity; this myna is a resident breeder from Kumaon division in India east through Nepal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, the lower Himalayas and foothills up to 2000 m ASL. Its range continues east through Southeast Asia northeastwards to southern China, via Thailand southeastwards across northern Indonesia to Palawan in the Philippines, it is extinct in Bangladesh due to habitat destruction and overexploitation for the pet trade. A feral population on Christmas Island has disappeared. Introduced populations exist in Saint Helena, Puerto Rico and in the mainland United States and elsewhere; this myna is entirely arboreal, moving in large, noisy groups of half a dozen or so, in tree-tops at the edge of the forest. It hops sideways unlike the characteristic jaunty walk of other mynas.

Like most starlings, the hill myna is omnivorous, eating fruit and insects. They build a nest in a hole in a tree; the usual clutch is three eggs. There is no sexual dimorphism in these birds, which results in a limited possibility of choosing the sex to work with for mating; the hill mynas are popular cage birds, renowned for their ability to imitate speech. The distributed common hill myna is the one most seen in aviculture. Demand outstrips captive breeding capacity, so they are found in pet stores and purchased directly from breeders or importers who can certify the birds are traded legally; this species is distributed and locally common, if adult stocks are safeguarded, it is able to multiply quickly. On a worldwide scale, the IUCN thus considers the common hill myna a Species of Least Concern, but in the 1990s, nearly 20,000 wild-caught birds adults and juveniles, were brought into trade each year. In the central part of its range, G. r. intermedia populations have declined markedly in Thailand, which supplied much of the thriving Western market.

Its neighbor count

Zeese

A Zeese is a traditional type of fishing gear used for bottom trawling in the shallow coastal waters of Pomerania. Depending on the type of the Zeese, it is drawn by two boats. "Zeese" is one of the few words which remained in use after the medieval replacement of West Slavic dialects with Low German ones in northeastern Germany. According to Bielfeldt, it derives from Pomeranian seza, which in turn has its roots in Slavic *sěděti, meaning "sit." The Zeese trawls used in the late 20th century were about 10 metres long, with wings of about 5 metres. Historical Zeese trawls did not have wings, all consisted of three consecutive compartments. From front to rear, these were termed Stolz, Mittelzeese or Hinternetz, Stoß. Types of Zeese nets differed in size of these compartments, the size of the mouth, the size of the meshes, whether a valve was integrated into the second compartment. Zeesenboot trawlers are sailing boats which carry the Zeese on two ropes tied to stem and post stem or stem and Driftboom, a cantilever at the stern exceeding the length of the post stem.

The Zeese is always on the luff side, since the trawler draws the net by drifting sidewards under full sail. The reddish color of most Zeesenboot sails derives from their traditional treatment with oak bark, to protect them against fungal infestation. Bielfeldt, Hans Holm. Die slawischen Wörter im Deutschen. Opuscula. 15. Zentralantiquariat der DDR. Emsmann, H.. "Die Fischereiarten an und auf den Odermündungen bis aufwärts Stettin". Gaea. 1. Lehmann. Pp. 81–88. Greule, Albrecht, ed.. Deutsche Kanzleisprachen im europäischen Kontext. Beiträge zur Kanzleisprachenforschung. 1. Edition Praesens. ISBN 3-7069-0109-9. Rudolph, Wolfgang. Segelboote der deutschen Ostseeküste. Akademie-Verlag

Barbara Petráhn

Barbara Petráhn is a Hungarian track and field sprinter who specializes in the 100 metres, 200 metres and 400 metres. An 11 time Hungarian Athletics Championships winner in 400 metres, Petráhn matched the national record of the distance in 2006, tying Ilona Pál's record set in 1980, she raced at two Olympics in this event in 2000 and 2008. In her first participation at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Petráhn made it from the first round to the quarterfinals, where she came last in her heat and did not advance further. At the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing she came only fourth in her first round heat thus did not manage to go to the quarterfinals. Beside 400 metres, she had successes in 200 metres, most notably winning 5 Hungarian Athletics Championships titles, including four in a row between 2007 and 2010; as of 20 May 2012 Hungarian athlete of the Year: 2007 IAAF profile for Barbara Petráhn