Thetis, is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles. She appears as a sea nymph, a goddess of water, or one of the 50 Nereids, daughters of the ancient sea god Nereus; when described as a Nereid in Classical myths, Thetis was the daughter of Nereus and Doris, a granddaughter of Tethys with whom she sometimes shares characteristics. She seems to lead the Nereids as they attend to her tasks. Sometimes she is identified with Metis; some sources argue that she was one of the earliest of deities worshipped in Archaic Greece, the oral traditions and records of which are lost. Only one written record, a fragment, exists attesting to her worship and an early Alcman hymn exists that identifies Thetis as the creator of the universe. Worship of Thetis as the goddess is documented to have persisted in some regions by historical writers such as Pausanias. In the Trojan War cycle of myth, the wedding of Thetis and the Greek hero Peleus is one of the precipitating events in the war which led to the birth of their child Achilles.

Most extant material about Thetis concerns her role as mother of Achilles, but there is some evidence that as the sea-goddess she played a more central role in the religious beliefs and practices of Archaic Greece. The pre-modern etymology of her name, from tithemi, "to set up, establish," suggests a perception among Classical Greeks of an early political role. Walter Burkert considers her name a transformed doublet of Tethys. In Iliad I, Achilles recalls to his mother her role in defending, thus legitimizing, the reign of Zeus against an incipient rebellion by three Olympians, each of whom has pre-Olympian roots: You alone of all the gods saved Zeus the Darkener of the Skies from an inglorious fate, when some of the other Olympians – Hera and Pallas Athene – had plotted to throw him into chains... You, goddess and saved him from that indignity. You summoned to high Olympus the monster of the hundred arms whom the gods call Briareus, but mankind Aegaeon, a giant more powerful than his father.

He squatted by the Son of Cronos with such a show of force that the blessed gods slunk off in terror, leaving Zeus free — E. V. Rieu translation Quintus of Smyrna, recalling this passage, does write that Thetis once released Zeus from chains. Laura Slatkin explores the apparent contradiction, in that the immediate presentation of Thetis in the Iliad is as a helpless minor goddess overcome by grief and lamenting to her Nereid sisters, links the goddess's present and past through her grief, she draws comparisons with Eos' role in another work of the epic Cycle concerning Troy, the lost Aethiopis, which presents a strikingly similar relationship – that of the divine Dawn, with her slain son Memnon. Thetis does not need to appeal to Zeus for immortality for her son, but snatches him away to the White Island Leuke in the Black Sea, an alternate Elysium where he has transcended death, where an Achilles cult lingered into historic times. Pseudo-Apollodorus' Bibliotheke asserts that Thetis was courted by both Zeus and Poseidon, but she was married off to the mortal Peleus because of their fears about the prophecy by Themis that her son would become greater than his father.

Thus, she is revealed as a figure of cosmic capacity, quite capable of unsettling the divine order. When Hephaestus was thrown from Olympus, whether cast out by Hera for his lameness or evicted by Zeus for taking Hera's side, the Oceanid Eurynome and the Nereid Thetis caught him and cared for him on the volcanic isle of Lemnos, while he labored for them as a smith, "working there in the hollow of the cave, the stream of Okeanos around us went on forever with its foam and its murmur". Thetis is not successful in her role protecting and nurturing a hero, but her role in succoring deities is emphatically repeated by Homer, in three Iliad episodes: as well as her rescue of Zeus and Hephaestus, Diomedes recalls that when Dionysus was expelled by Lycurgus with the Olympians' aid, he took refuge in the Erythraean Sea with Thetis in a bed of seaweed; these accounts associate Thetis with "a divine past—uninvolved with human events—with a level of divine invulnerability extraordinary by Olympian standards.

Where within the framework of the Iliad the ultimate recourse is to Zeus for protection, here the poem seems to point to an alternative structure of cosmic relations" Zeus had received a prophecy that Thetis's son would become greater than his father, as Zeus had dethroned his father to lead the succeeding pantheon. In order to ensure a mortal father for her eventual offspring and his brother Poseidon made arrangements for her to marry a human, son of Aeacus, but she refused him. Proteus, an early sea-god, advised Peleus to find the sea nymph when she was asleep and bind her to keep her from escaping by changing forms, she did shift shapes, becoming flame, water, a raging lioness, a serpent. Peleus held fast. Subdued, she consented to marry him. Thetis is the mother of Achilles by Peleus. According to classical mythology, the wedding of Thetis and Peleus was celebrated on Mount Pelion, outside the cave of Chiron, attended by the dei

Bio-inspired computing

Bio-inspired computing, short for biologically inspired computing, is a field of study which seeks to solve computer science problems using models of biology. It relates to connectionism, social behavior, emergence. Within computer science, bio-inspired computing relates to artificial intelligence and machine learning. Bio-inspired computing is a major subset of natural computation; some areas of study in biologically inspired computing, their biological counterparts: Bio-Inspired computing can be distinguished from traditional artificial intelligence by its approach to computer learning. Bio-inspired computing uses an evolutionary approach, while traditional A. I. uses a'creationist' approach. Bio-inspired computing begins with a set of simple rules and simple organisms which adhere to those rules. Over time, these organisms evolve within simple constraints; this method could be considered decentralized. In traditional artificial intelligence, intelligence is programmed from above: the programmer is the creator, makes something and imbues it with its intelligence.

Bio-inspired computing can be used to train a virtual insect. The insect is trained to navigate in an unknown terrain for finding food equipped with six simple rules: turn right for target-and-obstacle left; the virtual insect controlled by the trained spiking neural network can find food after training in any unknown terrain. After several generations of rule application it is the case that some forms of complex behaviour arise. Complexity gets built upon complexity until the end result is something markedly complex, quite completely counterintuitive from what the original rules would be expected to produce. For this reason, in neural network models, it is necessary to model an in vivo network, by live collection of "noise" coefficients that can be used to refine statistical inference and extrapolation as system complexity increases. Natural evolution is a good analogy to this method–the rules of evolution are in principle simple rules, yet over millions of years have produced remarkably complex organisms.

A similar technique is used in genetic algorithms. Brain-inspired computing refers to computational models and methods that are based on the mechanism of the brain, rather than imitating the brain; the goal is to enable the machine to realize various cognitive abilities and coordination mechanisms of human beings in a brain-inspired manner, achieve or exceed Human intelligence level. Artificial intelligence researchers are now aware of the benefits of learning from the brain information processing mechanism, and the progress of brain science and neuroscience provides the necessary basis for artificial intelligence to learn from the brain information processing mechanism. Brain and neuroscience researchers are trying to apply the understanding of brain information processing to a wider range of science field; the development of the discipline benefits from the push of information technology and smart technology and in turn brain and neuroscience will inspire the next generation of the transformation of information technology.

Advances in brain and neuroscience with the help of new technologies and new equipment, support researchers to obtain multi-scale, multi-type biological evidence of the brain through different experimental methods, are trying to reveal the structure of bio-intelligence from different aspects and functional basis. From the microscopic neurons, synaptic working mechanisms and their characteristics, to the mesoscopic network connection model, to the links in the macroscopic brain interval and their synergistic characteristics, the multi-scale structure and functional mechanisms of brains derived from these experimental and mechanistic studies will provide important inspiration for building a future brain-inspired computing model. Broadly speaking, brain-inspired chip refers to a chip designed with reference to the structure of human brain neurons and the cognitive mode of human brain; the "neuromorphic chip" is a brain-inspired chip that focuses on the design of the chip structure with reference to the human brain neuron model and its tissue structure, which represents a major direction of brain-inspired chip research.

Along with the rise and development of “brain plans” in various countries, a large number of research results on neuromorphic chips have emerged, which have received extensive international attention and are well known to the academic community and the industry. For example, EU-backed SpiNNaker and BrainScaleS, Stanford's Neurogrid, IBM's TrueNorth, Qualcomm's Zeroth. TrueNorth is a brain-inspired chip; the US DARPA program has been funding IBM to develop pulsed neural network chips for intelligent processing since 2008. In 2011, IBM first developed two cognitive silicon prototypes by simulating brain structures that could learn and process information like the brain; each neuron of a brain-inspired chip is cross-connected with massive parallelism. In 2014, IBM released a second-generation brain-inspired chip called "TrueNorth." Compared with the first generation brain-inspired chips, the performance of the TrueNorth chip has increased and the number of neurons has increased from 256 to 1 million.

Leonard Carpenter

Leonard Paul Carpenter is an American writer of fantasy and science fiction. He writes as Leonard P. Carpenter. Carpenter was born in 1948 in Chicago, but aside from a year in West Texas in childhood has lived most of his life in California, he married Cheryl Lynn Chrisman on October 10, 1970 in California. They attended UC Berkeley, from which they both graduated, had two daughters and a son; the Carpenters lived in Santa Maria, California from 1975 to 2003, continued to reside on the California Central Coast thereafter. Cheryl, a schoolteacher, retired in 2013 and died January 24, 2014 after a year-long fight with cancer. Since her death Carpenter has worked on book projects. Among Carpenter's works are eleven Conan novels published by Tor Books, he has written the science fiction novel Fatal Strain re-titled Biohacker, the historical fiction novel Lusitania Lost, a number of short stories and poems. Carpenter's writing has been published in the magazines Amazing Stories, Asimov's Science Fiction, Eldrich Tales, 2AM, as well as the anthologies Dark Lessons, L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future Volume I, The Year's Best Horror Stories XIV, Horrorstory Volume 5, The Year's Best Horror Stories: XVII, Short Sharp Shocks, The Cthulhu Cycle, Serve It Forth — Cooking With Anne McCaffrey, L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future Volume XV, L. Ron Hubbard Presents the Best of Writers of the Future.

Carpenter has been the recipient of the Writers of the Future award and the Origins Award for Best Game Related Fiction. Conan the Renegade Conan the Raider Conan the Warlord Conan the Hero Conan the Great Conan the Outcast Conan the Savage Conan of the Red Brotherhood Conan, Scourge of the Bloody Coast Conan the Gladiator Conan, Lord of the Black River Fatal Strain Biohacker Lusitania Lost The Chronicles of Creighton Craven "Dead Week" "The Ebbing" "Endangered Species" "Fearing's Fall" "Recrudescence" "The Eighth Plague" "The Hagen Project" "Torso" "The Devourer" "The Egg" "The Fungoid Intruder" "The Priests" "The Combatants" "The Catcher" "The Hoard" "The Miser" "Rondrini's Linguini and Clam Sauce" Official website