Frank Wilbur "Spig" Wead was a U. S. Navy aviator who helped promote United States Naval aviation from its inception through World War II. Commander Wead was a recognized authority on early aviation. Following a crippling spinal injury in 1926, Wead was placed on the retired list. In the 1930s, he became a screenwriter, he published several books, short stories and magazine articles. During World War II, he returned to active duty, he worked in a planning role, but undertook sea duty in the Pacific, where he saw action against the Japanese in 1943–44 before being placed on the retired list in mid-1945. Frank Wilbur Wead was born to Samuel De Forest Wead and Grace Wead on 24 October 1895, in Ward No. 5 of Peoria Township, Illinois. Frank graduated from Peoria High School; the Wead family had a strong background of service to the American nation. The Weads of Massachusetts were represented in one of the Committees of Safety established during the American Revolutionary War, as patriots in the Colonial Wars, forming part of the General Society of Colonial Wars during 1607–1763.
The Connecticut Weads were patriots of the American Revolutionary War. The Wead families were prominent in Illinois and Vermont in several fields during the 19th and 20th centuries: politics, education and as supporters of the Union during the American Civil War, during which one branch of the Wead lineage became involved with the United States Sanitary Commission. On 16 July 1912, Frank Wilbur Wead was admitted into the United States Naval Academy as a member of the Class of 1916, his classmates included Ralph Eugene Davison and Calvin T. Durgin; the Class of 1916 graduated on 29 May 1916. Following graduation from the Naval Academy and leave, Wead reported to his first sea-duty assignment, USS San Diego, on 28 June 1916, he was a line officer with a date of rank as an ensign of 3 June 1916 and a precedence of 17 within his group of "running mates."Wead was next assigned to USS Pittsburgh on a cruise from San Francisco, departing 25 April 1917. The ship reached Rio de Janeiro where, with several other officers, he departed Pittsburgh on 21 September.
Wead was granted a temporary promotion to lieutenant on 15 October 1917. He was booked for passage to the Port of New York aboard SS Zeelandia, which departed Rio de Janeiro on 25 September and arrived in New York on 17 October. Wead reported to the Bureau of Navy Department, for sea duty orders. Wead reported aboard USS Shawmut to assist in preparing the vessel for war. USS Shawmut departed New York Harbor in June 1918, for the remaining months of the war operated in the area of the North Sea Mine Barrage. Following the armistice with Germany, Wead returned stateside aboard Shawmut, arriving at the Boston Navy Yard, Massachusetts. In February 1919, a kite-balloon division of six balloons was assigned to other ships; the ships participated in fleet exercises and, after seven weeks, returned to the United States after demonstrating the capability to operate without land-based support. With the knowledge that the Naval Aviation Division was seeking naval officers with a strong aptitude in naval engineering, having a desire to accept projects with a certain amount of risk, with the combat-proven ability to lead naval personnel by example, Lieutenant Wead began the process for obtaining endorsements to his application to be nominated for flight training.
Wead received a permanent promotion to lieutenant on 3 June 1919. In the late summer of 1919, Wead requested naval aviation flight training at Aeronautic Station Pensacola, Florida, his request was approved and he was assigned to Class 1, on 15 September 1919. Wead reported to Pensacola and was billeted in a two-man room with Lieutenant Ralph Eugene Davison, a classmate at the Naval Academy. Wead was assigned to a training flight team with two other officers and former classmates, Lieutenants Robert Morse Farrar and Calvin T. Durgin. In addition to basic and advanced flight and navigation, the students were trained on a catapult installed on a floating barge at Pensacola. Wead was designated a United States Naval Aviator on 17 April 1920, he was promoted to lieutenant on 1 July 1920. Wead began to promote Naval Aviation after World War I through air racing, speed competitions and several naval aviation articles he submitted for publishing in the United States Naval Institute Proceedings magazine.
This competition against the United States Army Air Service, helped push U. S. military aviation forward. These competitions would give naval aviation a much-needed spotlight in the public eye; the public attention that it generated helped push Congress to fund the advancement of military aviation. After World War I he was a test pilot for the Navy. On 21 April 1921, a newly promoted Lieutenant Frank Wead reported aboard USS Aroostook, homeported at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California. Aboard Aroostook, Wead was assigned aviation duties involving flying: Aeromarine 39-B and Felixstowe F5L. S. Pacific Fleet Air Squadrons Captain Henry Varnum Butler, USN, Executive Aide Lieutenant Commander Patrick N. L. Bellinger, USN. Many changes were occurring within the naval aviation community. In the summer of 1921, Lieutenant Wead took part in the round-trip, long distance flight operation involving twelve F-5
War film is a film genre concerned with warfare about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been associated with the 20th century; the fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films end with them. Themes explored include combat and escape, camaraderie between soldiers, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the stories told may be historical drama, or biographical. Critics have noted similarities between the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action and historical drama to wartime romance. Subgenres, not distinct, include anti-war, animated and documentary. There are subgenres of the war film in specific theatres such as the western desert, the Pacific in the Second World War, or Vietnam.
The war film genre is not tightly defined: the American Film Institute, for example, speaks of "films to grapple with the Great War" without attempting to classify these. However, some directors and critics have offered at least tentative definitions; the director Sam Fuller defined the genre by saying that "a war film’s objective, no matter how personal or emotional, is to make a viewer feel war." John Belton identified four narrative elements of the war film within the context of Hollywood production: a) the suspension of civilian morality during times of war, b) primacy of collective goals over individual motivations, c) rivalry between men in predominantly male groups as well as marginalization and objectification of women, d) depiction of the reintegration of veterans. The film critic Stephen Neale suggests that the genre is for the most part well defined and uncontentious, since war films are those about war being waged in the 20th century, with combat scenes central to the drama. However, Neale notes, films set in the American Civil War or the American Indian Wars of the 19th century were called war films in the time before the First World War.
The critic Julian Smith argues, on the contrary, that the war film lacks the formal boundaries of a genre like the Western, but that in practice, "successful and influential" war films are about modern wars, in particular World War II, with the combination of mobile forces and mass killing. The film scholar Kathryn Kane points out some similarities between the war film genre and the Western. Both genres use opposing concepts like war and peace and savagery. War films frame World War II as a conflict between "good" and "evil" as represented by the Allied forces and Nazi Germany whereas the Western portrays the conflict between civilized settlers and the savage indigenous peoples. James Clarke notes the similarity between a Western like Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch and "war-movie escapades" like The Dirty Dozen. Film historian Jeanine Basinger states that she began with a preconception of what the war film genre would be, namely that What I knew in advance was what every member of our culture would know about World War II combat films—that they contained a hero, a group of mixed types, a military objective of some sort.
They take place in the actual combat zones of World War II, against the established enemies, on the ground, the sea, or in the air. They contain many repeated events, such as mail call, all presented visually with appropriate uniforms and iconography of battle. Further, Basinger considers Bataan to provide a definition-by-example of "the World War II combat film", in which a diverse and unsuited group of "hastily assembled volunteers" hold off a much larger group of the enemy through their "bravery and tenacity", she argues. Since she notes that there were in fact only five true combat films made during the Second World War, in her view these few films, central to the genre, are outweighed by the many other films that lie on the margins of being war films. However, other critics such as Russell Earl Shain propose a far broader definition of war film, to include films that deal "with the roles of civilians, espionage agents, soldiers in any of the aspects of war" Neale points out that genres overlap, with combat scenes for different purposes in other types of film, suggests that war films are characterised by combat which "determines the fate of the principal characters".
This in turn pushes combat scenes to the climactic ends of war films. Not all critics agree, that war films must be about 20th-century wars. James Clarke includes Edward Zwick's Oscar-winning Glory among the war films he discusses in detail; the military historian Antony Beevor "despair" at how film-makers from America and Britain "play fast and loose with the facts", yet imply that "their version is as good as the truth." For example, he calls the 2000 American film U-571 a "shameless deception" for pretending that a US warship had helped to win the Battle of the Atlantic—seven months before America entered the war. He is critical of Christopher Nolan's 2017 film Dunkirk with its unhistorically empty beaches, low-level air combat over the sea, res
Donna Reed was an American film and television actress and producer. Her career spanned more than 40 years, with performances in more than 40 films, she is well known for her role as Mary Hatch Bailey in Frank Capra's 1946 film It's a Wonderful Life. In 1953, she received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Lorene Burke in the war drama From Here to Eternity. Reed is most known for her work in television, notably as Donna Stone, a middle-class American mother and housewife in the sitcom The Donna Reed Show, in which her character was more assertive than most other television mothers of the era, she received numerous Emmy Award nominations for this role and the Golden Globe Award for Best TV Star in 1963. In her career, Reed replaced Barbara Bel Geddes as Miss Ellie Ewing Farlow in the 1984–85 season of the television melodrama Dallas. Reed was born Donna Belle Mullenger on a farm near Denison, the daughter of Hazel Jane and William Richard Mullenger; the eldest of five children, she was raised as a Methodist.
In 1936, while she was a sophomore at Denison High School, her chemistry teacher Edward Tompkins gave her the book How to Win Friends and Influence People. The book is said to have influenced her life. Upon reading it she won the lead in the school play, was voted Campus Queen and was in the top 10 of the 1938 graduating class. Tompkins went on to work on the Manhattan Project. After graduating from Denison High School, Reed planned to become a teacher but was unable to pay for college, she decided to move to California to attend Los Angeles City College on the advice of her aunt. While attending college, she performed in various stage productions, although she had no plans to become an actress. After receiving several offers to screen test for studios, Reed signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In 1941 after signing with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Reed made her film debut in The Get-Away opposite Robert Sterling. MGM soon changed her name to Donna Reed, as there was anti-German feeling during World War II.
"A studio publicist hung the name on me, I never did like it," Reed once said. "I hear `Donna Reed' and I think of a tall, austere blonde that isn't me. `Donna Reed' - it has a cold, forbidding sound."Reed had a good support role in Shadow of the Thin Man and in Wallace Beery's The Bugle Sounds. Like many starlets at MGM, she played Mickey Rooney's love interest in an Andy Hardy film, in her case the hugely popular The Courtship of Andy Hardy, she was second. Reed played a love interest in Calling Dr. Gillespie and Apache Trail did a thriller with Edward Arnold, Eyes in the Night, directed by Fred Zinnemann. Reed had a support role in The Human Comedy with Mickey Rooney, a big film for MGM, she was in Dr. Gillespie's Criminal Case and The Man from Down Under, was one of many MGM stars to make cameos in Thousands Cheer, her "girl-next-door" good looks and warm onstage personality made her a popular pin-up for many GIs during World War II. She answered letters from many GIs serving overseas. Reed was Private Hargrove and Gentle Annie, a Western.
She was in The Picture of Dorian Gray and played a nurse in John Ford's They Were Expendable, the love interest of John Wayne. MGM were enthusiastic about Reed's prospects at this time. Reed collaborated with her Denison High school chemistry teacher Edward R. Tompkins on the 1947 MGM film The Beginning or the End, which dealt with the history and concerns of the atom bomb. Reed did not appear in the final film. Reed was top billed in a romantic comedy Faithful in My Fashion with Tom Drake. MGM lent her to RKO Pictures for the role of Mary Bailey in Frank Capra's It's a Wonderful Life; the film has since been named as one of the 100 best American films made by the American Film Institute and is aired on television during the Christmas season. Reed said it was "the most difficult film I did. No director demanded as much of me."Back at MGM she appeared in Green Dolphin Street with Lana Turner and Van Heflin, a big hit. Reed was borrowed by Paramount to make two films with Alan Ladd, Beyond Glory, where she replaced Joan Caulfield at the last moment, Chicago Deadline.
In 1949 she expressed a desire for better roles. In June 1950 Reed signed a contract with Columbia Studios, she appeared in two films which teamed her with Saturday's Hero and Scandal Sheet. She had a cameo in Rainbow'Round My Shoulder. Reed was the love interest of Randolph Scott in Hangman's Knot was borrowed by Warner Bros for Trouble Along the Way with Wayne, she was loaned out to play John Payne's love interest in Edward Small's Raiders of the Seven Seas. Reed played the role of Alma "Lorene" Burke, girlfriend of Montgomery Clift's character, in the World War II drama From Here to Eternity; the role earned Reed an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for 1953. The qualities of her parts did not seem to improve: she was the love interest in The Caddy with Martin and Lewis at Paramount.
Douglas MacArthur's escape from the Philippines
On 11 March 1942, during World War II, General Douglas MacArthur and members of his family and staff left the Philippine island of Corregidor and his forces, which were surrounded by the Japanese. They traveled in PT boats through stormy seas patrolled by Japanese warships and reached Mindanao two days later. From there, MacArthur and his party flew to Australia in a pair of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses arriving in Melbourne by train on 21 March. In Australia, he made his famous speech in which he declared, "I came through and I shall return". MacArthur was a well-known and experienced officer with a distinguished record in World War I, who had retired from the United States Army in 1937 and had become a defense advisor to the Philippine government, he was recalled to active duty with the United States Army in July 1941, a few months before the outbreak of the Pacific War between the United States and the Empire of Japan, to become commander of United States Army Forces in the Far East, uniting the Philippine and United States Armies under one command.
By March 1942, the Japanese invasion of the Philippines had compelled MacArthur to withdraw his forces on Luzon to Bataan, while his headquarters and his family moved to Corregidor. The doomed defense of Bataan captured the imagination of the American public. At a time when the news from all fronts was uniformly bad, MacArthur became a living symbol of Allied resistance to the Japanese. Fearing that Corregidor would soon fall, MacArthur would be taken prisoner, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to go to Australia. A submarine was made available, but MacArthur elected to break through the Japanese blockade in PT boats under the command of Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley; the staff MacArthur brought with him became known as the "Bataan Gang". They would become the nucleus of his General Headquarters Southwest Pacific Area. Douglas MacArthur was a experienced officer; the son of Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur Jr., awarded the Medal of Honor for his services in the American Civil War, MacArthur had graduated at the top of the United States Military Academy class of 1903.
He was an aide-de-camp to his father from 1905 to 1906, to President Theodore Roosevelt from 1906 to 1907. During World War I he commanded the 84th Brigade of the 42nd Division in the fighting on the Western Front. After the war he served as Superintendent of the United States Military Academy, as Chief of Staff of the United States Army, he retired from the United States Army in 1937, became a field marshal in the Philippine Army. MacArthur's job was to advise the Philippine government on defense matters, prepare the Philippine defense forces when the Philippines became independent, to be in 1946; the Philippine Army entirely manned and officered by Filipinos with only a small number of American advisors, was raised by conscription, with two classes of 20,000 men being trained each year, starting in 1937. In addition, there was a regular U. S. Army garrison of about 10,000, half of whom were Filipinos serving in the U. S. Army known as Philippine Scouts; when MacArthur was recalled from retirement in July 1941 to become commander of United States Army Forces in the Far East at the age of 61, he united the Philippine and United States Armies under one command.
In getting the Philippine Army ready for war, MacArthur faced an enormous task. On a visit to the United States in 1937, MacArthur lobbied the Navy Department for the development of PT boats—small, fast boats armed with torpedoes—for which he believed that the geography of the Philippines, with its shallow waters and many coves, was ideally suited; the nascent Philippine Navy acquired three, known as "Q" boats, after President Manuel L. Quezon. In August 1941, the U. S. Navy created Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Three, under the command of Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley, it was a half-strength squadron, with only six PT boats instead of the normal twelve, numbered 31 to 35 and 41. It arrived at Manila in September 1941, it was understood that a fleet consisting of more than PT boats would be required for a successful defense of the Philippines. As early as 1907, U. S. naval and military planners had concluded that it would be impractical to repel an invasion of the Philippines. The best that could be hoped for was that the garrison could hold out on the Bataan peninsula until help arrived.
In the 1920s it was estimated. By the 1930s, the planners had become decidedly pessimistic in view of the increased capability of aircraft, by 1936 they were agreed that the Philippines should be written off, but in July 1941, this decision was abruptly reversed, it became the policy of the U. S. government to hold the Philippines. This was based, at least in part, in the belief that Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers could deter or defeat an invading force. Soon after the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, MacArthur, in accordance with the pre-war plan, declared Manila an open city, ordered his forces on Luzon to withdraw to Bataan; the Philippine government, the High Commissioner's office and MacArthur's USAFFE headquarters moved to Corregidor Island. Although the dependents of U. S. military personnel had been sent back to the United States, MacArthur was, until his recall from retirement, a Philippine government employee, so his family had remained in the Philippines. MacArthur's wife, Jean MacArthur, young son, Arthur MacArthur IV, went with him to Corregidor.
Arthur celebrated his fourth birthday on Corregidor, on 21 February 1942. When an aide asked about Arthur's possible fate, MacArthur replied: "He is a soldier's son."Most of the United States Asiatic Fleet retired to the south of the Philippines
Cameron Mitchell (actor)
Cameron Mitchell, was an American film and stage actor. He began his career on Broadway before transitioning into feature films in the 1950s, appearing in several major motion pictures, he would become known for his roles in numerous exploitation films in the 1970s and 1980s. A native of Pennsylvania, Mitchell began acting on Broadway in the late-1930s before signing a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, after which he appeared in several films with Lana Turner and Clark Gable, such as Cass Timberlane and Homecoming, he subsequently originated the role of Happy Loman in the Broadway production of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman, a role he reprised in the 1951 film adaptation. He subsequently signed a contract with 20th Century Fox, who cast in him in lead roles in Les Misérables and How to Marry a Millionaire, opposite Lauren Bacall and Marilyn Monroe, he co-starred opposite Doris Day and James Cagney in the musical Love Me or Leave Me. Throughout the 1960s, Mitchell transitioned to roles in spaghetti Westerns and Italian films, including several collaborations with Mario Bava, namely Erik the Conqueror and Black Lace and Knives of the Avenger.
From 1967-71, Mitchell appeared in the western television series The High Chaparral. From the mid-1970s, Mitchell appeared in numerous exploitation and horror films, such as Slaughter and The Toolbox Murders. Mitchell continued to appear in film and television throughout the 1980s, including in supporting parts in the anthology horror films Night Train to Terror and From a Whisper to a Scream, the science fiction film Space Mutiny, featured on Mystery Science Theater 3000, he died in 1994 of lung cancer, aged 75. Mitchell was born in Dallastown, Pennsylvania of Scottish and German descent, one of seven children of Rev. Charles Michael Mitzell and Kathryn Isabella Mitzell. Young Cameron moved to Chicora, Pennsylvania in 1921 when his father was accepted as pastor of the St. John's Reformed Church, Butler and went on to grow up in Shrewsbury, Pennsylvania, he was a 1936 graduate of Greenwood High School in Pennsylvania. In 1939, Mitchell made his Broadway debut in a minor role in Jeremiah. During this time, Mitchell became an NBC page at NBC Radio City, which led him to a minor role in a 1940 production of The Taming of the Shrew, with Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne's National Theater Company.
On August 17, 1940, Mitchell married his first wife, Johanna Mendel, daughter of self-made Canadian business tycoon Fred Mendel, in Lancaster, New Hampshire. The Mendel family was based in Saskatoon, where Fred Mendel founded Intercontinental Packers, a major family-owned meat packing operation; the Mitchells' four children held dual US/Canadian citizenship. Johanna Mitchell gave birth to their first son, Robert Cameron Mitchell, in New York on July 4, 1941. Although Mitchell and Johanna divorced around 1960, he maintained close ties to Canada, their daughter, Camille Mitchell, another son, are both actors. Cameron and Johanna's second son, Michael Fredrick "Fred" Mitchell, was president of Intercontinental Packers for many years working alongside his mother, Chairwoman of the Board. Today the company is known as Mitchell's Gourmet Foods and still operates out of Saskatoon, now owned by Maple Leaf Foods; the year following his marriage to Mandel, Mitchell appeared again on Broadway in The Trojan Women.
In 1944, he served as a bombardier with the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. His film career began with being contracted to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1945 for three years with minor roles in films including They Were Expendable, but Mitchell rose to leading man status, he co-starred with Lana Turner and Spencer Tracy in Cass Timberlane and with Wallace Beery in The Mighty McGurk, concluded his MGM period with two 1948 films starring Clark Gable: Homecoming and Command Decision. Mitchell originated the role of Happy Loman in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman on Broadway. After its closing, he appeared again in the Broadway production of Southern Exposure. Mitchell reprised the role of Happy Loman in the 1951 film adaptation by Columbia Pictures. Mitchell was contracted with 20th Century-Fox, where he had a prolific career in such films as the 1952 version of Les Miserables, in the 1953 Marilyn Monroe-led comedy How to Marry a Millionaire, in which he portrayed a wealthy man attempting to romance a single woman.
He appeared alongside Gary Cooper, Susan Hayward and Richard Widmark in the drama Garden of Evil, followed by a supporting role in Samuel Fuller's Cold War drama Hell and High Water. He subsequently co-starred with Marlon Brando in Désirée. Mitchell was loaned back to MGM to co-star with Doris Day and James Cagney in the comedy musical Love Me or Leave Me, in 1955. In 1957, Mitchell co-starred with Sheree North in the drama No Down Payment; the same year and his wife, were divorced. Mitchell and Gertz had three children: Kate and Jono. Mitchell starred in an unsold 1959 television pilot called I Am a Lawyer however, he achieved success on televisi