The Thesmophoria was an ancient Greek religious festival, held in honor of the goddess Demeter and her daughter Persephone. It was held annually around the time that seeds were sown in late autumn – though in some places it was associated with the harvest instead – and celebrated human and agricultural fertility; the festival was one of the most widely-celebrated in the Greek world. It was restricted to adult women, the rites practised during the festival were kept secret; the most extensive sources on the festival are a comment in a scholion on Lucian, explaining the festival, Aristophanes' play Thesmophoriazusae, which parodies the festival. The Thesmophoria was one of the most widespread ancient Greek festivals; the fact that it was celebrated across the Greek world suggests that it dates back to before the Greek settlement in Ionia in the eleventh century BCE. The best evidence for the Thesmophoria concern its practice in Athens, but there is information from elsewhere in the Greek world, including Sicily and Eretria.
The festival was dedicated to Demeter and her daughter Persephone and was celebrated in order to promote fertility, both human and agricultural. It was celebrated only by women, men were forbidden to see or hear about the rites, it is not certain whether all free women celebrated the Thesmophoria, or whether this was restricted to aristocratic women. In Athens, the Thesmophoria took place over three days, from the eleventh to the thirteenth of Pyanepsion; this corresponds to late October in the Gregorian calendar, was the time of the Greek year when seeds were sown. The Thesmophoria may have taken place in this month in other cities, though in some places – for instance Delos and Thebes – the festival seems to have taken place in the summer, been associated with the harvest, instead. In other places the festival lasted for longer – in Syracuse, the Thesmophoria was a ten-day long event; the main source about the rituals of the Thesmophoria comes from a scholion on Lucian's Dialogues of the Courtesans.
A second major source is Aristophanes' play Thesmophoriazusae. According to the scholiast on Lucian, during the Thesmophoria pigs were sacrificed, their remains were put into pits called megara. An inscription from Delos shows that part of the cost of the Thesmophoria there went towards paying for a ritual butcher to perform the sacrifices for the festival; some time the rotten remains of these sacrifices were retrieved from the pits by "bailers" – women who were required to spend three days in a state of ritual purity before descending into the megara. These were placed on altars to Persephone and Demeter, along with cakes baked in the shape of snakes and phalluses; these remains were scattered on fields when seeds were sown, in the belief that this would ensure a good harvest. According to Walter Burkert, this practice was "the clearest example in Greek religion of agrarian magic", it is not certain. The fact that they had decomposed by the time that they were retrieved shows that they had been left in the pits for some time.
They were thrown in during one festival and retrieved the next year. However, if they were thrown in during the Thesmophoria and retrieved in time for the sowing of seeds that year they may have only been left for a few weeks before being taken out again; the first day of the Thesmophoria at Athens was known as anodos. This is thought to be because on this day the women celebrating the festival ascended to the shrine called the Thesmophorion. Preparations for the rest of the festival were made on this day: two women were elected to oversee the celebrations. Women set up tents on this day. Matthew Dillon argues that the name anodos is more to relate to the ascent of Persephone from the underworld, celebrated at the festival. Dillon suggests that a sacrifice to celebrate this ascent was performed on the first day of the festival; the second day of the festival was called the nesteia. This was a day of imitating Demeter's mourning for the loss of her daughter. On this day, the women at the festival sat on the ground on seats made of plants which were believed to be anaphrodisiac.
Angeliki Tzanetou says. The third day of the Thesmophoria was kalligeneia, or "beautiful birth". On this day, women called upon the goddess Kalligeneia. Plutarch notes. Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36280-2. Chlup, Radek. "The Semantics of Fertility: Levels of Meaning in the Thesmophoria". Kernos. 20. Dillon, Matthew. Girls and Women in Classical Greek Religion. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415202728. Habash, Martha. "The Odd Thesmophoria of Aristophanes' Thesmophoriazusae". Greek and Byzantine Studies. 38. Tzanetou, Angeliki. "Something to do with Demeter: Ritual and Performance in Aristophanes' Women at
The Hardaway Site, designated by the Smithsonian trinomial 31ST4, is a archaeological site near Badin, North Carolina. A National Historic Landmark, this multi-layered site has seen major periods of occupation as far back as 10,000 years. Materials from this site were and are used to assist in dating materials from other sites in the eastern United States; the site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1990. The Hardaway Site is located on a rocky ridge overlooking Badin Lake, occupying two knolls and the intervening saddle at the ridge's northern end; the site is stratified into four layers of cultural material, found above an otherwise sterile layer of clay. Each of these layers contains extensive evidence of human habitation and use, including stone-lined hearths, large volumes of stone tool creation byproducts; the uppermost layer of material has been disturbed by historic activities, including occupation by Native Americans in the colonial period, plowing for agriculture. The site was identified by an amateur archaeologist in 1937, underwent its first professional excavation in 1948, under the auspices of the University of North Carolina, by arrangement with the landowner, a predecessor to Alcoa, the present owner of the site.
Between and 1958 it was systematically investigated, but early work was frustrated by difficult topography and geology. An analysis of finds published in 1964 was able to lay a groundwork of typology and chronology of features and materials that continues to be of importance to archaeologists working in the region. By the end of 1980, more than seven metric tons of cultural material had been recovered from the site. While the archaeologists were allowed to study the artifacts found, Alcoa retained ownership of all of the artifacts. In 2005 Alcoa donated the more than 1.3 million artifacts to UNC. List of National Historic Landmarks in North Carolina National Register of Historic Places in Stanly County, North Carolina Description of some of the artifacts found at the Hardaway site Mammoth Trumpet article about the Hardaway Site
Daanbantayan the Municipality of Daanbantayan, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 84,430 people. Located at the northern tip of Cebu island, Daanbantayan celebrates its annual fiesta along with the Haladaya Festival which starts 21 August and ends with street-dancing on 30 August, in honor of Datu Daya, the legendary founder of the town. Daanbantayan is bordered on the north by the Visayan Sea, to the west by Bantayan Island, on the east by the Camotes Sea, on the south by the town of Medellin; the name Daanbantayan was derived from two words: the word "daan", which means "old" in Cebuano, the word "bantayan", which refers to a place that served as a look out for Moro raiders during the Pre-Hispanic Philippines. The original site of the town might have been at an elevated vantage point in Tapilon. On 8 November 2013, 9 people were killed and 50 injured when Super Typhoon Haiyan passed over Daanbantayan. There are several small islands / islets and diving spots, with the list below arranged by latitude from nearest to farthest from Cebu island: Chocolate Monad Shoal Malapascua 600 ha Gato cave & islet 4.5 ha Maria 1.5 ha Carnaza 175 ha Daanbantayan comprises 20 barangays: Ceres Liner, White Stallion Express and Cebu Autobus are among the bus companies with regular service to and from Cebu city.
Jeepneys and trisikads are the main modes of transportation within the town. Daanbantayan is now known for its pristine, white powder-like sandy beaches – one of, Malapascua Island. With its vast and rich marine resources, it hosts a long string of dive sites offering unique marine life and beauty; as a tourist destination, Daanbantayan stages the Haladaya Festival every year as an added attraction to local vacationers, Filipino expatriates, foreign tourists from as far away as North America, South America, Europe. Attractions Municipal hall – built in 1916. Santa Rosa de Lima parish church – inaugurated on 10 April 1858 and finished in 1886, its façade is still intact with its original design. Town plaza – site of a battle between the so-called Daanbantayan Volunteers and 19 well-armed bandits led by Capitan Berinoin 1898. San Pedro River - its northern bank has an abandoned Muslim settlement founded by Datu Daya during the pre-Spanish era. Tapilon point – site of the watchtower of Kandaya, called "daang bantayanan".
But there are no remains of the watchtower. Malapascua Island – is situated across a shallow strait from the northernmost tip of Cebu; this small island is known for Bounty Beach. Gato Cave and Islet – a small sharp rocky island rising in the middle of the Visayan Sea, about 15 kilometres from Malapascua; the 83-metre-high island is home to nesting seabirds, a colony of flying foxes, soft coral canyons, rare and unusual nudibranchs. Monad Shoal – a 20-metre-deep seamount known for its thresher sharks, making the shoal popular for recreational divers; the common thresher shark and pelagic thresher shark live in depths as deep as 350 metres, but the shoal offers opportunities to see them in less than 20 metres of water
The Small Black or Suffolk pig was a breed of domestic pig originating in the United Kingdom during the nineteenth century. It is now extinct; the origin of the breed is uncertain, but it was thought to have been created through crosses of the Essex pig with foreign breeds in efforts to'improve' it. A herd of Neapolitan pigs belonging to Lord Western may have contributed to its makeup, with much breeding work being carried out by Thomas Crisp of Butley Abbey, Wickham Market, in the mid 19th century; the Small Black was said to resemble the Small White a Yorkshire breed, with the exception of the colour. The Small Black was often known as the Suffolk, Improved Suffolk or Black Suffolk, although an earlier and unrelated small white breed of pig had been known as the Suffolk; the Small Black seems to have had a rather mixed reputation amongst agriculturalists. By the turn of the 20th century it was dropping out of favour, the breed was said to have "a delicate constitution" and "a too large percentage of fat", although it matured early.
The breed appears to have disappeared in the early 20th century, when it was merged into the Large Black
Eli Jaxon-Bear is an American spiritual teacher and author. He lives in Ashland, with his wife Gangaji, a spiritual teacher. Before he met his teacher, Sri H. W. L. Poonja, in 1990, he was best known for his work on the spiritual dimension of the Enneagram. Following his meeting with Poonjaji he continued to teach, carrying his teacher's message to the West. Jaxon-Bear was born in New York, he attended the University of Pittsburgh, graduating in 1968. In 1965 he was part of a group of students who went to Montgomery, Alabama, to take part in the civil rights marches, he wrote of this experience, "Getting on the bus represented a much deeper commitment than enduring a few weeks of dangerous adventure. I had to give my life to getting on the bus for freedom without a thought of getting off." After graduating he became a community organizer in Detroit. Freedom of Information documents show that the FBI began a file on Jaxon-Bear after his arrest during the Democratic Convention in the summer of 1968. After six months of working in a steel mill in Homestead, Pennsylvania, he was awarded a fellowship for a doctorate at the Graduate School for International Studies at the University of Denver.
He was part of the student strike committee that shut down the university in 1970. Jaxon-Bear's eighteen-year spiritual path began after the 1971 May Day Protests, when he became a federal fugitive during the Vietnam War; as he described, "I was brought face-to-face with death. Through grace, I passed to the other side: I awoke to the truth of my own nature as empty, immortal consciousness." This experience led him on a spiritual search that took him around the world and into many traditions and practices. In 1978, Kalu Rinpoche appointed him the president of Kagyu Minjur Choling, the first Kagyu Tibetan Buddhist dharma center in Marin County. In 1982, he was presented with a Zen teaching fan at Cho Sho-ji Zen Temple in Japan. Through the 1980s, Jaxon-Bear ran a clinical hypnosis and neurolinguistics certification program at the Esalen Institute. During that time, he studied the ancient Sufi wisdom teachings of the Enneagram, his first writings and teachings on the Enneagram emerged in 1989. He was a keynote speaker at the first International Enneagram Conference at Stanford University in August 1994.
His talk was entitled "The Enneagram and Self-Realization". In 1990 in India, Jaxon-Bear met the teacher Sri H. W. L. Poonja, called "Papaji" by his followers. A few months he took his wife, Antoinette Varner, to meet Papaji, she too became Papaji named her Gangaji. Subsequent to the meeting with Papaji, both Jaxon-Bear and Gangaji were allowed to teach satsang in the West, given conditional permission to publish Wake Up and Roar. A full account of Jaxon-Bear's early life and spiritual path until he met his teacher Papaji, can be found in his detailed memoir, An Outlaw Makes it Home: The Awakening of a Spiritual Revolutionary. Jaxon-Bear's teaching focuses on the nature of egoic suffering in support of self-realization. Today, he claims, he helps students address egoic identification using the Enneagram as a vehicle for self-inquiry and realization of true freedom. What Papaji called "stopping the mind", Jaxon-Bear called "ending the fixation", he wrote, "The great gift of the Enneagram is. It shows the veiling of pure, pristine consciousness by habits of egoic identification."
In 1990, Jaxon-Bear established the Pacific Center Press to publish videos. The first volume of Wake Up and Roar, a compilation of spiritual dialogues with Papaji edited by Jaxon-Bear, was published in 1992; the second volume followed in 1993. In 2001, he wrote From Fixation to Freedom: The Enneagram of Liberation to reflect the evolution of his teaching of the Enneagram in light of his teacher's transmission. In 2004, Jaxon-Bear wrote Sudden Awakening Into Direct Realization. "In this book, I offer you the gift of awakening, given to me by my teacher, Sri H. W. L. Poonja, a awakened satguru called Papaji. Awakening is real: it is the only reality. Awakening is permanent: it doesn't come and go."In 2017, a new edition of Wake Up and Roar: Satsang with Papaji was released by New Morning Books. In 2018, An Outlaw Makes It Home: The Awakening of a Spiritual Revolutionary was released by New Morning Books. Jaxon-Bear established a 501 non-profit organization; the organization offers events, videos and outreach programs dedicated to world peace and freedom through universal self-realization.
Jaxon-Bear holds public retreats in the US, Europe and Australia. Jaxon-Bear is principal teacher at the Leela School of Awakening, established in 2016 as a separate educational non-profit organization; the Leela School offers a A. C. H. E. Accredited training and certification in therapeutic intervention and hypnotherapy, with branches in Ashland, Sydney and Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In 1975, Jaxon-Bear met his life-partner, Antoinette Roberson Varner known as Gangaji, in Berkeley, California, they spent their first five years together living on a small farm in California. In 1989, they were married in a cave in Haleakala Crater on Maui. In July 2007, Jaxon-Bear was discovered to have fractures in a broken rib, he was given a maximum of three years to live. Since he was diagnosed as a non-genetic inheritor of the disease, his exposure during 9/11 may have been a causal factor. Jaxon-Bear was recommended to put his medical care in the hands of Bart Barlogie, a doct
The following tables are the list of cities in India by population. Cities are bifurcated into multiple regions which results in creation of cities within cities which may figure in the list; the entire work of this article is based on Census of India, 2011, conducted by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, under Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. The list includes the cities and not urban agglomerations. Definitions: Towns/Cities with populations of 1 lakh are categorized as Class-I towns or Cities The 46 cities with populations of 1 million and above are known as Million Plus UAs or Cities The 3 cities with populations of 10 million and above are known as Mega Cities The cities listed in bold are the capitals of the respective state / union territory. List of million-plus agglomerations in India List of metropolitan areas in India List of states and union territories of India by population Indian Census Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India