Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome. Various traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political and social institutions to Romulus and his contemporaries. Although many of these traditions incorporate elements of folklore, it is not clear to what extent a historical figure underlies the mythical Romulus, the events and institutions ascribed to him were central to the myths surrounding Rome's origins and cultural traditions; the myths concerning Romulus involve several distinct episodes and figures: the miraculous birth and youth of Romulus and Remus, his twin brother. Romulus and Remus, his twin brother, were the sons of Rhea Silvia, herself the daughter of Numitor, the former king of Alba Longa. Through them, the twins are descended from the Trojan hero Aeneas and Latinus, the mythical founder of the kingdom of Latium. Before the twins' birth, Numitor had been usurped by Amulius. After seizing the throne, Amulius murdered Numitor's son, condemned Rhea to perpetual virginity by consecrating her a Vestal.
Rhea, became pregnant, ostensibly by the god Mars. Amulius had her imprisoned, upon the twins' birth, ordered that they be thrown into the rain-swollen Tiber. Instead of carrying out the king's orders, his servants left the twins along the riverbank at the foot of Palatine Hill. In the traditional telling of the legend, a she-wolf happened upon the twins, who were at the foot of a fig tree, she suckled and tended them by a cave until they were found by the herdsman Faustulus and his wife, Acca Larentia. The brothers grew to manhood among hill-folk. After becoming involved in a conflict between the followers of Amulius and those of their grandfather Numitor, they learned the truth of their origin, they restored Numitor to the throne. The princes set out to establish a city of their own, they returned to the hills overlooking the site where they had been exposed as infants. They could not agree on; when an omen to resolve the controversy failed to provide a clear indication, the conflict escalated and Remus was killed by his brother or by his brother's follower.
In a variant of the legend, the augurs favoured Romulus, who proceeded to plough a square furrow around the Palatine Hill to demarcate the walls of the future city. When Remus derisively leapt over the "walls" to show how inadequate they were against invaders, he was struck down by Romulus in anger. In another variant, Remus died during a melée, along with Faustulus; the founding of the city by Romulus was commemorated annually on April 21, with the festival of the Parilia. His first act was to fortify the Palatine, in the course, he laid out the city's boundaries with a furrow that he ploughed, performed another sacrifice, with his followers set to work building the city itself. Romulus sought the assent of the people to become their king. With Numitor's help, he received their approval. Romulus accepted the crown after he sacrificed and prayed to Jupiter, after receiving favourable omens. Romulus divided the populace into three tribes, known as the Ramnes and Luceres, for taxation and military purposes.
Each tribe was presided over by an official known as a tribune, was further divided into ten curia, or wards, each presided over by an official known as a curio. Romulus allotted a portion of land to each ward, for the benefit of the people. Nothing is known of the manner in which the tribes and curiae were taxed, but for the military levy, each curia was responsible for providing one hundred foot soldiers, a unit known as a century, ten cavalry; each Romulean tribe thus provided about one thousand infantry, one century of cavalry. Choosing one hundred men from the leading families, Romulus established the Roman senate; these men he called the city fathers. The other class, known as the "plebs" or "plebeians", consisted of the servants, fugitives who sought asylum at Rome, those captured in war, others who were granted Roman citizenship over time. To encourage the growth of the city, Romulus outlawed infanticide, established an asylum for fugitives on the Capitoline Hill, where freemen and slaves alike could claim protection and seek Roman citizenship.
The new city was filled with colonists, most of whom were unmarried men. With no intermarriage between Rome and neighboring communities, the new city would fail. Romulus sent envoys to neighboring towns, appealing to them to allow intermarriage with Roman citizens, but his overtures were rebuffed. Romulus formulated a plan to acquire women from other settlements, he announced a momentous festival and games, invited the people of the neighboring cities to attend. Many did, in particular the Sabines. At a prearranged signal, the Romans began to snatch and carry off the marriageable women among their guests; the aggrieved cities prepared for war with Rome, might have defeated Romulus had they been united. But impatient with the preparations of the Sabines, the Latin towns of Caenina and Antemnae took action without their allies. Caenina was the first to attack.
Anfa was the ancient toponym for Casablanca during the classical period. The city was founded by Berbers around the 10th century BC, with the Romans under Augustus establishing the commercial port of "Anfus" in 15 BC. Anfus is now the name of a district in the oldest part of Casablanca, located in the Casablanca-Settat region of Morocco; the district covers an area of 37.5 square kilometres, as of 2004 had 492,787 inhabitants. The area, today Casablanca was founded and settled by the Berbers by about the 10th century BC, it was used as a port by the Phoenicians and by the Romans. Romans occupied the area in 15 BC and created a commercial port under Augustus, directly connected to the Mogador island in the Iles Purpuraires of southern Mauritania. From there they obtained a special dye, that colored the purple stripe in Imperial Roman Senatorial togas; the expedition of Juba II to discover the Canary islands and Madeira departed from Anfa. Anfa est une grande cité, edifiée par les Romans sur le rivage de la mer Oceane...
The Roman port called Anfus, was part of a Berber client state of Rome until Emperor Augustus. When Rome annexed Ptolemy of Mauretania's kingdom, Anfa was incorporated into the Roman Empire by Caligula, but this was done only nominally because the Roman limes was a few dozen kilometers north of the port. However, Roman Anfa—connected by commerce and by socio-cultural ties to Volubilis —lasted until the 5th century, when Vandals conquered Roman northwestern Africa. A Roman wreck of the 2nd century, from which were salvaged 169 silver coins, shows that the Romans appreciated this useful port for commerce. There is evidence of oil commerce with Roman Volubilis and Tingis in the 3rd century. Meanwhile, a large Berber tribe, the Berghouata, settled in the area between the rivers Bou Regreg to the north and Oum er-Rbia to the south of the Roman port; the independent Berber kingdom called Barghawata, in the area named Anfa, arose around in 744 AD, continued until it was conquered by the new Berber kingdom of the Almoravids in 1068 AD.
Abou El Kassem El Ziani refers to ancient Casablanca as "Anfa" and stated that the Zenatiyins were the first people that established Anfa in the period of their settlement in Tamassna. Leo Africanus defined Anfa as a Roman city in his famous Della descrittione dell’Africa et delle cose notabili che ivi sono, written in the 16th century. Actual Anfa was built and settled by the Berbers in the Middle Ages. Anfa is a Berber name which means "the top"; the area became a small independent kingdom ruled by Barghawata from 744 CE until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. From the 14th century, under the Marinids, Anfa rose in importance as a port. In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again, it became a safe harbour for pirates, which led to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who destroyed the town in 1468. It was used by the Portuguese, who called it Anafé, as a military fortress from 1515. Anfa is today to the west of central Casablanca, was the name of one of the city's two airports before being closed in 2007.
The region around Casablanca is named Casa-Anfa. The neighborhood of Anfa westernized in the city; the district is divided into three arrondissements: Anfa Maârif Sidi Belyout Casablanca Timeline of Casablanca A 1572 map of Anfa, after an unidentified Portuguese original
The Latin word basilica has three distinct applications in modern English. The word was used to refer to an ancient Roman public building, where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions, it had the door at one end and a raised platform and an apse at the other, where the magistrate or other officials were seated. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town adjacent to the main forum. Subsequently, the basilica was not built near a forum but adjacent to a palace and was known as a "palace basilica"; as the Roman Empire adopted Christianity, the major church buildings were constructed with this basic architectural plan and thus it became popular throughout Europe. It continues to be used in an architectural sense to describe rectangular buildings with a central nave and aisles, a raised platform at the opposite end from the door. In Europe and the Americas the basilica remained the most common architectural style for churches of all Christian denominations, though this building plan has become less dominant in new buildings since the latter 20th century.
Thirdly, the term refers to an official designation: a large and important Catholic church, given special ceremonial rights by the Pope, whatever its architectural plan. These are divided into four major basilicas, all of which are ancient churches located within Rome, and, as of 2017, 1,757 minor basilicas around the world; some Catholic basilicas are Catholic pilgrimage sites, receiving tens of millions of visitors per year. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe set a new record with 6.1 million pilgrims during Friday and Saturday for the anniversary of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Latin word basilica lit. "royal stoa" referring to the tribunal chamber of a king. In Rome the word was at first used to describe an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. To a large extent these were the town halls of ancient Roman life; the basilica was centrally located in every Roman town adjacent to the main forum. These buildings, an example of, the Basilica Ulpia, were rectangular, had a central nave and aisles with a raised platform and an apse at each of the two ends, adorned with a statue of the emperor, while the entrances were from the long sides.
By extension the name was applied to Christian churches which adopted the same basic plan and it continues to be used as an architectural term to describe such buildings, which form the majority of church buildings in Western Christianity, though the basilican building plan became less dominant in new buildings from the 20th century. The Roman basilica was a large public building; the first basilicas had no religious function at all. As early as the time of Augustus, a public basilica for transacting business had been part of any settlement that considered itself a city, used in the same way as the covered market houses of late medieval northern Europe, where the meeting room, for lack of urban space, was set above the arcades, however. Although their form was variable, basilicas contained interior colonnades that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces on one or both sides, with an apse at one end, where the magistrates sat on a raised dais; the central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows.
The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor. Other early examples include the basilica at Pompeii; the most splendid Roman basilica is the one begun for traditional purposes during the reign of the pagan emperor Maxentius and finished by Constantine I after 313 AD. Basilica Porcia: first basilica built in Rome, erected on the personal initiative and financing of the censor Marcus Porcius Cato as an official building for the tribunes of the plebs Aemilian Basilica, built by the censor Aemilius Lepidus in 179 BC Basilica Sempronia, built by the censor Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus in 169 BC Basilica Opimia, erected by the consul Lucius Opimius in 121 BC, at the same time that he restored the temple of Concord Julian Basilica dedicated in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and completed by Augustus 27 BC to 14 AD Basilica Argentaria, erected under Trajan, emperor from 98 AD to 117AD Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine In the Roman Imperial period, a basilica for large audiences became a feature in palaces.
In the 3rd century AD, the governing elite appeared less in the forums. They now tended to dominate their cities from opulent palaces and country villas, set a little apart from traditional centers of public life. Rather than retreats from public life, these residences were the forum made private. Seated in the tribune of his basilica, the great man would meet his dependent clientes early every morning. Constantine's basilica at Trier, the Aula Palatina, is still standing. A private basilica excavated at Bulla Regia, in the "House of the Hunt", dates from the first half of the 5th century, its reception or audience hall is a long rectangular nave-like space, flanked by dependent rooms that also open into one another, ending in a semi-circular apse, with matching transept spaces. Cluster
Thagaste was a Roman-Berber city in present-day Algeria, now called Souk Ahras. The town was the birthplace of Saint Augustine. Thagaste was a small Numidian village, inhabited by a Berber tribe into which Augustine of Hippo was born in AD 354, his mother Saint Monica was a Christian and his father Patricius was at first a pagan who adopted Christianity. The city was located in the north-eastern highlands of Numidia, it lay around 60 miles from Hippo Regius, 20 miles southwest of Thubursicum, about 150 miles from Carthage. Thagaste was situated in a region full of dense forest. In antiquity, this area was renowned for its mounts, which were used as a natural citadel against different foreign invaders, including the Romans, the Byzantines, the Vandals, the Umayyads. During the Roman period, trading increased in the city, that flourished under the rule of Septimius Severus. Thagaste became a Roman municipium in the first century of Roman domination; the city was mentioned by Pliny the Elder. As a municipium, Thagaste was settled by a few Roman Italian immigrants, but was inhabited by romanized native Berbers.
Indeed, Roman historian Plinius wrote that Tagaste was an important Christian center in Roman Africa. It had a basilica and a Roman Catholic diocese, the latter of, the most important in Byzantine Numidia. There are three bishops of Thagaste known: Saint Firminus, Saint Alipius and Saint Gennarus. There is the tradition that Saint Augustine used to meditate under an olive tree in a hill of Thagaste: this tree is still existing and is the place of reunion now for the followers of the Augustinian spirituality; the Byzantines fortified the city with walls. It fell to the Umayyad Caliphate toward the end of the seventh century. After centuries of neglect, French colonists rebuilt the city, now called Souk Ahras. Philologists and researchers from the Canary Islands have linked the Tagaste to Tegueste; the latter derives from *tegăsət, which means "humid" and is of Guanche origin, which had a Berber origin. Saint Monica Augustine of Hippo, Doctor of the Church Martianus Capella, author Apuleius, author Alypius of Thagaste, bishop celebrated on August 15 Firmus and Rusticus, Christian martyrs Tacfarinas, resisted Roman invasions Thagaste.
Benseddik, Nacéra. Thagaste. Souk Ahras, ville natale de saint Augustin Ed. Inas. Alger, 2005. Laffi, Umberto. Colonie e municipi nello Stato romano Ed. di Storia e Letteratura. Roma, 2007 ISBN 8884983509 Mommsen, Theodore; the Provinces of the Roman Empire Section: Roman Africa. Barnes & Noble. New York, 1996 Smyth Vereker, Charles. Scenes in the Sunny South: Including the Atlas Mountains and the Oases of the Sahara in Algeria. Volume 2. Publisher Longmans and Company. University of Wisconsin. Madison,1871 Mauretania Caesariensis Cuicul Hippo Regius Cirta
Constantine spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria. During Roman times it was called Cirta and was renamed "Constantina" in honor of emperor Constantine the Great, it was the capital of the French department of Constantine until 1962. Located somewhat inland, Constantine is about 80 kilometres from the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of the tiny Rhumel River. Constantine is regarded as the capital of eastern Algeria and the commercial center of its region, it has a population of about 450,000, making it the third largest city in the country after Algiers and Oran. There are historical sites located around the city. Constantine is referred to as the "City of Bridges" due to the numerous picturesque bridges connecting the various hills and ravines that the city is built on and around. Constantine was named the Arab Capital of Culture in 2015; the city was created by the Phoenicians, who called it Sewa. It was renamed Cirta, by the Numidian king Syphax, who turned it into his capital.
The city was taken over by Numidia, the country of the Berber people, after the Phoenicians were defeated by Rome in the Third Punic War. In 112 B. C. the city was occupied by Jugurtha. The city served as the base for Roman generals Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus and Gaius Marius in their war against Jugurtha. With the removal of King Juba I and the remaining supporters of Pompey in Africa, Julius Caesar gave special rights to the citizens of Cirta, now known as Colonia Sittlanorum. In 311 AD, during the civil war between emperor Maxentius and usurper Domitius Alexander, the city was destroyed. Rebuilt in 313 AD, it was subsequently named after emperor Constantine the Great, who had defeated Maxentius. Captured by the Vandals in 432, Constantine returned to the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa from 534 to 697, it was conquered by the Arabs in the 8th century. The city recovered in the 12th century and under Almohad and Hafsid rule it was again a prosperous market, with links to Pisa and Venice.
After 1529 it was intermittently part of Ottoman Empire, ruled by a Turkish bey subordinate to the dey of Algiers. Salah Bey, who ruled the city in 1770–1792 embellished it and built much of the Muslim architecture still visible today. In 1826 the last bey, Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Chérif, became the new head of state, he led a fierce resistance against French forces. By 13 October 1837, the territory was captured by France, from 1848 on until 1962 it was an integral part of the French motherland and centre of the Constantine Département. During the period of French control, Muslim anti-Jewish riots in Constantine in 1934 killed 34 Jews. During World War II, during the campaign in North Africa, Allied forces used Constantine and the nearby cities of Sétif and Bone as operational bases. In 1880, while working in the military hospital in Constantine, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran discovered that the cause of malaria is a protozoan, he observed the parasites in a blood smear taken from a soldier. For this, he received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Medicine.
This was the first time. His work helped inspire researchers and veterinarians today to try to find a cure for malaria in animals. During the 11th century, Banu Hilal, an Arab tribe living between Nile and Red Sea, settled in Tunisia and Constantinois, Constantine party. Constantine is situated on a plateau at an elevation 640 metres above sea level; the city has a dramatic appearance. The city is picturesque with a number of bridges over Rhumel River and a viaduct crossing the ravine; the ravine is crossed by seven bridges, including Sidi M'Cid bridge. Constantine is the railhead of a diverse agricultural area, it is a centre of the grain trade and has flour mills, a tractor factory, industries producing textiles, wool and leather goods. Algeria and Tunisia serve as its markets. Constantine has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, moist winters; the city has a dramatic appearance. In 1911, Baedeker described it as "resembling the Kasba of Algiers, the picturesque charm of which has so far been marred by the construction of but a few new streets."
|Sheriana Tower Constantine |Floors: 111 |City: Constantine,El Menia | |Construction Starts:??? |Construction Finished:??? |Construction Age:??? |Planned By: Sami Musée National Cirta Gustave Mercier Museum Abd al Hamid Ben Badis Mosque The Casbah Emir Abd al-Qadir University and Mosque Soumma Mausoleum Massinissa's Mausoleum Ahmed Bey Palace Ruins of the Antonian Roman aqueduct Ben Abdelmalek StadiumNearby are the Roman city of Tiddis the megalithic monuments and burial grounds at Djebel Mazala Salluste. The topography of the city is unique and it determines the need for bridges. At the end of the 19th century, Guy de Maupassant wrote: "Eight bridges used to cross this ravine. Six of these bridges are in ruins today." Today the most important bridges are: Sidi M'Cid Bridge, a suspension bridge with a length of 168m, El-Kantara bridge which leads toward north, Sidi Rached bridge, a long viaduct of 447ms and 27 arches, designed by Paul Séjourné, Devil's bridg
Arch of Caracalla (Thebeste)
The Arch of Caracalla is a tetrapylon Roman triumphal arch in Thebeste, located in present-day Tébessa, Tébessa Province, Algeria. It was constructed during the early 3rd century; the arch was built between 211 and 214 by means of a testamentary donation of Gaius Cornelius Egrilianus, Prefect of the XIV legion, from Thebeste. The figure set aside for the construction was 250,000 sesterti; the arch was reused as the northern gate of the city wall in the Byzantine period. The lateral arches were walled up, as was the northern one, until they were reopened by French military engineers during the colonial period. In form, the Arch of Caracalla is cubical, being 10.94m on the side and to the top of the entablature. On the pylons, beside the spans are pairs of columns with Corinthian capitals, detached from the wall and with pilasters behind, supported by a podium from which their pedestals extend; the main entablature continues in the recess above the spans. Medallions with the busts of divinities are located above each of the spans.
On the attic on three sides dedications are inscribed to the deified Emperor Septimius Severus, Julia Domna and Caracalla. On the fourth side is a reconstructed Byzantine inscription found in the infill of the vaults, which refers to the incorporation of the arch into the Byzantine city wall as the work of the magister militum Solomon. At the centre on all sides, the entablature supported an aedicula; the reconstruction of the top of the arch is the subject of some debate among scholars: According to Meunier an octagonal lantern would have stood there with its base hidden by the aediculae, while according to another there would have been a low dome. According to Bacchielli, the four aediculae, connected by railings contained the statues of the Deified Septimius Severus, the Deified Julia Domna and Geta. Arch of Alexander Severus Arch of Caracalla Arch of Septimius Severus Arch of Trajan Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania Jean Meunier, "L'arc de Caracalla à Théveste. Relevé et restitution", in Revue africaine, 82, 1938, pp. 84–106.
Silvio Accame, "Il testamento di C. Cornelio Egriliano e l'arco di Caracalla in Tébessa", in Epigrahica, 3, 1941, pp. 237–243. Umberto Ciotti, "Del coronamento degli archi quadrifronti. I. Gli archi di Tébessa e di Tripoli", in Bullettino della commissione archeologica comunale di Roma, 72, 1946-1948, pp. 21–42. Pietro Romanelli, "Theveste", in Enciclopedia dell'arte antica 1966 Lidiano Bacchielli, "Il testamento di C. Cornelio Egriliano e il coronamento dell'arco di Caracalla a Tebessa", in L'Africa romana. Atti del IV convegno di studio, Sassari 1987, pp. 295–321. Silvio De Maria, "Arco onorario e trionfale", in Enciclopedia dell'arte antica. II supplemento, 1994 (copy online on the site Treccani.it Enrico Zanini, "Tebessa", in Enciclopedia dell'arte medievale, 2000
Mogador Island is the main island of the Iles Purpuraires near Essaouira in Morocco. It is about 3 kilometres long and 1.5 kilometres wide, lies about 1.5 kilometres from Essaouira. The Carthaginian navigator Hanno visited and established a trading post in the area in the 5th century BC, Phoenician artifacts have been found on the island. Around the end of the 1st century BC or early 1st century AD, Juba II established a Tyrian purple factory, processing the murex and purpura shells found in the intertidal rocks at Essaouira and the Iles Purpuraires; this dye colored the purple stripe in Imperial Roman Senatorial togas. Roman merchants settled in the island under Augustus creating a small village: a Roman house with foundations, artifacts and coins, were found on the island. Mogador and the nearby Iles Purpuraires were tied to Mauretania Tingitana by merchant ships in the first and second centuries of the Roman Empire; some historians think that from Mogador Island the Roman merchants reached the Cape Verde islands and went south until the Gulf of Guinea.
Indeed, according to Roman Pliny the Elder, an expedition of Mauretanians sent by Juba II to the Canary archipelago visited the Cape Verde islands: when King Juba II dispatched a contingent to re-open the dye production facility at Mogador in the early 1st century AD, Juba's naval force was subsequently sent on an exploration of the Canary Islands and the Cape Verde islands, using Mogador as their mission base. After the fall of the Roman empire the commerce from Mogador Island disappeared and the island lost most of its importance during the Middle Ages. In 1844, the French Navy besieged the island, it fell to the French in France's brutal Bombardment of Mogador, it has now been designated as a nature reserve, it cannot be visited without an official authorization. The island has been designated as a protected Ramsar site since 2005. A survey of falcons on the island in 2014 found evidence of Eleonora's falcon crippling and imprisoning live prey for use. Abdeljebbar Qninba of Mohammed V University and colleagues, found small birds with missing flight and tail feathers trapped, or hiding in small holes or cavities.
It is thought either the falcons plucked feathers to keep the birds as a food source for or alternatively, the prey are escaping from the falcons by finding refuge in nearby holes. Mauretania Tingitana Lipiński, Edward. Itineraria Phoenicia Peeters Publishers. Paris, 2004. ISBN 9042913444