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Theuderic III

Theuderic III was the king of Neustria on two occasions and king of Austrasia from 679 to his death in 691. Thus, he was the king of all the Franks from 679; the son of Clovis II and Balthild, he has been described as a puppet – a roi fainéant – of Ebroin, the Mayor of the Palace, who may have appointed him without the support of the nobles. He succeeded his brother Chlothar III in Neustria in 673, but Childeric II of Austrasia displaced him soon thereafter until he died in 675 and Theuderic retook his throne, he fought a war against Dagobert II. His forces under Ebroin were victorious at the Battle of Lucofao; when Dagobert died in 679, Theuderic became king of Austrasia as well. He and the Neustrian mayor of the palace, made peace with Pepin of Heristal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, in 681. However, on Waratton's death in 686, the new mayor, made war with Austrasia and Pepin vanquished the Burgundo-Neustrian army under Berthar and Theuderic at the Battle of Tertry in 687, thus paving the way for Austrasian dominance of the Frankish state.

He married a daughter of Ansegisel and Saint Begga of Landen. They had the following children: Clovis IV, king Childebert III, king He married Amalberge before 674, daughter of Wandregisis and Farahild, he was father of: Clovis III, king of Austrasia Fouracre, Paul. Late Merovingian France: History and Hagiography, 640-720. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-4791-6. Fouracre, Paul J.. "Theuderic III". In Nicholson, Oliver; the Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity. Oxford University Press. Frassetto, Michael. Early Medieval World, The: From the Fall of Rome to the Time of Charlemagne:. Volume One, A-M. ABC-CLIO. Verseuil, Jean. Les rois fainéants: De Dagobert à Pépin le Bref. Paris: Critérion. Pp. 179–199. ISBN 978-2-7413-0196-7. Wallace-Hadrill, John Michael. "V. Les rois faineants"; the long-haired kings: and other studies in Frankish history. Methuen. Wood, Ian; the Merovingian Kingdoms 450 - 751. Routledge. Pp. 221, 227, 362. ISBN 978-1-317-87116-3. Carlrichard Brühl. Die Urkunden der Merowinger. Monumenta Germaniae historica.

Diplomata regum Francorum e stirpe Merovingica.. 2 vols. Hannover: Hahn. ISBN 978-3-7752-5464-9

Feng Ba

Feng Ba, courtesy name Wenqi, nickname Qizhifa, formally Emperor Wencheng of Yan, was an emperor of the Chinese state Northern Yan. He became emperor after Gao Yun, whom he supported in a 407 coup that overthrew Murong Xi of Later Yan, was assassinated in 409. During his reign, Northern Yan maintained its territorial integrity but made no headway against the much stronger rival Northern Wei, he was said to have had more than 100 sons, but after his death in 430, his brother and successor Feng Hong had them all executed. Feng Ba's grandfather Feng He was ethnically Han Chinese and was said to have settled down in Shangdang Commandery in the aftermaths of the conquest of the northern half of Jin during the reign of Emperor Huai of Jin by Han Zhao. Feng Ba's father Feng An served the Western Yan emperor Murong Yong as a general; when Western Yan was destroyed by the Later Yan emperor Murong Chui in 394, Feng An's household was forcibly moved to Helong, where Feng Ba grew up under heavy Xianbei influence, for his nickname Qizhifa suggested Xianbei origin.

He had three younger brothers, all of whom admired heroic behavior and ignored social restraints, but Feng Ba himself was considered to be careful and diligent, managing his household well. During Murong Bao's reign, he became a general, he came to respect Murong Bao's adoptive son Murong Yun the Duke of Zhaoyang, they became great friends. In 407, during the reign of Murong Bao's cruel and capricious younger brother Murong Xi, both Feng Ba and his brother Feng Sufu somehow offended Murong Xi, they hid themselves in the countryside, they concluded that they would be found and killed anyway, therefore resolved to overthrow Murong Xi. They reentered Longcheng capital, in secret, when Murong Xi left Longcheng to bury his wife Empress Fu Xunying, who died earlier that year, they rose within the city with the assistance of their cousin Feng Wani and the generals Sun Hu and Zhang Xing; because Feng Ba and Murong Yun were friends, he persuaded Murong Yun to serve as their leader, they captured the palace and closed the city gates.

Murong Yun was declared Heavenly Prince. Murong Xi returned to Longcheng and settled in outside, at Longteng Chateau, preparing an assault on the city. At this time, the imperial guard soldier Chu Tou fled to him and informed him that the imperial guards were ready to turn against Murong Yun as soon as Murong Xi attacked. However, for reasons unknown, Murong Xi fled, his general Murong Ba tried to maintain the assault against Longcheng and was successful, but as the troops began to realize that Murong Xi had fled, they collapsed, Murong Ba was killed by Feng Ba's soldiers. That day, Murong Xi was found, wearing civilian clothes, in a forest, he was captured and delivered to Murong Yun. Murong Yun read him his crimes, beheaded him and his sons; because Feng Ba was instrumental in his becoming emperor, Murong Yun, who soon after he became emperor changed his name back to the original Gao Yun, made Feng Ba his prime minister, Feng Ba's brothers and cousin Feng Wani, as well as other members of the uprising, received high posts as well.

The government was in Feng Ba's hands. Because Gao Yun was insecure about how he felt he had little contributions to the people or to his own place on the throne, he employed many skillful guards to protect him, he further began to favor two jesters named Li Ban and Tao Ren, to have Li and Tao be in charge of security. He awarded them with great wealth, their foods and clothes could match those of Gao Yun himself. Despite this, he was assassinated in winter 409—an event, mysterious in its cause and scope. Traditional histories, including the Jin Shu and the Zizhi Tongjian, record that Li and Tao, despite Gao Yun's favors to them, were still not satisfied, they assassinated Gao Yun out of that dissatisfaction. Yet, this does not appear to be a true reason for the assassination. Gao Yun's wife Empress Li appears to have died in the incident. Feng Ba, upon hearing of the assassination, readied his troops and waited for the situation to become clear, but two off his soldiers Zhang Tai and Li Sang advanced into the palace and beheaded Li and Tao.

The officials all supported Feng Ba to take the throne, so he did. Feng Ba made his brother Feng Sufu the Duke of Fanyang the prime minister, other important posts went to Sun Hu, Zhang Xing, his brother Feng Hong the Duke of Ji, his cousin Feng Wani the Duke of Guangchuan, another cousin's son Feng Ruchen the Duke of Shanggu, he honored his mother Lady Zhang as princess dowager, he created his wife Lady Sun as princess and his son Feng Yong as crown prince. Both Feng Ba and Feng Sufu were considered diligent and intelligent, during this period, Northern Yan was considered well-governed, being able to fend off the much stronger rival Northern Wei. In 410, Feng Ba had to deal with a major internal disturbance. Feng Wani and Feng Ruchen both felt that they contributed much to Feng Ba's success, therefore were resentful that they were not at Longcheng and in control of the imperial government but were required to serv

Mud pie

Making a mud pie is a children's activity or game that consists of creating a mixture of water and soil and playing or pretending to make food or a pie. Mud pies are not meant to be eaten. A broader category describes this activity as mud play. Mud pies are composed from a mixture of soil. Other ingredients are sometimes added to the basic water and soil mixture such as plants and pebbles; the ` pie' will stay together. In addition to mud pies, children create other structures like mud sandwiches and mud-based tea parties. Creating a mud pie can be a enjoyable activity and is thought to nurture the imagination of a child. Making mud pies allows the exploration of textures, establishes the basis of scientific reasoning as they change the variables such as the addition of less water or freezing the mixture; some children do not enjoy the activity. A child may hesitate to "get dirty."Many people recall this childhood activity with fondness. An author recounts: "As a child, I was drawn to mud; some of my fondest childhood memories saw me covered in the stuff, head to toe."

Digging a small hole, adding water and stirring with a stick is one method used by children to create the mud pie. Some choose to organize a party or event for children with creating mud pies as part of the activities; the benefits of making pies out of mud include: strengthening the sense of touch and developing "true" creativity. Some take a more formal approach to the activity and dedicate children's play spaces to the making of mud pies. A mud pie kitchen can be created to make other mud play'food'. A mud center can be created in a school setting; some teachers are able to incorporate music into mud pie-making activities during school. Other ingredients have been proposed and include: sawdust eggshells orange peel crushed leaves sandWashing up afterwards is to be expected. Adults can participate in creating mud pies and some continue to use mud as a facial enhancing product. Mud play can include the use of mud as an artistic medium. Thin mixtures of mud and water can be used as paint and applied to paper with twig'brushes'.

After the mud dries, different areas can demonstrate the different color shades and constituents of the mixture. International Mud Day was established in 2009 by schoolchildren in Nepal. Schools in many countries organize mud play events. International Mud Month was proposed in 2015. Adults sometimes participate in mud festivals; some desserts made out of crushed cookies and other ingredients are called mud pies or puddings. Dirt cake, an edible dessert somewhat resembling a mud pie Mississippi mud pie, another edible dessert Boryeong Mud Festival Dorodango