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Thermocline

A thermocline is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid in which temperature changes more with depth than it does in the layers above or below. In the ocean, the thermocline divides the upper mixed layer from the calm deep water below. Depending on season and turbulent mixing by wind, thermoclines may be a semi-permanent feature of the body of water in which they occur, or they may form temporarily in response to phenomena such as the radiative heating/cooling of surface water during the day/night. Factors that affect the depth and thickness of a thermocline include seasonal weather variations and local environmental conditions, such as tides and currents. Most of the heat energy of sunlight is absorbed in the first few centimeters at the ocean's surface, which heats during the day and cools at night as heat energy is lost to space by radiation. Waves mix the water near the surface layer and distribute heat to deeper water such that the temperature may be uniform in the upper 100 metres, depending on wave strength and the existence of surface turbulence caused by currents.

Below this mixed layer, the temperature remains stable over day/night cycles. The temperature of the deep ocean drops with depth; as saline water does not freeze until it reaches −2.3 °C the temperature well below the surface is not far from zero degrees. The thermocline varies in depth, it is semi-permanent in the tropics, variable in temperate regions and shallow to nonexistent in the polar regions, where the water column is cold from the surface to the bottom. A layer of sea ice will act as an insulation blanket. In the open ocean, the thermocline is characterized by a negative sound speed gradient, making the thermocline important in submarine warfare because it can reflect active sonar and other acoustic signals; this stems from a discontinuity in the acoustic impedance of water created by the sudden change in density. In scuba diving, a thermocline where water drops in temperature by a few degrees Celsius quite can sometimes be observed between two bodies of water, for example where colder upwelling water runs into a surface layer of warmer water.

It gives the water an appearance of wrinkled glass, used to obscure bathroom windows and is caused by the altered refractive index of the cold or warm water column. These same schlieren can be observed when hot air rises off the tarmac at airports or desert roads and is the cause of mirages. Thermoclines can be observed in lakes. In colder climates, this leads to a phenomenon called stratification. During the summer, warm water, less dense, will sit on top of colder, deeper water with a thermocline separating them; the warm layer is called the epilimnion and the cold layer is called the hypolimnion. Because the warm water is exposed to the sun during the day, a stable system exists and little mixing of warm water and cold water occurs in calm weather. One result of this stability is that as the summer wears on, there is less and less oxygen below the thermocline as the water below the thermocline never circulates to the surface and organisms in the water deplete the available oxygen; as winter approaches, the temperature of the surface water will drop as nighttime cooling dominates heat transfer.

A point is reached where the density of the cooling surface water becomes greater than the density of the deep water and overturning begins as the dense surface water moves down under the influence of gravity. This process is aided by wind or any other process that agitates the water; this effect occurs in Arctic and Antarctic waters, bringing water to the surface which, although low in oxygen, is higher in nutrients than the original surface water. This enriching of surface nutrients may produce blooms of phytoplankton, making these areas productive; as the temperature continues to drop, the water on the surface may get cold enough to freeze and the lake/ocean begins to ice over. A new thermocline develops where the densest water sinks to the bottom, the less dense water rises to the top. Once this new stratification establishes itself, it lasts until the water warms enough for the'spring turnover,' which occurs after the ice melts and the surface water temperature rises to 4 °C. During this transition, a thermal bar may develop.

Waves can occur on the thermocline, causing the depth of the thermocline as measured at a single location to oscillate. Alternately, the waves may be induced by flow over a raised bottom, producing a thermocline wave which does not change with time, but varies in depth as one moves into or against the flow; the lower atmosphere typically contains a boundary between two distinct regions, but that boundary displays quite different behavior. However, atmospheric thermoclines, or inversions, can occur, e.g. as nighttime cooling of the Earth's surface produces cold, dense calm air adjacent to the ground. The coldest air is next to the ground, with air temperature increasing with height. At the top of this nighttime boundary layer the normal adiabatic temperature profile of the troposphere is again observed; the thermocline or inversion layer occurs where the temperature profile changes from positive to negative with increasing height. The stability of the night time inversion is destroyed soon after sunrise as the su

Bangladesh Hospital

Bangladesh Hospital was a temporary medical centre under the Sector-2 during the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971. The hospital was an initiative of Captain Akhtar Ahmed, a physician of 4th East Bengal Regiment in Comilla Cantonment, it was situated in India. The nine-month long Liberation War of Bangladesh commenced on 26th March 1971 after the Pakistan Army cracked down on the Bengali population of East Pakistan; the Pakistan Army targeted Bengali officers and soldiers of the armed forces across the country. As a result of a period of systematic terror enacted by the Pakistan Army, East Pakistan revolted against Pakistan and retaliated against the Army; the Bangladesh Hospital began in a cowshed of Shimantopur, a bordering area of Bangladesh, started by Captain Akhtar Ahmed on 29 March 1971. The first patient was a villager, shot in the leg. Akhtar chose Naik Shamsu Miah from the East Pakistan Rifles as his assistant. On 9 May 1971, after the 4th East Bengal Regiment had to retreat due to a shortage of ammunition, Ahmed moved his hospital to a forest rest house of Sonamura of Tripura in India.

During those days nurse Subedar Mannan joined Ahmed. The centre suffered from shortages of equipment and facilities, and Ahmed, the Company Commander of 4th East Bengal Regiment during the war was thinking of again shifting the hospital. Shortly after the battle of Shalda River on 1 June, Major Khaled Mosharraf directed Ahmed to establish a hospital with more facilities. Ahmed moved his medical centre to Matinagar, adjacent to the Sector-2 headquarters of Agartala, they set up a tent in Daroga Bagicha, 3 kilometres away from the Melaghar headquarters. Ahmed was accompanied by Captain Dr. Sitara Begum, Saeeda Kamal, Sultana Kamal, Shamsuddin a final year medical student, Dalia Ahmed, Linu Billah, Habibul Alam. At the end of June Dr. Zafrullah Chowdhury and Dr. M A Mobin, two Bengali physicians who were studying in London, met Ahmed in Sonamura and asked about his needs. Ahmed asked them to collect essential medical equipment; the Provisional Government of Bangladesh granted BDT thirty thousand rupiah for the hospital and Ahmed set up a 200-bed complex in Bishramganj in Tripura.

The hospital complex started operation on 26 August 1971. Dr. Mobin, studying for FRCS degree, modernized the operation theatre of the hospital; the hospital was transformed into a 400-bed one by the end of the war in December. Sitara Begum served as the Commanding Officer of the Bangladesh Hospital. Col. Khaled Musharaf establish this Hospital Major Akhtar Ahmed made a Budget Dr. M. A. Mobin with Bangladesh Engineers made this hospitalDr. Nazimuddin Ahed Dr. Zafrullah Chowdhury join in September Captain Sitara Begum join in October Shamsuddin left with Daila in September Mahmood Kiron Sankhan Debnath Morshed Chowdhury M. A Qusem Mohammad Zubayer Lutfar Rahman The initiative of Bangladesh Hospital was appreciated by Provisional Government of Bangladesh. After the Liberation War of Bangladesh ended on 16 December 1971, the Government of Bangladesh awarded Dr. Akhtar Ahmed and Dr. Sitara Begum with gallantry award Bir Protik for their remarkable contribution for the hospital

Social media use in politics

Social media use in politics refers to the use of online social media platforms in political processes and activities. Social media platforms encompass websites such as Facebook, YouTube, WeChat, Instagram, QQ, QZone, Twitter, Reddit, Baidu Tieba, LinkedIn, LINE, Pinterest, VK. Political processes and activities include all activities that pertain to the governance of a country or area; this includes political organization, global politics, political corruption, political parties, political values. The internet has created channels of communication that play a key role in circulating news, social media has the power to change not just the message, but the dynamics of political corruption and the dynamics of conflict in politics. Through the use of social media in election processes, global conflict, extreme politics, diplomacy around the world has become less private and susceptive to the public perception. Social media have been championed as allowing anyone with an Internet connection to become a content creator and empowering their users.

The idea of “new media populism” encompasses how citizens can include disenfranchised citizens, allow the public to have an engaged and active role in political discourse. New media, including social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, can enhance people's access to political information. Social media platforms and the internet have facilitated the dissemination of political information that counters mainstream media tactics that are centralized and top-down, include high barriers to entry. Writer Howard Rheingold characterized the community created on social networking sites:"The political significance of computer mediated communication lies in its capacity to challenge the existing political hierarchy’s monopoly on powerful communications media, thus revitalize citizen-based democracy." Scholar Derrick de Kerckhove described the new technology in media: "In a networked society, the real powershift is from the producer to the consumer, there is a redistribution of controls and power.

On the Web, Karl Marx’s dream has been realized: the tools and the means of production are in the hands of the workers."The role of social media in democratizing media participation, which proponents herald as ushering in a new era of participatory democracy, with all users able to contribute news and comments, may fall short of the ideals. International survey data suggest online media audience members are passive consumers, while content creation is dominated by a small number of users who post comments and write new content. Others argue that the effect of social media will vary from one country to another, with domestic political structures playing a greater role than social media in determining how citizens express opinions about stories of current affairs involving the state. See Social media and political communication in the United States. Adults in the United States who have access to the internet are getting political news and information from social media platforms. A 2016 Pew Research study found.

In addition, Twitter, lead the social media platforms in which the majority of the users use the platforms to acquire news information. Of all United States adults, 67 % use the platform with 44 %. According to the Reuters Institute Digital News Report in 2013, the percentage of online news users who blog about news issues ranges from 1–5%. Greater percentages use social media to comment on news, with participation ranging from 8% in Germany to 38% in Brazil, but online news users are most to just talk about online news with friends offline or use social media to share stories without creating content. The rapid propagation of information on social media, spread by word of mouth, can impact the perception of political figures with information that may or may not be true; when political information is propagated in this manner on purpose, the spread of information on social media for political means can benefit campaigns. On the other hand, the word-of-mouth propagation of negative information concerning a political figure can be damaging.

For example, the use of the social media platform Twitter by United States congressman Anthony Weiner to send inappropriate messages played a role in his resignation. Social media news, spread through social media sites, plays into the idea of the attention economy. In which content that attracts more attention will be seen and disseminated far more than news content that does gather as much traction from the public. Tim Wu from Columbia Law School coins the attention economy as “the resale of human attention.” A communication platform such as social media is persuasive, works to change or influence opinions when it comes to political views because of the abundance of ideas and opinions circulating through the social media platform. It is found that news use leads to political persuasion, therefore the more that people use social media platforms for news sources, the more their political opinions will be affected. Despite that, people are expressing less trust in their government and others due to media use- therefore social media directly affects trust in media use.

It is proven that while reading newspapers there is an increase in social trust where on the contrary watching the news on television weakened trust in others and news sources. Social media, or more news media- plays an important role in democratic societies because they allow for participation among citizens. Therefore, when it comes to healthy democratic networks, it is crucial that that news remains true so it doesn't affect citizens’ levels of trust. A certain amount of trust

Bernard Forest de BĂ©lidor

Bernard Forest de Bélidor was a French engineer, significant to the development of the science of hydraulics and ballistics. He was the son of Jean Baptiste Foret de Belidor, an officer of dragoons, his wife, Marie Héber but was orphaned at five months old and brought up by the family of his godfather, an artillery officer named de Fossiébourg. Bélidor enlisted in the army at a young age. After leaving the army, he developed an interest in science and engineering, became professor of artillery at the school of Fère-en-Tardenois in Aisne. For a while he worked on measuring the arc of the earth. In the years to come he published several works of great importance, on a wide range of subjects, including hydraulics and civil and military engineering, his most famous book is L'architecture hydraulique. Here, integral calculus is used for the first time in solving technical problems. Bélidor was the teacher of Abram Petrovich Gannibal. In November 1726, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, he married the granddaughter of de Fossiébourg.

Nouveau cours de mathématiques, 1725 La science des ingénieurs dans la conduite des travaux de fortification et d'architecture civile, 1729 Le bombardier français, ou, nouvelle méthode pour jeter des bombes avec précision. Tables, 1731 L'architecture hydraulique, ou l'art de conduire, d'élever et de ménager les eaux pour les différents besoins de la vie, Dictionnaire portatif de l'ingénieur, 1758 Bélidor works in the French National Library

Alle tijd

Alle tijd is a Dutch film directed by Job Gosschalk and starring Paul de Leeuw and Karina Smulders. The film is based on the original screenplay by Job Gosschalk; the film was a modest success with 81,500 tickets sold. It received a mixed critical reception; the performances were praised. Many critics felt. Maarten, a gay music teacher, his sister Molly have a special relationship with each other; when their parents died, Maarten took over the upbringing of his little sister. He is supported by his best friend Reina; because Maarten spent so much time caring for Molly, he effaced himself at the time. One day, Molly announces. Maarten is confronted with empty nest syndrome. Maarten meets Arthur. Teun cheats, so Molly cheats with veterinarian Melvin, she becomes pregnant, but she doesn't know, the father and doesn't want to know. Teun doesn't want any more contact with her. Molly gets incurable breast cancer, goes back to live with Maarten again. Melvin is with her. Molly gives birth to Finn. Maarten promises her he will raise Finn.

Teun only comes along after Molly's death. The film was shot on locations in The Hague, including the Appeltheater, Den Haag Hollands Spoor railway station and the Hofvijver. Paul de Leeuw: Maarten Karina Smulders: Molly Lineke Rijxman: Reina Teun Luijkx: Teun Alwin Pulinckx: Arthur Christopher Parren: Melvin Years before making Alle tijd, Job Gosschalk worked as a producer for Kemna, the most influential audition agency in the Netherlands, was involved in many Dutch feature films, he became the owner of Kemna, but he was most attracted to the artistic aspect of filmmaking, so he began to produce films and television series. He had a lot of success with the film Alles is Liefde and the television series't Schaep met de 5 pooten, he switched to directing and made the television series S1NGLE and the play Verre vrienden. His film directing debut came with Alle tijd, for which he wrote the screenplay. For Alle tijd. While Job Gosschalk was making Alle tijd, he saw a few videos of Dutch singer Elske DeWall on YouTube.

He was impressed by her talent and when he heard a demo version of her single Chasing The Impossible, he thought that it should be the title song of the film. Lead actor Paul de Leeuw was with him, so Elske DeWall's song became the title song of Alle tijd. At the 2011 Netherlands Film Festival, Lineke Rijxman was nominated for a Golden Calf in the category Best Supporting Actress. At the 2012 Lesbisch Schwule Filmtage Hamburg, the film won the "GLOBOLA" award for best feature film. Official website Alle tijd on IMDb

St. Thomas Aquinas Primary School

St. Thomas Aquinas Primary School is a Catholic, preparatory day school for boys and girls in Khumalo, Zimbabwe. Founded in 1956 by the Dominican Sisters, the school is now under the oversight of a Board of Governors appointed by the Archbishop of Bulawayo. St. Thomas Aquinas Primary School is a member of the Association of Trust Schools and the Headmaster is a member of the Conference of Heads of Independent Schools in Zimbabwe. St. Thomas Aquinas Primary School was founded in 1956 by the Dominican Sisters as a Catholic school for boys; the Sisters decided to withdraw from the school in 1979. This led to its purchase by the Bishop of Bulawayo Adolph Gregory Schmitt. Since lay head and staff have been running the school. Overtime, girls were enrolled into the school thus making it co-educational; the school is the under the oversight of a Board of Governors who are appointed by the Archbishop of Bulawayo. The Archbishop is an ex-officio member of the board. Sports offered at St. Thomas Aquinas Primary School include: List of schools in Zimbabwe St. Thomas Aquinas Primary School Official website St. Thomas Aquinas Primary School Profile on the ATS website