click links in text for more info


Theotokos is a title of Mary, mother of Jesus, used in Eastern Christianity. The usual Latin translations, Dei Genetrix or Deipara, are "Mother of God" or "God-bearer"; the title has been in use since the 3rd century, in the Syriac tradition in the Liturgy of Mari and Addai and the Liturgy of St James. The Council of Ephesus in AD 431 decreed that Mary is the Theotokos because her son Jesus is both God and man: one divine person with two natures intimately and hypostatically united; the title of Mother of God or Mother of Incarnate God. For the same reason, the title is left untranslated, as "Theotokos", in Orthodox liturgical usage of other languages. Theotokos is used as the term for an Eastern icon, or type of icon, of the Mother with Child, as in "the Theotokos of Vladimir" both for the original 12th-century icon and for icons that are copies or imitate its composition. Theotokos is an adjectival compound of two Greek words Θεός "God" and τόκος "childbirth, parturition. A close paraphrase would be " whose offspring is God" or " who gave birth to one, God".

The usual English translation is "Mother of God". The Church Slavonic translation is Bogoroditsa; the full title of Mary in Slavic Orthodox tradition is Прест҃а́ѧ влⷣчица на́ша бцⷣа и҆ прⷭ҇нод҃ва мр҃і́а, from Greek Ὑπεραγία δέσποινα ἡμῶν Θεοτόκος καὶ ἀειπάρθενος Μαρία "Our Most Holy Lady Theotokos and Ever-Virgin Mary". German has the translation Gottesgebärerin. "Mother of God" is the literal translation of a distinct title in Greek, Μήτηρ του Θεού, a term which has an established usage of its own in traditional Orthodox and Catholic theological writing and iconography. In an abbreviated form, ΜΡ ΘΥ, it is found on Eastern icons, where it is used to identify Mary; the Russian term is Матерь Божия. Variant forms are the compounds Θεομήτωρ and Μητρόθεος, which are found in patristic and liturgical texts; the theological dispute over the term concerned the term Θεός "God" vs. Χριστός "Christ", not τόκος vs. μήτηρ, the two terms have been used as synonyms throughout Christian tradition. Both terms are known to have existed alongside one another since the early church, but it has been argued in modern times, that the term "Mother of God" is unduly suggestive of Godhead having its origin in Mary, imparting to Mary the role of a Mother Goddess.

But this is an exact reiteration of the objection by Nestorius, resolved in the 5th century, to the effect that the term "Mother" expresses the relation of Mary to the incarnate Son ascribed to Mary in Christian theology. Theologically, the terms "Mother of God", "Mother of Incarnate God" should not be taken to imply that Mary is the source of the existence of the divine nature of Jesus, who existed with the Father from all eternity, or of her Son's divinity. Within the Orthodox and Catholic tradition, Mother of God has not been understood, nor been intended to be understood, as referring to Mary as Mother of God from eternity — that is, as Mother of God the Father — but only with reference to the birth of Jesus, that is, the Incarnation. To make it explicit, it is sometimes translated Mother of God Incarnate.. The Nicene-Costantinopolitan Creed of 381 affirmed the Christian faith on "one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds", that "came down from heaven, was incarnate by the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary, was made man".

Since that time, the expression "Mother of God" referred to the Dyophysite doctrine of the hypostatic union, about the uniqueness with the twofold nature of Jesus Christ God, both human and divine. Since that time, Jesus was affirmed as true Man and true God from all eternity; the status of Mary as Theotokos was a topic of theological dispute in the 4th and 5th centuries and was the subject of the decree of the Council of Ephesus of 431 to the effect that, in opposition to those who denied Mary the title Theotokos but called her Christotokos, Mary is Theotokos because her son Jesus is one person, both God and man and human. This decree created the Nestorian Schism. Cyril of Alexandria wrote, "I am amazed that there are some who are in doubt as to whether the holy Virgin should be called Theotokos or not. For if our Lord Jesus Christ is God, how is the holy Virgin who gave birth, not?". But the argument of Nestorius was that divine and human natures of Christ were distinct, while Mary is evidently the Christotokos, it could be misleading to describe her as the "bearer of God".

At issue is the interpretation of the Incarnation, the nature of the hypostatic union of Christ's human and divine natures between Christ's conception and birth. Within the Orthodox doctrinal teaching on the economy of salvation, Mary's identity, role

Ophir, New Zealand

Ophir is a small settlement in Central Otago, New Zealand, located between Alexandra and Ranfurly close to the east bank of the Manuherikia River. The settlement of Omakau is located on 3 kilometres to the northwest. Ophir was known as Blacks, when gold was discovered in Central Otago in 1863 Ophir's population grew to over 1000 as it became the commercial and social centre of the district, it was renamed Ophir at this time, where King Solomon obtained the gold to sheath the Temple in Jerusalem, is thus the place name of the legendary "King Solomon's Goldmines". Today, with a current population of only 50, the town is known for the many original buildings still surviving including the restored Post and Telegraph Office, the 1895 Courthouse, the 1870s Police Station; the Post Office is a schist and stone masonry structure built in 1886, registered by Heritage New Zealand as a Category I Historic Place. New Zealand's second-lowest official temperature of -21.6 °C was recorded at Ophir on 3 July 1995 though it is not located at a high elevation

Yōrō Falls

Yōrō Falls is a waterfall in Yōrō Park located in the town of Yōrō, Yōrō District, Japan. The waterfall is 4 meters wide, it was chosen as one of Japan’s Top 100 Waterfalls. The water from the falls is praised for its high quality, is mentioned in a legend that tells the story of a dedicated son who offered the water, which tasted like sake to his ailing father who, upon drinking it, was revived; the Empress Genshō, who visited this area, renamed the period of her reign "Yōrō" saying, "Rei Springs art beautiful springs. And so doth nourish the old, it be the spirit of the waters. I do give amnesty under heaven, fix the third year of the Reiki anew to year 1 of the Yōrō." Yōrō Park extends from Yōrō Falls to the Nanno Sekigahara Line, a prefectural road that runs along the foot of the mountain. From the park's parking lot, one must climb a steep hillside road for 700 to 800 meters, but from about midway between the parking lot and the falls, there is a lift running. By taking this lift, one may reach the falls with comparative ease.

There is another parking lot nearer the falls. The carbonated beverages like Ramune and cider, which are made using the water, are popular; the cider, made with the local water was once called "Yōrō Cider" and was produced in the town. In recent years, the production of this beverage has been taken over by a different company, the product renamed "Yōrō Sanroku Cider." The waterfall is in the upstream part of the Taki Valley, which joins in Tsuta River flows Ise Bay. Taki Valley is the source river on Mount Yōrō. Yōrō Station of YORO Railway CO. LTD is the nearest station for the waterfall, it is in the Ibi-Sekigahara-Yōrō Quasi-National Park. It is near the starting point for climbing Mount Yōrō and Mount Shō; the hiker visits the waterfall. There is the Tōkai Nature Trail in the south soon. Japan’s Top 100 Waterfalls Mount Yōrō Yōrō Station Ibi-Sekigahara-Yōrō Quasi-National Park Tōkai Nature Trail Yōrō Park Yōrō-chō Tourism Association

Odinov culture

The Odinov culture is the beginning of the Bronze Age archeological culture of foot hunters named after the settlement Odino in the basin of lower Ishim river in Western Siberia. The culture may be older; the Odinov culture is an island surrounded by forest-steppe type cultural array. Its settlements are situated along the terraces of the creeks. Insufficiently known dwellings appear to be dug-outs, it is thought. The available materials indicate beginning of tradition of animal husbandry economy. Osteological material is represented by domesticated animals' bones showing main role of producing economy. Similarity with typical products of tin bronze alloys indicate affiliation with the Seima Turbino phenomenon; the Odinov culture stone industry has not been studied. Odinov culture burials are similar to those of the Krotov culture, they indicate a presence of common rituals typical for the cultures of the northern forest-steppe belonging to the Seima Turbino metallurgical province; the Odinov culture is notable for its ceramics with dishes decorated with comb impressions with or without rows of pit indentations, coarse textile prints, some pit ornament elements form geometrical figures.

Odinov culture is marked by specific borrowings in ornamentation, including pseudo-textile prints, which indicates close ties with the taiga populations. Volkov E. N. "Odinov Bronze Age culture"//Great Tumen encyclopedia. Tyumen, Tyumen University Press, Vol. 2, p. 384 Kosarev M. F. "Bronze Age in Western Siberia", Moscow, 1981 Chlenova N. L. Dating of Irmen culture//Chronology and cultural affiliation problems of archaeological sites in Western Siberia, Tomsk, 1970, pp. 133–149 Chikisheva T. A. Dynamics of anthropological differentiation in population of southern Western Siberia in Neolithic - Early Iron Age, Professorial dissertation, Novosibirsk, 2010, section Conclusions

Robert Hugo, Duke of Parma

Robert Hugo, Duke of Parma and Piacenza was the head of the House of Bourbon-Parma and the pretender to the defunct throne of the Duchy of Parma between 1959 and 1974. Robert Hugo was born at Schloss Weilburg in Baden bei Wien, the second but eldest surviving son of Elias, Duke of Parma and Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, he succeeded his father Elias as head of the House of Bourbon-Parma upon his death in 1959, maintained his style until his death in 1974 in Vienna. He died unmarried and without issue, was succeeded by his agnatic half-uncle Xavier. Calabrian House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Calabrian Two Sicilian Order of Saint George. Duchy of Parma House of Bourbon-Parma

Mike Doss

Michael Allen Doss is an American former football safety who played in the National Football League for six seasons. He played college football for The Ohio State University, earned consensus All-American honors, was a member of a national championship team; the Indianapolis Colts chose him in the second round of the 2003 NFL Draft, he played professionally for the Colts, Minnesota Vikings and Cincinnati Bengals of the NFL. Doss was a member of the Colts Super Bowl XLI team in its 2007 win over the Chicago Bears. Doss was born in Ohio, he attended Canton McKinley High School, played high school football for the McKinley Bulldogs. He led the Bulldogs to back-to-back state football championships, as well as a USA Today national championship, as a running back and safety; as a senior, he had 1,454 yards rushing, 22 touchdowns, 111 tackles, three interceptions and won all-state honors and an All-America honorable mention by USA Today. Doss attended Ohio State University, where he played for the Ohio State Buckeyes football team from 1999 to 2002.

He started 40 out of 50 career games and was a three-time first-team All-Big Ten selection and a three-time first-team All-America choice by the Sporting News. He had 331 career tackles, eight interceptions, eight fumbles recovered, six quarterback sacks. With Doss starting all 14 games as a senior, Doss intercepted a Ken Dorsey pass to give Ohio State the lead in the BCS national championship game; as a senior, he was the Big Ten Defensive Player of the Year, a unanimous first-team All-American. Doss was inducted into the Ohio State University Football Hall of Fame in 2011. In 2003, the Indianapolis Colts drafted Doss in the second round of the 2003 NFL Draft. In that season, he started 15 games at strong safety, amassing three interceptions. Doss was released by the Colts after the 2006 season. On April 4, 2007 Doss was signed to a one-year contract by the Minnesota Vikings, he played in eight games. Doss was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals on December 9, 2008 after the team released defensive end Josh Mallard.

He was released by the team on April 27, 2009. Key GP: games played COMB: combined tackles TOTAL: total tackles AST: assisted tackles SACK: sacks FF: forced fumbles FR: fumble recoveries FR YDS: fumble return yards INT: interceptions IR YDS: interception return yards AVG IR: average interception return LNG: longest interception return TD: interceptions returned for touchdown PD: passes defensed In 2005, Mike Doss founded The Michael A. Doss Foundation. MDF was founded to assist in the advancement of education, relief of the underprivileged and underserved youth and the promotion of social welfare by lessening neighborhood tensions, eliminating prejudice and discrimination, combating community deterioration and juvenile delinquency. More information is available at www. In 2010 Doss was named the winner of the Canton Jaycees Distinguished Service Award. Doss and the Mike Doss Foundation have been responsible for the Make A Difference Youth Football Camp at Fawcett Stadium. 200 children, ages 8–12, have participated annually.

Doss is responsible for the Back to School Block Party for Canton City Schools students. By partnering with local companies and organizations, Doss’ organization has distributed goods with a total value of $20,000. Doss continues to provide gifts to local children during the holiday season and serves as a motivational speaker for students in Canton City Schools as requested; as of 2017, Doss works for Zimmer Biomet as a medical sales representative in Ohio. He has now taken up golf. Official Website Cincinnati Bengals bio Indianapolis Colts bio Minnesota Vikings bio