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Thermobaric weapon

A thermobaric weapon, aerosol bomb, or vacuum bomb, is a type of explosive that uses oxygen from the surrounding air to generate a high-temperature explosion. In practice, the blast wave produced by such a weapon is of a longer duration than that produced by a conventional condensed explosive; the fuel-air explosive is one of the best-known types of thermobaric weapons. Most conventional explosives consist of a fuel-oxidizer premix, whereas thermobaric weapons are 100% fuel, so thermobaric weapons are more energetic than conventional condensed explosives of equal weight, their reliance on atmospheric oxygen makes them unsuitable for use underwater, at high altitude, in adverse weather. They are, however more destructive when used against field fortifications such as foxholes, tunnels and caves—partly due to the sustained blast wave and by consuming the oxygen inside. There are many different types of thermobaric weapons; the term thermobaric is derived from the Greek words for "heat" and "pressure": thermobarikos, from thermos, hot + baros, pressure + suffix -ikos, suffix -ic.

Other terms used for this family of weapons are high-impulse thermobaric weapons and pressure weapons, vacuum bombs, or fuel-air explosives. In contrast to a condensed explosive in which oxidation in a confined region produces a blast front emanating from a single source, a thermobaric flame front accelerates to a large volume, which produces pressure fronts both within the mixture of fuel and oxidant and in the surrounding air. Thermobaric explosives apply the principles underlying accidental unconfined vapor cloud explosions, which include those from dispersions of flammable dusts and droplets; such explosions were most encountered in flour mills and their storage containers, in coal mines. A typical weapon consists of a container packed with a fuel substance, in the center of, a small conventional-explosive "scatter charge". Fuels are chosen on the basis of the exothermicity of their oxidation, ranging from powdered metals, such as aluminum or magnesium, to organic materials with a self-contained partial oxidant.

The most recent development involves the use of nanofuels. A thermobaric bomb's effective yield requires the most appropriate combination of a number of factors. In some designs, strong munitions cases allow the blast pressure to be contained long enough for the fuel to be heated up well above its auto-ignition temperature, so that once the container bursts the super-heated fuel will auto-ignite progressively as it comes into contact with atmospheric oxygen. Conventional upper and lower limits of flammability apply to such weapons. Close in, blast from the dispersal charge and heating the surrounding atmosphere, will have some influence on the lower limit; the upper limit has been demonstrated to influence the ignition of fogs above pools of oil. This weakness may be eliminated by designs where the fuel is preheated well above its ignition temperature, so that its cooling during its dispersion still results in a minimal ignition delay on mixing; the continual combustion of the outer layer of fuel molecules as they come into contact with the air, generates additional heat which maintains the temperature of the interior of the fireball, thus sustains the detonation.

In confinement, a series of reflective shock waves are generated, which maintain the fireball and can extend its duration to between 10 and 50 ms as exothermic recombination reactions occur. Further damage can result as the gases cool and pressure drops leading to a partial vacuum; this rarefaction effect has given rise to the misnomer "vacuum bomb". Piston-type afterburning is believed to occur in such structures, as flame-fronts accelerate through it. A fuel-air explosive device consists of a container of two separate explosive charges. After the munition is dropped or fired, the first explosive charge bursts open the container at a predetermined height and disperses the fuel in a cloud that mixes with atmospheric oxygen; the cloud of fuel flows into structures. The second charge detonates the cloud, creating a massive blast wave; the blast wave destroys kills and injures people. The antipersonnel effect of the blast wave is more severe in foxholes and tunnels, in enclosed spaces, such as bunkers and caves.

Fuel-air explosives were first developed by the United States for use in Vietnam. In response, Soviet scientists developed their own FAE weapons, which were used against China in the Sino-Soviet border conflict, against the Mujahideen in Afghanistan. Since research and development has continued and Russian forces field a wide array of third-generation FAE warheads. A Human Rights Watch report of 1 February 2000 quotes a study made by the US Defense Intelligence Agency: The kill mechanism against living targets is unique–and unpleasant.... What kills is the pressure wave, more the subse


KLVP is a non-profit FM radio station licensed to Aloha and serving the Portland metropolitan area. The station is owned, the broadcast license held, by the Educational Media Foundation, it airs the national Contemporary Christian radio format known as "K-Love." The transmitter is on SW Fairmount Court in Portland's West Hills, amid the towers for other FM and TV stations. KLVP has an effective radiated power of 52,350 watts. KLVP is considered a "move-in" station, established outside the Portland metropolitan area but moving in, to serve the large Portland radio market, it began in Oregon, 100 miles south of Portland. On December 26, 1958, the station first signed on as KFMY; the station was owned by a company calling itself KFMY Music and its studios and offices were in the penthouse at the Eugene Medical Center. It was powered at 3,600 watts. In the late 1960s, KFMY became an ABC FM Network affiliate. In 1978, KFMY was acquired by the same company that owned AM 590 KUGN. On August 9, 1978, the call sign was changed to KUGN-FM.

It started airing a country music format. In 1997, Citadel Communications acquired KUGN-AM-FM. To give it a separate identity from the AM station, the call sign for the FM station was changed to KKTT on March 16, 1998; the KKTT call. In 2000, Citadel Communications was merged into Cumulus Media. On August 15, 2001, Cumulus decided to flip KKTT to the alternative rock format and branding heard on 95.3, as 97.9’s call sign became KNRQ-FM. The call letters stand for "New Rock" with a Q substituting for the CK. Cumulus had enjoyed success including WFTK in Cincinnati; the Educational Media Foundation had acquired an FM station located about 40 miles north of Eugene, 103.7 KXPC-FM in Lebanon, Oregon. With its 100,000 watt transmitter, it could be heard in the Eugene area, but EMF wanted to have its K-Love Contemporary Christian format heard in the larger Portland media market. On August 31, 2012, it was announced that Educational Media Foundation would sell KXPC-FM to Cumulus, allowing it to move its Alternative Rock station, KNRQ, to 103.7.

Cumulus would give up 97.9, so EMF could relocate that station to the suburbs of Portland. On July 28, 2013, Cumulus moved KNRQ's programming to 103.7 at midnight. The KXPC call letters were switched to 97.9. A new Portland-area transmitter began testing the signal on 97.9 MHz with automated music. The swap between EMF and Cumulus was completed on August 1, 2013. KXPC-FM's former 103.7 frequency was granted a U. S. Federal Communications Commission construction permit to change its city of license to Harrisburg and move its tower closer to Eugene, now as KNRQ. On September 30, 2013, KXPC returned to the air on 97.9 FM, with Aloha as its new city of license, airing the K-Love Contemporary Christian network. On October 29, 2013, KXPC changed its call letters to KLVP. KLVP airs EMF's Air 1 Christian worship format on its HD2 subchannel and K-Love Classics on its HD3 subchannel. On May 9, 2019 KLVP-HD3 began simulcasting on translator K279BO 103.7 Portland, replacing the "The Legend" classic country format.

Query the FCC's FM station database for KLVP Radio-Locator information on KLVP Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KLVPQuery the FCC's FM station database for K279BO Radio-Locator information on K279BO FCC construction permit

Spacecraft magnetometer

Spacecraft magnetometers are magnetometers used aboard spacecraft and satellites for scientific investigations, plus attitude sensing. Magnetometers are among the most used scientific instruments in exploratory and observation satellites; these instruments were instrumental in mapping the Van Allen radiation belts around Earth after its discovery by Explorer 1, have detailed the magnetic fields of the Earth, Sun, Mars and other planets and moons. There are ongoing missions using magnetometers, including attempts to define the shape and activity of Saturn's core; the first spacecraft-borne magnetometer was placed on the Sputnik 3 spacecraft in 1958 and the most detailed magnetic observations of the Earth have been performed by the Magsat and Ørsted satellites. Magnetometers were taken to the Moon during the Apollo missions. Many instruments have been used to measure the strength and direction of magnetic field lines around Earth and the solar system. Spacecraft magnetometers fall into three categories: fluxgate, search-coil and ionized gas magnetometers.

The most accurate magnetometer complexes on spacecraft contain two separate instruments, with a helium ionized gas magnetometer used to calibrate the fluxgate instrument for more accurate readings. Many magnetometers contain small ring-coils oriented at 90° in two dimensions relative to each other forming a triaxial framework for indicating direction of magnetic field. Magnetometers for non-space use evolved from the 19th to mid-20th centuries, were first employed in spaceflight by Sputnik 3 in 1958. A main constraint on magnetometers in space is the availability of mass. Magnetometers fall into 3 major categories: the fluxgate type, search coil and the ionized vapor magnetometers; the newest type is the Overhauser type based on nuclear magnetic resonance technology. Fluxgate magnetometers are used for low weight. There have been several types of fluxgate used in spacecraft. Better readings are obtained with three magnetometers, each pointing in a different direction; some spacecraft have instead achieved this by rotating the craft and taking readings at 120° intervals, but this creates other issues.

The other difference is in the configuration, simple and circular. Magnetometers of this type were equipped on the "Pioneer 0"/Able 1, "Pioneer 1"/Able 2, Ye1.1, Ye1.2, Ye1.3 missions that failed in 1958 due to launch problems. The Pioneer 1 however did collect data on the Van Allen belts. In 1959 the Soviet "Luna 1"/Ye1.4 carried a three-component magnetometer that passed the moon en route to a heliocentric orbit at a distance of 6,400 miles, but the magnetic field could not be assessed. The USSR managed a lunar impact with "Luna 2", a three component magnetometer, finding no significant magnetic field in close approach to the surface. Explorer 10 had an abbreviated 52 hr mission with two fluxgate magnetometers on board. During 1958 and 1959 failure tended to characterize missions carrying magnetometers: 2 instruments were lost on Able IVB alone. In early 1966 the USSR placed Luna 10 in orbit around the moon carrying a magnetometer and was able to confirm the weak nature of the moon's magnetic field.

Venera 4, 5, 6 carried magnetometers on their trips to Venus, although they were not placed on the landing craft. The majority of early fluxgate magnetometers on spacecraft were made as vector sensors. However, the magnetometer electronics created harmonics. Properly designed sensors had feedback electronics to the detector that neutralized the harmonics. Mariner 1 and Mariner 2 carried fluxgate-vector sensor devices. Only Mariner 2 survived launch and as it passed Venus on December 14, 1962 it failed to detect a magnetic field around the planet; this was in part due to the distance of the spacecraft from the planet, noise within the magnetometer, a weak Venusian magnetic field. Pioneer 6, launched in 1965, is one of 4 Pioneer satellites circling the sun and relaying information to Earth about solar winds; this spacecraft was equipped with a single vector-fluxgate magnetometer. Ring core sensor fluxgate magnetometers began replacing vector sensor magnetometers with the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, where a three axis magnetometer was placed on the moon.

These sensors were used on a number of satellites including Magsat, Ulysses, Giotto, AMPTE. The Lunar Prospector-1 uses ring-coil made of these alloys extended away from each other and its spacecraft to look for remnant magnetism in the moons'non-magnetic' surface. Properly configured, the magnetometers are capable of measuring magnetic field differences of 1 nT; these devices, with cores about 1 cm in size, were of lower weight than vector sensors. However, these devices were found to have non-linear output with magnetic fields greater than >5000 nT. It was discovered that creating a spherical structure with feedback loops wire transverse to the ring in the sphere could negate this effect; these magnetometers were called spherical fluxgate or compact spherical core magnetometers used in the Ørsted satellite. The metal alloys that form the core of these magnetometers has improved since Apollo-16 mission with latest using advanced molybdenum-permalloy alloys, producing lower noise with more stable output.

Search-coil magnetometers called induction magnetometers, are wound coils around a core of high magnetic permeability. Search coils concentrate magnetic field lines inside the core along with fluctuations; the benefit of these magnetometers is that they measure alternating magnetic field and so can resolve changes in magnetic fields many times per second. Following Lenz's law, the voltage is proport


Freshfield is an area of Formby, in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, England, situated at the northern end of the town. It has no local political distinction or representation and is included as part of the two council wards which make up Formby, nor is it any longer separated in a physical sense from the town; the area is considered to be affluent with local celebrities, footballers and businessmen calling this their home, see people from Formby. Shireburn Road in Freshfield is the most expensive road in Merseyside, house prices on the exclusive road averaged £1,159,831 in 2009; the name did not exist until Formby's second railway station, was built in 1854. The name was chosen, as Thomas Fresh, owned the adjacent model farm and fields. Fresh was Inspector of Nuisances in Liverpool and was one of the celebrated trio of pioneering officers appointed in 1847 by the Borough of Liverpool's Health of the Town Committee. A process of reverse naming seems to have occurred with some people referring to the area of Formby around this station as "Freshfield".

The title proposed was "Freshton". Until 1974, Freshfield was part of the urban district of Formby within the administrative county of Lancashire. Since 1 April 1974, it has formed part of the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, in Merseyside. From 1950 until 2010 Freshfield like the rest of Formby formed part of the constituency of Crosby, The MP for Crosby from 1997 until 2010 was Claire Curtis-Thomas, a member of the Labour Party, prior to her election the seat was considered to be a safe Conservative Party stronghold with Tory MPs elected at every election barring the 1981 Crosby by-election where Shirley Williams of the Social Democratic Party was elected to represent the constituency; as a result of the Crosby constituency being abolished for the 2010 general election, Freshfield like the rest of Formby is part of the newly created Sefton Central constituency represented by Bill Esterson, a member of the Labour Party. For elections to Sefton Council, Freshfield like the rest of Formby is divided between two electoral wards with three councillors each.

Harington ward, whose councillors are Gillian Cuthbertson, Alf Doran, Denise Dutton, all members of the Conservative Party, Ravenmeols ward, whose councillors are Barry Griffiths, Anne Ibbs, David Mcivor, again all members of the Conservative Party. Overall there are 6 councillors representing the Freshfield area and all of them are members of the Conservative Party; the area contains The Grapes pubs, Victoria Hall and Victoria Road. The area is in the vicinity of RAF Woodvale. Freshfield railway station is situated on the Liverpool to Southport branch of Merseyrail's Northern Line. Located nearby is a section of the Mersey Forest, known as Formby Woods, a community forest known for being a habitat of rare red squirrels, with a reserve managed by the National Trust. Yorke, B. & Yorke, R. "Pine Trees and Asparagus: The Development of a Cultural Landscape", in: Lewis, J. Stanistreet, E. Sand And Sea, Sefton's Coastal Heritage. Bootle: Sefton Council. Yorke, R. "Thomas Fresh: Inspector of Nuisances".

Journal of the Liverpool History Society 8, pp. 16–24

Patrick Magruder

Patrick Magruder was the second Librarian of the United States Congress, serving from 1807 to 1815. Magruder was born on his family's estate, Locust Grove, near Rockville in Montgomery County, Maryland. Magruder became a lawyer. In 1805, he was elected to the Ninth United States Congress from the third district of Maryland. After the death of John J. Beckley, President Jefferson appointed Magruder to the dual post of Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Librarian of Congress; the posts were not separated until 1815. During the War of 1812, the British burned Washington D. C. including the Library of Congress, housed in the US Capitol Building. After an investigation by Congress into the destruction of the Library and the use of Library funds, Magruder resigned, he died and was buried on his family's ancestral estate, near Petersburg in Dinwiddie County, Virginia. John Y. Cole. "Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress -- Librarians of Congress". Library of Congress.

Retrieved 2008-12-15

Quas primas

Quas primas was an encyclical of Pope Pius XI. Promulgated on December 11, 1925, it introduced the Feast of Christ the King. Quas primas was a follow up to Ubi arcano Dei consilio. Which he refers to in his opening statement, citing the "...manifold evils in the world were due to the fact that the majority of men had thrust Jesus Christ and his holy law out of their lives. In Ubi arcano, Pius enjoined the faithful to seek "the Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ". Quas primas established the Feast of Christ the King, Pope Pius XI's response to the world's increasing secularization and nationalism, it was written in the aftermath of World War I, which saw the fall of the Hohenzollerns, Romanovs and the Osmans. In contrast, Pope Pius XI pointed to a king "of whose kingdom there shall be no end". In 1925 the Pope asked the French Dominican priest, Édouard Hugon, professor of philosophy and theology at the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum to work on Quas primas."...he Word of God, as consubstantial with the Father, has all things in common with him, therefore has supreme and absolute dominion over all things created."

In Matthew 28:18 Jesus himself says, "All power in heaven and on earth has been given to me." In Revelation 19:16 Christ is recognized as "King of kings and Lord of lords." The encyclical summarizes both the Old Testament and the New Testament teaching on the kingship of Christ. Invoking an earlier encyclical Annum sacrum of Pope Leo XIII, Pius XI suggests that the kingdom of Christ embraces the whole mankind. Pius explained that by virtue of Christ’s claim to kingship as creator and redeemer, societies as well as individuals owe him obligations as king. So he is said to reign "in the hearts of men," both by reason of the keenness of his intellect and the extent of his knowledge, because he is truth, it is from him that truth must be obediently received by all mankind, he reigns, too, in the wills of men, for in him the human will was and obedient to the Holy Will of God, further by his grace and inspiration he so subjects our free-will as to incite us to the most noble endeavors. He is King of hearts, too, by reason of his "charity.

While the encyclical was addressed to Catholic bishops, Pope Pius XI wanted the feast of Christ the King to encourage the laity. The faithful, moreover, by meditating upon these truths, will gain much strength and courage, enabling them to form their lives after the true Christian ideal. If to Christ our Lord is given all power in heaven and on earth, he must reign in our minds, which should assent with perfect submission and firm belief to revealed truths and to the doctrines of Christ. He must reign in our wills, which should obey the precepts of God, he must reign in our hearts, which should spurn natural desires and love God above all things, cleave to him alone. He must reign in our bodies and in our members, which should serve as instruments for the interior sanctification of our souls, or to use the words of the Apostle Paul, as instruments of justice unto God. Quas primas