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Theosophy

Theosophy is a religion established in the United States during the late nineteenth century. It was founded by the Russian immigrant Helena Blavatsky and draws its beliefs predominantly from Blavatsky's writings. Categorised by scholars of religion as both a new religious movement and as part of the occultist stream of Western esotericism, it draws upon both older European philosophies such as Neoplatonism and Asian religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism; as presented by Blavatsky, Theosophy teaches that there is an ancient and secretive brotherhood of spiritual adepts known as the Masters, who—although found across the world—are centered in Tibet. These Masters are believed to have cultivated great wisdom and supernatural powers, Theosophists believe that it was they who initiated the modern Theosophical movement through disseminating their teachings via Blavatsky, they believe that these Masters are attempting to revive knowledge of an ancient religion once found across the world and which will again come to eclipse the existing world religions.

Theosophical groups do not refer to their system as a "religion". Theosophy preaches the existence of a divine Absolute, it promotes an emanationist cosmology in which the universe is perceived as outward reflections from this Absolute. Theosophy teaches that the purpose of human life is spiritual emancipation and claims that the human soul undergoes reincarnation upon bodily death according to a process of karma, it promotes values of universal brotherhood and social improvement, although it does not stipulate particular ethical codes. Theosophy was established in New York City in 1875 with the founding of the Theosophical Society by Blavatsky and two Americans, Henry Olcott and William Quan Judge. In the early 1880s, Blavatsky and Olcott relocated to India, where they established the Society's headquarters at Adyar, Tamil Nadu. Blavatsky described her ideas in Isis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine, she was accused of fraudulently producing purportedly supernatural phenomena in connection with these "masters".

Following Blavatsky's death in 1891, there was a schism in the Society, with Judge leading the Theosophical Society in America to split from the international organization. Under Judge's successor Katherine Tingley, a Theosophical community named Lomaland was established in San Diego; the Adyar-based Society was taken over by Annie Besant, under whom it grew to its largest extent during the late 1920s, before going into decline. The Theosophical movement still although in much smaller form than in its heyday. Theosophy played a significant role in bringing knowledge of South Asian religions to Western countries, as well as in encouraging cultural pride in various South Asian nations. A variety of prominent artists and writers have been influenced by Theosophical teachings. Theosophy has an international following, during the twentieth century had tens of thousands of adherents. Theosophical ideas have exerted an influence on a wide range of other esoteric movements and philosophies, among them Anthroposophy, the Church Universal and Triumphant, the New Age.

Theosophy's founder, the Russian Helena Blavatsky, insisted that it was not a religion, although did refer to it as the modern transmission of the "once universal religion" that she claimed had existed deep into the human past. That Theosophy should not be labelled a religion is a claim, maintained by Theosophical organisations, who instead regard it as a system that embraces what they see as the "essential truth" underlying religion and science; as a result, Theosophical groups allow their members to hold other religious allegiances, resulting in Theosophists who identify as Christians, Buddhists, or Hindus. Scholars of religion who have studied Theosophy have characterised it as a religion. In his history of the Theosophical movement, Bruce F. Campbell noted that Theosophy promoted "a religious world-view" using "explicitly religious terms" and that its central tenets are not unequivocal fact, but rather rely on belief. Olav Hammer and Mikael Rothstein termed it "one of the modern world's most important religious traditions".

Various scholars have pointed to its eclectic nature. More Theosophy has been categorized as a new religious movement. Scholars have classified Theosophy as a form of Western esotericism. Campbell for instance referred to it as "an esoteric religious tradition", while the historian Joy Dixon called it an "esoteric religion". More it is considered a form of occultism. Along with other groups like the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the Theosophical Society has been seen as part of an "occult revival" that took place in Western countries during the late nineteenth century; the historian of religion Wouter Hanegraaff noted that Theosophy helped to establish the "essential foundations for much of twentieth-century esotericism". Although Theosophy draws upon Indian religious beliefs, the sociologist of religion Christopher Partridge observed that "Theosophy is fundamentally Western; that is to say, Theosophy is not Eastern thought in the West, but Western thought with an Eastern flavour." At a meeting of the Miracle Club in New York City on 7 September 1875, Blavatsky and Judge agreed to establish an organisation, with Charles Sotheran suggesting that they call it the Theosophical Society.

Prior to adopting the name "Theosophical", they had debated various potential names, among them the Egyptological Society, the Hermetic Society, the Rosicrucian Society. The term

List of Jewish American chemists

This is a list of notable Jewish American chemists. For other Jewish Americans, see Lists of Jewish Americans. Sidney Altman, Nobel Prize Christian B. Anfinsen, Nobel Prize Allen J. Bard, inventor of scanning electrochemical microscope, Wolf Prize Paul Berg, Nobel Prize Walter Gilbert, DNA sequencing, Nobel Prize Herbert A. Hauptman, Nobel Prize Roald Hoffmann and writer, Nobel Prize winner Martin Kamen, carbon-14 Jacob A. Marinsky, discovered promethium Alexander Pines, physical chemist, Wolf Prize Martin Pope, physical chemist, Davy Medal William Stein, Nobel Prize

WWHX

WWHX is an FM radio station on 100.7 MHz at Normal, Illinois. It received its license on January 10, 2006, began its current Rhythmic Top 40 format with the name Hot 100.7 on April 1, 2018. The station is a Neuhoff Media through licensee Neuhoff Media Bloomington, LLC. 100.7 signed on in August 2005 as WVMG with an adult contemporary format known as Magic 100.7. Magic signed on as a direct competitor to Star 107.7, but had a better signal within Bloomington/Normal. The station had modest success but was able to drive competitor Star 107.7 out of the format in 2007. Throughout its years as an AC station it flipped to a Christmas format every November around Thanksgiving; the station hired a known talent from WBNQ as a morning host. In March 2012, then-owner Connoisseur Media pulled the plug on Magic and flipped to a CHR format as Hits 100.7. The station continued to air a contemporary hit radio format until April 1, 2018, when it switched to a Rhythmic CHR format with the branding "Hot 100.7: The Beat of BloNo".

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