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A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical conductors forming an electrical junction. A thermocouple produces a temperature-dependent voltage as a result of the thermoelectric effect, this voltage can be interpreted to measure temperature. Thermocouples are a used type of temperature sensor. Commercial thermocouples are inexpensive, are supplied with standard connectors, can measure a wide range of temperatures. In contrast to most other methods of temperature measurement, thermocouples are self powered and require no external form of excitation; the main limitation with thermocouples is precision. Thermocouples are used in science and industry. Applications include temperature measurement for kilns, gas turbine exhaust, diesel engines, other industrial processes. Thermocouples are used in homes and businesses as the temperature sensors in thermostats, as flame sensors in safety devices for gas-powered appliances. In 1821, the German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered that when different metals are joined at the ends and there is a temperature difference between the joints, a magnetic field is observed.

At the time, Seebeck referred to this consequence as thermo-magnetism. The magnetic field he observed was shown to be due to thermo-electric current. In practical use, the voltage generated at a single junction of two different types of wire is what is of interest as this can be used to measure temperature at high and low temperatures; the magnitude of the voltage depends on the types of wire being used. The voltage is in the microvolt range and care must be taken to obtain a usable measurement. Although little current flows, power can be generated by a single thermocouple junction. Power generation using multiple thermocouples, as in a thermopile, is common; the standard configuration for thermocouple usage is shown in the figure. The desired temperature Tsense is obtained using three inputs—the characteristic function E of the thermocouple, the measured voltage V, the reference junctions' temperature Tref; the solution to the equation E = V + E yields Tsense. These details are hidden from the user since the reference junction block and equation solver are combined into a single product.

The Seebeck effect refers to an electromotive force whenever there is a temperature gradient in a conductive material. Under open-circuit conditions where there is no internal current flow, the gradient of voltage is directly proportional to the gradient in temperature: ∇ V = − S ∇ T, where S is a temperature-dependent material property known as the Seebeck coefficient; the standard measurement configuration shown in the figure shows four temperature regions and thus four voltage contributions: Change from T m e t e r to T r e f, in the lower copper wire. Change from T r e f to T s e n s e, in the alumel wire. Change from T s e n s e to T r e f, in the chromel wire. Change from T r e f in the upper copper wire; the first and fourth contributions cancel out because these regions involve the same temperature change and an identical material. As a result, T m e t e r does not influence the measured voltage; the second and third contributions do not cancel. The measured voltage turns out to be V = ∫ T r e f T s e n s e d T, where S + and S − are the Seebeck coefficients of the conductors attached to the positive a

Belmont University

Belmont University is a private Christian university in Nashville, Tennessee. Although the university cut its ties with the Tennessee Baptist Convention in 2007, it continues to emphasize a Christian identity; the university originated in the founding of the Belmont Women's College in 1890 by Susan L. Heron and Ida B. Hood; this school merged with Ward Seminary in 1913 and was known as Ward—Belmont College, which included both a junior college and college-prep school for women. Today it is owned by Belmont University but maintained by the Belmont Mansion Association, a non-profit group; the mansion is open for features Victorian art and furnishings. The water tower, with surviving gazebos and outdoor statuary from the Acklen era, are part of the college campus. In 1991, the school became Belmont University; the first radio station in Nashville went on air in May 1922 when, Boy Scout John "Jack" DeWitt, Jr. a 16-year-old high school student, installed a twenty-watt transmitter at Belmont. The station, WDAA, was born when Doctor C. E. Crosland, Associate President, realized the potential advertising value to the college of a radio station.

The WDAA program on April 18, 1922, marked the first time a music program was broadcast in Nashville. The broadcast could be heard 150 to 200 miles from the school. DeWitt became WSM radio station's chief engineer, 1932–1942, president, 1947–1968. In 1951, Ward-Belmont College, the finishing school operated in Nashville by Ward-Belmont, Inc. was facing severe financial difficulties. To relieve those problems, the school entered into a relationship with the Tennessee Baptist Convention. Under the terms of that relationship, the TBC provided the school with financial support and in exchange was granted certain management rights related to the school. In particular, all of the members of the school's Board of Trustees were required to hold membership in a Baptist church; the TBC made Ward-Belmont coeducational in spring 1951, shortened the school's name to Belmont College. Under Herbert Gabhart, who served as president from 1959 to 1982, Belmont's enrollment leaped from 365 students to 2,000, it launched a music business program.

Gabhart was succeeded by Bill Troutt. The school's growth continued, in 1991 it became a university. In 2005 Belmont's Board of Trustees sought to remove Belmont University from the control of the Tennessee Baptist Convention while remaining in a "fraternal relationship" with it. Advocates of this plan presented a blueprint for change in which all board members would be Christians but only 60 percent would be Baptists in order to affirm a Christian affinity while acknowledging the diversity of both the faculty and the student body; the head of the TBC would continue to be an ex officio board member. The TBC rejected this plan. In November 2005 The Tennessean reported that the TBC would increase its funding of two other institutions, Union University and Carson-Newman College by the amount given to Belmont and Belmont would replace the three percent of its budget, funded by the TBC. However, on April 7, 2006 The Tennessean reported that the TBC would seek to oust the existing board and replace it with one consisting of Southern Baptists and amenable to ongoing TBC control.

After settlement talks failed, the Tennessee Baptist Convention Executive Board filed a lawsuit on September 29, 2006 against Belmont seeking the return of $58 million. Belmont severed its ties from the Tennessee Baptist Convention in 2007, when the university announced it would be a Christian university without any denominational affiliations. On November 14, 2007, Nashville media reported that a settlement of this suit had been reached before trial. Under its terms, the TBC and Belmont would disaffiliate amicably, with Belmont agreeing to pay one million dollars to the convention and $250,000 annually for the next forty years, for a total cost of $11 million; the university has stated its intent to maintain a Christian identity, but no longer a Baptist one. Belmont University became a catalyst for anti-discrimination protests in December 2010, when women's soccer coach Lisa Howe lost her job at the university on December 2 after announcing that she was having three children with her same sex partner.

Howe's dismissal sparked protests from local and national gay-rights advocates. These events led to a citywide anti-discrimination ordinance being passed by the Nashville City Council in January 2011. On January 26, 2011, President Bob Fisher announced that Belmont has added sexual orientation to the university's non-discrimination policies. Belmont is a Christian university, regarded for its progressive ideals until the controversy broke out over Howe's departure; the college was criticized for not allowing a group with a mission to support gay students and explore the intersection of Christianity and homosexuality called Bridge Builders to form as a student group. At a news conference, Fisher stated. On February 27, 2011, Belmont University recognized the gay student organization for the first time. Belmont Provost Thomas Burns and Bridge Builders President Robbie Maris announced the decision to recognize the student group in a joint statement. In February 2018, Belmont University took ownership of the O'More College of Design.

On March 6, 2019, Belmont University announced that its current College of Visual and Performing Arts will be separated into two distinct colleges with defined areas of focus: the College of Music and Performing Arts will include all music and dance programs


Cacophis a genus of mildly venomous snakes known as crowned snakes, in the family Elapidae. The genus is endemic to Australia. Species of Cacophis are distributed along eastern Australia; the four species in the genus Cacophis are not dangerous to people. Snakes of the genus Cacophis inhabit a variety of forest types, from woodland to rainforest. Cacophis species are nocturnal and feed on lizards and reptile eggs. All species of Cacophis have a distinct "crown" pattern on the head, which gives them their common names; the following four species are recognized as being valid. Cacophis churchilli Wells & Wellington, 1985 – northern dwarf crowned snake Cacophis harriettae Krefft, 1869 – white-crowned snake Cacophis krefftii Günther, 1863 – dwarf crowned snake Cacophis squamulosus – golden-crowned snakeNota bene: In the above list, a binomial authority in parentheses indicate that the species was described in a genus other than Cacophis. Cogger HG. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, Seventh Edition.

Clayton, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. Xxx + 1,033 pp. ISBN 978-0643100350. Günther A. "Third Account of new Species of Snakes in the Collection of the British Museum". Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Third Series 12: 348-365 + Plates V & VI.. Swan, Gerry. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and other Reptiles of Australia. Sydney: New Holland. 144 pp. ISBN 1-85368-585-2. Wilson, Steve. A Complete Guide to Reptiles of Australia, Fourth Edition. Sydney: New Holland Publishers. 522 pp. ISBN 978-1921517280

Alfred B. Hilton

Alfred B. Hilton was an African American Union Army soldier during the American Civil War and a recipient of America's highest military decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions at the Battle of Chaffin's Farm. By September 29, 1864, Hilton was serving as a Sergeant in Company H of the 4th Regiment United States Colored Infantry. On that day, his unit participated in the Battle of Chaffin's Farm on the outskirts of the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. During the battle, Hilton carried the American flag as part of the unit's color guard; as the 4th Regiment charged the enemy fortifications, Hilton grabbed a second flag, the regimental colors, from a wounded soldier. When he was himself wounded by a shot through the leg, he called out "Boys, save the colors!" Two of his fellow soldiers stepped forward. Hilton died of his wounds nearly a month on October 21. Six months after the battle, on April 6, 1865, he was posthumously issued the Medal of Honor for his actions at Chaffin's Farm.

The men who had taken the flags after he was wounded and Veale received the medal. Hilton is buried in Hampton National Cemetery, Virginia. Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 4th U. S. Colored Troops. Place and date. At Chapins Farm, Va. September 29, 1864. Entered service at:------. Birth: Harford County, Md. Date of issue: April 6, 1865. Citation: When the regimental color bearer fell, this soldier seized the color and carried it forward, together with the national standard, until disabled at the enemy's inner line. List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: G–L List of African American Medal of Honor recipients Melvin Claxton and Mark Puls, Uncommon valor: a story of race and glory in the final battles of the Civil War, "Alfred B. Hilton". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2007-01-13. "Civil War Medal of Honor recipients". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. 2005-04-27. Retrieved 2007-01-13. "Alfred B. Hilton". Hall of Valor.

Military Times. Retrieved August 28, 2011

Intarcia Therapeutics

Intarcia Therapeutics is an American biopharmaceutical company based in Boston, MA and incorporated under the laws of Delaware. It was founded in 1995 under the name "BioMedicines" and changed to its present name in 2004. In 2013, Intarcia relocated its headquarters to Boston, keeping its manufacturing facility in Hayward, CA. In addition to Boston and Hayward, Intarcia has a location in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, where it discovers and develops peptides for its drug delivery system. In 2005, the executive leadership of Intarcia was vested in two people, Karling Leung and James Ahlers, President/CEO/Director and Vice President/CFO/Finance & Operations Officer, respectively. By 2012, Kurt Graves had replaced Karling Leung as President and CEO. Kurt Graves has been with Intarcia since August 2010, first serving as Executive Chairman before becoming President and CEO in April 2012; as of 2016, Intarcia is engaged in development of a "potential once-a-year type 2 diabetes treatment".

Referred to as ITCA 650, the therapeutic consists of exenatide delivered via its Medici Drug Delivery System, "a drug delivery platform that stabilizes and delivers therapeutic proteins and peptides". In November 2012, Intarcia received $210M in preferred stock and debt financing from, The Baupost Group, Farallon Capital Management, New Enterprise Associates, New Leaf Venture Partners and Venrock Associates. Other Investors include Alta Partners and Granite Venture Partners. In April 2014, Intarcia secured an additional $200M in financing. RA Capital was joined by new and existing investors. In April 2015, the company raised $225M in exchange for 1.5% of future global net sales of ITCA 650. In May 2016, Intarcia secured an additional $75M in financing to scale-up manufacturing and inventory in anticipation of ITCA 650s global launch. In September 2016, Intarcia raised an additional $215M in equity financing to prepare for the commercial launch of ITCA 650 in late 2017 and additional pipeline programs.

Official website

Charles Harvey Dixon

Charles Harvey Dixon was a British Conservative Party politician. Born at Watlington, Oxfordshire, he was the son of coroner for South Oxfordshire. Dixon transferred from Lord Weymouth's Grammar School, Warminster to Abingdon School in September 1878 and was at Abingdon until 1881, he unsuccessfully contested the Harborough constituency, Leicestershire, in 1900, 1904 and 1906. He was elected as Member of Parliament for Boston at the January 1910 general election, but retired from Parliament when the constituency was abolished at the 1918 general election, he was again elected as MP for Rutland and Stamford at the general election in November 1922, sitting until his death in September 1923. His parliamentary interests were finance, he bought the Gunthorpe, Rutland estate from the Earl of Ancaster in 1906. List of Old Abingdonians Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Charles Harvey Dixon List of Old Abingdonians