Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, their relation to energy, work and properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics which convey a quantitative description using measurable macroscopic physical quantities, but may be explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering, but in fields as complex as meteorology. Thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot who believed that engine efficiency was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars. Scots-Irish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854 which stated, "Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, the relation of heat to electrical agency."
The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was extended to the study of chemical compounds and chemical reactions. Chemical thermodynamics studies the nature of the role of entropy in the process of chemical reactions and has provided the bulk of expansion and knowledge of the field. Other formulations of thermodynamics emerged. Statistical thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, concerns itself with statistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior. In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach in an axiomatic formulation, a description referred to as geometrical thermodynamics. A description of any thermodynamic system employs the four laws of thermodynamics that form an axiomatic basis; the first law specifies that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as work. The second law defines the existence of a quantity called entropy, that describes the direction, thermodynamically, that a system can evolve and quantifies the state of order of a system and that can be used to quantify the useful work that can be extracted from the system.
In thermodynamics, interactions between large ensembles of objects are categorized. Central to this are the concepts of its surroundings. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions define its properties, those properties are in turn related to one another through equations of state. Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials, which are useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes. With these tools, thermodynamics can be used to describe how systems respond to changes in their environment; this can be applied to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, such as engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, transport phenomena, black holes. The results of thermodynamics are essential for other fields of physics and for chemistry, chemical engineering, corrosion engineering, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, materials science, economics, to name a few.
This article is focused on classical thermodynamics which studies systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is treated as an extension of the classical treatment, but statistical mechanics has brought many advances to that field; the history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres. Guericke was driven to make a vacuum in order to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that'nature abhors a vacuum'. Shortly after Guericke, the English physicist and chemist Robert Boyle had learned of Guericke's designs and, in 1656, in coordination with English scientist Robert Hooke, built an air pump. Using this pump and Hooke noticed a correlation between pressure and volume. In time, Boyle's Law was formulated, which states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional. In 1679, based on these concepts, an associate of Boyle's named Denis Papin built a steam digester, a closed vessel with a fitting lid that confined steam until a high pressure was generated.
Designs implemented a steam release valve that kept the machine from exploding. By watching the valve rhythmically move up and down, Papin conceived of the idea of a piston and a cylinder engine, he did not, follow through with his design. In 1697, based on Papin's designs, engineer Thomas Savery built the first engine, followed by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. Although these early engines were crude and inefficient, they attracted the attention of the leading scientists of the time; the fundamental concepts of heat capacity and latent heat, which were necessary for the development of thermodynamics, were developed by Professor Joseph Black at the University of Glasgow, where James Watt was employed as an instrument maker. Black and Watt performed experiments together, but it was Watt who conceived the idea of the external condenser which resulted in a large increase in steam engine efficiency. Drawing on all the previous work led Sadi Carnot, the "father of thermodynamics", to publish Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, a discourse on heat, power and engine efficiency.
The book outlined the basic energetic relations between the Carnot engine, the Carnot cycle, motive power. It marked the start of thermodynamics as a modern science; the first thermodynamic textbook wa
Hove College is a private further education provider in Brighton and Hove, UK which offers training in multimedia and design studies. Hove College was part of British Study Centres School of English and West London College but is now an independent not-for-profit business. Hove College remains located next to the Brighton branch of the British Study Centres. Hove College delivers and issue courses at Certificate and Advanced diploma levels; the course content are accredited & approved by OCN London known as "Open College Network London Region ". The College courses consist of modular units which are aligned to provide students with the academic profile to support progression into final year of university degree programmes; the courses focus on a blend of academic criteria. Course Duration: 18 Weeks Certificate course. 36 Weeks Diploma courses. 72 Weeks are the Advanced diploma courses. The admission requirements vary by person to person and the college adopts a modern perception to it. Hove College attracts many university people with strong secondary education.
However, there are strict entry requirements for English language skills for all overseas students, this is in part to meet UKBA requirements for non EU/EEA. Overall the selection criteria is based on individuals merit, their work experience level of qualification and there motive for progression; the college is a tier 4 sponsor. The college builds its own courses to match the job market which are inspected and approved and accredited by Open College Network London Region'OCN London', a national not for profit awarding body and regulated by UK Ofqual. Hove College is inspected and overseen by Independent school of Inspectorate and the college is listed in the UK Register of Learning Providers; the college is recognized by UKBA and by Home Office as a private educational institution and is granted the tier 4 visa sponsor license which means non EU/EEA can apply for a study visa to study in the UK with Hove College. Hove College and its course content is recognized nationally as a private college in the UK.
However the college has special and close progression agreements with the listed universities to enroll its student in the final year of their bachelors, depending on the type of qualification they finished at the college and the grades obtained. Southampton Solent University and University of Brighton Hove College has an international agreement with their partner college in China, the Shanghai Culture & Creativity College and offers optional Shanghai placement for those at Hove College who want an international experience; the Shanghai Culture & Creativity College runs the same programmes in China for its local students so it simplifies the study situation for Hove College students to transfer there for one module of their programme. The college is a member of the Swedish SACO fair and attends and represents the college at the event. Universities in the UK Privy Council Education in the UK Brighton and Hove University of Brighton University of Sussex Brighton and Hove City Council Royal Pavilion Bogus Colleges in the UK
Chen Bojun ，was a general of the People's Liberation Army from the Sichuan Province, Dachuan District. Chen Bojun was trained in Whampoa Military Academy in 1926, joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1927, participating in the Autumn Harvest Uprising, he rose through the ranks, holding many divisional level commands and participated in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, he held top positions in the Fourth Field Army and the Eighth Route Army. After the establishment of the PRC, Chen held the roles of commander of Hunan's garrison, PLA Military Academy's Vice Head Training and acting Head of the Academy. In 1955, Chen was awarded the rank of a General. Chen's participation in the May Fourth Movement and nationalistic inclination led to him being expelled from the Wanxian Shen Provincial School in 1916. In 1926 he enrolled in the Republic of China Military Academy in Wuhan. In May 1927, Chen joined the Chinese Communist Party at Xianning during the Autumn Harvest Uprising On October 1934, Chen took part in the Long March and was appointed Commander of the Red Ninth Army.
In July 21, 1935, Chen was demoted to chief commissioner of the Red Army University as he refuted the orders of Zhang Guotao to go against Mao Zedong route of the march. Chen served as one of the divisional commanders of the Eighth Route Army during the Sino-Japanese War; as the head of the Counter-Japanese Military and Political University in 1938, he opposed Mao's marriage to Jiang Qing. During his return to Yan'an in 1940, Chen authored a book on "A Brief History of the Eighth Route Army". In May 1948, he served as deputy commander of the Northeast Field Army's First Corps, participating in the Liaoshen Campaign, the Siege of Changchun and the Pingjin Campaign. In January 1949, he served as deputy commander of the Tianjin garrison. In December 1952, Chen served as Deputy Minister of the Department of the PLA Military Training Academy. In 1953, Chen was the deputy Minister of Education and Vice President of the Military Academic Research Department in 1955. In the same year Chen was awarded the rank of general, Order of Bayi, Order of Liberation and Order of Independence and Freedom.