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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape and volume in response to a change in temperature. Temperature is a monotonic function of the average molecular kinetic energy of a substance; when a substance is heated, the kinetic energy of its molecules increases. Thus, the molecules begin vibrating/moving more and maintain a greater average separation. Materials which contract with increasing temperature are unusual; the relative expansion divided by the change in temperature is called the material's coefficient of linear thermal expansion and varies with temperature. If an equation of state is available, it can be used to predict the values of the thermal expansion at all the required temperatures and pressures, along with many other state functions. A number of materials contract on heating within certain temperature ranges. For example, the coefficient of thermal expansion of water drops to zero as it is cooled to 3.983 °C and becomes negative below this temperature. Pure silicon has a negative coefficient of thermal expansion for temperatures between about 18 and 120 kelvins.

Unlike gases or liquids, solid materials tend to keep their shape. Thermal expansion decreases with increasing bond energy, which has an effect on the melting point of solids, so, high melting point materials are more to have lower thermal expansion. In general, liquids expand more than solids; the thermal expansion of glasses is higher compared to that of crystals. At the glass transition temperature, rearrangements that occur in an amorphous material lead to characteristic discontinuities of coefficient of thermal expansion and specific heat; these discontinuities allow detection of the glass transition temperature where a supercooled liquid transforms to a glass. Absorption or desorption of water can change the size of many common materials. Common plastics exposed to water can, in the long term, expand by many percent; the coefficient of thermal expansion describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. It measures the fractional change in size per degree change in temperature at a constant pressure.

Several types of coefficients have been developed: volumetric and linear. The choice of coefficient depends on the particular application and which dimensions are considered important. For solids, one might only be concerned over some area; the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient is the most basic thermal expansion coefficient, the most relevant for fluids. In general, substances expand or contract when their temperature changes, with expansion or contraction occurring in all directions. Substances that expand at the same rate in every direction are called isotropic. For isotropic materials, the area and volumetric thermal expansion coefficient are approximately twice and three times larger than the linear thermal expansion coefficient. Mathematical definitions of these coefficients are defined below for solids and gases. In the general case of a gas, liquid, or solid, the volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion is given by α = α V = 1 V p The subscript "p" to the derivative indicates that the pressure is held constant during the expansion, the subscript V stresses that it is the volumetric expansion that enters this general definition.

In the case of a gas, the fact that the pressure is held constant is important, because the volume of a gas will vary appreciably with pressure as well as temperature. For a gas of low density this can be seen from the ideal gas law; when calculating thermal expansion it is necessary to consider whether the body is free to expand or is constrained. If the body is free to expand, the expansion or strain resulting from an increase in temperature can be calculated by using the applicable coefficient of Thermal Expansion. If the body is constrained so that it cannot expand internal stress will be caused by a change in temperature; this stress can be calculated by considering the strain that would occur if the body were free to expand and the stress required to reduce that strain to zero, through the stress/strain relationship characterised by the elastic or Young's modulus. In the special case of solid materials, external ambient pressure does not appreciably affect the size of an object and so it is not necessary to consider the effect of pressure changes.

Common engineering solids have coefficients of thermal expansion that do not vary over the range of temperatures where they are designed to be used, so where high accuracy is not required, practical calculations can be based on a constant, value of the coefficient of expansion. Linear expansion means change in one dimension as opposed to change in volume. To a first approximation, the change in length measurements of an object due to therma

Andrew Johnson (architect)

Andrew Johnson was a Swedish–American architect and contractor He designed 61 documented or attributed buildings in Panola County, Mississippi and at least 16 more in North Mississippi and Arkansas. Several of his works are listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Anders Jönsson was born in the parish of Ovansjö in the county of Sweden, he was trained at Uppsala University where he received an award from King Charles XV of Sweden for his contest winning design He used the prize money to emigrate to America in 1865, where his building career lasted from 1870 to 1910. After arriving in the United States, his name was changed to Andrew Johnson, he first settled in a Swedish-American community in Illinois. About 1870, he moved to Sardis, Mississippi where he became associated with James B. Cook, an English-trained architect who had moved from London to Memphis, Tennessee in 1855. Johnson served as contractor building the Second Empire style Panola County Courthouse that Cook designed and was built in 1873 and as contractor on at least two other buildings.

Johnson and Cook collaborated on at least two other buildings. Col. Chap Anderson House, 402 N. Jackson St. Kosciusko, MS, NRHP-listed Ballentine-Bryant House, 506 Butler St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed Ballentine-Seay House, Pocahontas St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed Byhalia Historic District, along Church and Senter Sts. Byhalia, MS, NRHP-listed Byhalia United Methodist Church, College Ave. Byhalia, MS, NRHP-listed Craig-Seay House, Craig St. Como, MS, NRHP-listed Crenshaw House, MS 310 Crenshaw, MS, NRHP-listed Hall-Henderson House, Sycamore St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed Hall-Roberson House, 510 S. Main St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed Holy Innocents' Episcopal Church, Jct. of Main & Craig St. Como, MS, NRHP-listed Hufft House, 117 Pocahontas St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed Johnson-Tate Cottage, Stonewall St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed John Curtis Kyle House, 109 McLaurin St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed Lee House, 201 Booth St. Batesville, MS, NRHP-listed Popular Price Store, Railroad St. Como, MS, NRHP-listed Short's Hill, 203 Childress St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed St. John's Catholic Church in Como, Mississippi Tait-Taylor House, Oak Ave. Como, MS, NRHP-listed Taylor-Falls House, Pointer Ave. Como, MS, NRHP-listed Taylor-Mansker House, Railroad St. Como, MS, NRHP-listed Taylor-Wall-Yancy House, 114 Sycamore St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed Walton-Howry House, 308 S.

Main St. Sardis, MS, NRHP-listed Wardlaw-Swango House, Railroad St. Como, MS, NRHP-listed

Treaty of Fredrikshamn

The Treaty of Fredrikshamn or the Treaty of Hamina was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on 17 September 1809. The treaty was signed in the Finnish town of Hamina. Russia was represented by Nikolai Rumyantsev and David Alopaeus, while Sweden by Infantry General Kurt von Stedingk and Colonel Anders Fredrik Skjöldebrand. According to the treaty Sweden ceded parts of the provinces Lappland and Västerbotten, Åland, all provinces east thereof; the ceded territories came to constitute the Grand Duchy of Finland, to which the Russian 18th century conquests of Karelia, including small parts of Nyland and Savonia, were joined in 1812 as Viborg County. Together with the Diet of Porvoo, the Oath of the Sovereign, the Treaty of Fredrikshamn constitutes the cornerstone for the autonomous Grand Duchy, its own administration and institutions, thereby a start of the development which would lead to the revival of Finnish culture, to equal position of the Finnish language, in 1917 to Finland's independence.

A reference to Emperor Alexander's promise to retain old laws and privileges in Finland was included, but the treaty overstepped any formal guarantees of the legal position of Finland's inhabitants. The Russians refused, the Swedes were not in a position to insist. Similar clauses had been common in peace treaties, but they were regularly circumvented. At the period of Russification of Finland, 90 years the Russian government argued that the treaty was not violated and hence no outside party had any right to intervene, the question being a matter of the Emperor who had granted the original promise. During the negotiations, Swedish representatives had namely endeavoured to escape the loss of the Åland islands, "the fore-posts of Stockholm," as Napoleon rightly described them; the Åland islands were culturally and linguistically purely Swedish, but such facts were of no significance at that time. In the course of the 19th century, it would turn out that the Åland islands were a British interest, after the Crimean War, led to the demilitarization of the islands according to the Åland Convention included in the Treaty of Paris.

During the Second War against Napoleon and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against France. They planned to effect a landing in Swedish Pomerania, overrun by the French. Russia promised to press Denmark into ceding Norway to Sweden, it was understood that never came to pass. Other plans failed to materialise due to Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Похлебкин В.В. Внешняя политика Руси, России и СССР за 1000 лет в именах, датах, фактах: Справочник, М.: Междунар. Отношения —Pokhlebkin, V. V. Foreign policy of Russia and the USSR in 1000 years: the names, the dates, the facts: a reference book, Moscow: International Relations, ISBN 5-7133-0845-6 The Original Text of the Peace Treaty

William H. Hume

William H. Hume was an American architect in New York City, his work included the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of New York on Amsterdam Avenue, the Langdon Building at 305 Broadway, Scotch Presbyterian Church on 96th Street and Central Park West, the Hotel New Netherland, replaced by the Sherry Netherland Hotel in 1927, the Mutual Reserve Building at 305 Broadway. Hume designed an addition to the B. Altman Dry Goods Store at 615–629 Avenue of the Americas, between West 18th and 19th Streets in the Flatiron District of Manhattan, New York City; the original B. Altman store was built 1876–77, with Hume's addition on the south added in 1887, another addition on West 18th Street by Buchman & Fox in 1909. B. Altman moved to Fifth Avenue and 34th Street in 1906; the current street retail occupant of the Sixth Avenue structure is The Container Store. William H. Hume & Son designed the Spingler Building at 5–9 Union Square West, it is located on the west side of Union Square between the Lincoln Building and the former Tiffany & Co. headquarters at 15 Union Square West.

Other work included the Simpson Crawford Simpson Store and plans for the Masonic Home and School in Utica, New York. Margot Gayle, writing in Cast-Iron Architecture in New York: a Photographic Survey, says of 83–87 Grand St. "Architect William H. Hume did it in 1883 as a silk showroom and warehouse – an addition to that section of the building..., erected 10 years earlier. It was part of an original grand plan, for the architect had the iron elements for this big addition cast in the same design as for the first building, resulting in a unified whole; the older part of the building carries the date 1872 in its galvanized iron cornice, displays the foundry label of Lindsay, Graff & Megquier." He is credited with 83–87 Grand St. SW corner of Greene St. a "serene Tuscan over elaborate Corinithian"

Jeremy Drummond

Jeremy Drummond is a published author of several novels. He resides in Michigan. Born in Flint, Michigan, to parents, Iverson & Bennita Drummond he picked up writing at an early age from them, his father being a General Motors foreman and a published poet and his mother an elementary school librarian. Drummond writes gritty Urban fiction that depicts drug dealers, ex cons, prostitutes. Drummond became known for his Urban Novel Dutchess; the ebook version has remained in the top 100 African American novels on since its release. His novels are sold throughout many mediums including Nobles. On April 27, 2010, Drummond released a mainstream fiction work entitled "Escaping The Rain", A Nick Aldo Mystery. While evaluating further opportunities, Drummond is working on expanding his detective series, releasing the sequel to Dutchess, his work is checked out in Libraries across the United States, since being reviewed by prestigious places as the Library Journalas well as the respected African American OOSA Book Club where it only received two out of five stars.

^ Verified By Cocatalog Search September 15, 2010 ^ Library Journal Review June 2010 ^ Respected African-American OOSA Book Club Review ^ Search Local Libraries for Title ^ Dutchess Ebook, Amazon April 1, 2010 ^ Amazon Bestseller List African American September 15, 2010 ^ Escaping The Rain, Nick Aldo Mystery April 27, 2010 SMKD. – Author Official Contact Official Twitter – Official Company Twitter

Tellurium monoxide

The diatomic molecule tellurium monoxide has been found as a transient species. Previous work that claimed the existence of TeO solid has not been substantiated; the coating on DVDs called tellurium suboxide may be a mixture of tellurium dioxide and tellurium metal. Tellurium monoxide was first reported in 1883 by M. Shimose, it was created by the heat decomposition of tellurium sulfoxide in a vacuum, was shown to react with hydrogen chloride in a 1913 report. Work has not substantiated the claim that this was a pure solid compound. By 1984, the company Panasonic was working on an erasable optical disk drive containing "tellurium monoxide". Tellurium dioxide Tellurium trioxide Lead carbide – thought to be a pure compound, but now considered more to be a mixture of carbon and lead Iodine pentabromide – thought to be a pure compound, but now considered to be a mixture of iodine monobromide and excess unreacted bromine