The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific'modalities', rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. Howard Gardner proposed this model in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. According to the theory, an intelligence'modality' must fulfill eight criteria: potential for brain isolation by brain damage place in evolutionary history presence of core operations susceptibility to encoding a distinct developmental progression the existence of savants and other exceptional people support from experimental psychology support from psychometric findingsGardner proposed eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria: musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, naturalisticIn 2009, he suggested that existential and moral intelligences may be worthy of inclusion. Although the distinction between intelligences has been set out in great detail, Gardner opposes the idea of labeling learners to a specific intelligence.
Gardner maintains that his theory should "empower learners", not restrict them to one modality of learning. According to Gardner, an intelligence is "a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture." According to a 2006 study, each of the domains proposed by Gardner involves a blend of the general g factor, cognitive abilities other than g, and, in some cases, non-cognitive abilities or personality characteristics. This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms and music. People with a high musical intelligence have good pitch and may have absolute pitch, are able to sing, play musical instruments, compose music, they have sensitivity to rhythm, meter, melody or timbre. This area deals with the ability to visualize with the mind's eye. Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence. People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with languages.
They are good at reading, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities; this type of intelligence is measured with the Verbal IQ in WAIS-IV. This area has to do with logic, reasoning and critical thinking; this has to do with having the capacity to understand the underlying principles of some kind of causal system. Logical reasoning is linked to fluid intelligence and to general intelligence; the core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one's bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully. Gardner elaborates to say that this includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses. People who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should be good at physical activities such as sports, dance and making things. Gardner believes that careers that suit those with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence include: athletes, musicians, builders, police officers, soldiers.
Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning, needed in this intelligence. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods, temperaments and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, "Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people..." Those with high interpersonal intelligence communicate and empathize with others, may be either leaders or followers. They enjoy discussion and debate." Gardner has equated this with emotional intelligence of Goleman. Gardner believes that careers that suit those with high interpersonal intelligence include sales persons, managers, lecturers and social workers; this area has to do with self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self.
Not part of Gardner's original seven, naturalistic intelligence was proposed by him in 1995. "If I were to rewrite Frames of Mind today, I would add an eighth intelligence – the intelligence of the naturalist. It seems to me that the individual, able to recognize flora and fauna, to make other consequential distinctions in the natural world, to use this ability productively is exercising an important intelligence and one, not adequately encompassed in the current list." This area has to do with relating information to one's natural surroundings. Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types; this ability was of value in our evolutionary past as hunters and farmers. This sort of ecological receptiveness is rooted in a "sensitive and holistic understanding" of the world and its complexities – including the role of humanity within the greater ecosphere. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct proposed after the original 7 in his 1999 book.
The hypothesis of an
Hangin' On is an album by American country music artist Waylon Jennings, released in 1968 on RCA Victor. Hangin' On is most notable for the hit single "The Chokin' Kind," which rose to #9 on the country charts, Jennings' best showing up to that time, it was written by Harlan Howard. In the authorized video biography Renegade Outlaw Legend, Jennings recalls, "I remember the first time I'd heard that, it was a demo that he had done, just himself, I flipped over that song. I loved that song." In the same documentary Howard added, "My melody was pretty straight, with this beautiful voice of his he changed the melody. I liked that melody better." Hangin' On climbed to #9 on the Billboard country albums chart. Praising "I Fall in Love So Easy" as the LP's "premier track," Eugene Chadbourne of AllMusic opines, "Sticking to musical criteria, the best tracks on this collection are so good that dismissing the gunky ones is easy... Jennings' backup band, the Waylors plays on a few tracks here, a hard-fought compromise with RCA producer Chet Atkins, who wanted his own session crew to provide backup.
There are no further musical credits, no information about who thought up the wonderful parts of this album. Call it a brilliant collaboration of Jennings and Atkins at the dawn of a new era in country music." "Hangin' On" – 2:19 "Julie" – 2:24 "The Crowd" – 2:36 "Let Me Talk to You" – 2:12 "Woman, Don't You Ever Laugh at Me" – 2:22 "The Chokin' Kind" – 2:27 "Gentle on My Mind" – 3:07 "Right Before My Eyes" – 2:02 "Lock and Teardrops" – 2:49 "I Fall in Love So Easily" – 2:08 "Looking at a Heart That Needs a Home" – 2:27 "How Long Have You Been There" – 2:37
The Kia Combi was a series of mini-buses built from 1983 until October 2002 by Asia Motors, Kia Motors. Asia Motors has been owned by Kia since 1976. In 1983, the 24-seater Asia Motors AM805/807 "Combi" minibuses were launched, entering full production in 1984. Most versions received the Mazda ZB six-cylinder engine of 4,052 cc; this produced 100 PS at 3,600 rpm. They succeeded the first generation Mazda Parkway, while being based on the second generation Parkway. In 1988 or 1990 the twin headlights were changed, introducing "cats-eye" headlights. In 1994 the AM815 Hi-Combi was added to the lineup. For the 1996 model year another modification took place, introducing more modern smaller four-cylinder Hyundai engines with more power as well as a re-designed dashboard; these models feature twin round headlights. The new inline-four engines included Hyundai's new turbocharged 3.3 L D4AL and 3.9 L D4DA, producing 120 PS and 140 PS respectively. Following the 1999 merger of Kia and Hyundai, the Asia sub-brand had vanished by 2000.
The vehicle was therefore rebadged as the Kia Power Combi. With stricter South Korean emissions regulations on the horizon for 2003, the Combi was discontinued without a successor on October 28, 2002. List of buses Chronological table of Korean Buses