Thiamine known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication. Food sources of thiamine include whole grains and some meats and fish. Grain processing removes much of the thiamine content, so in many countries cereals and flours are enriched with thiamine. Supplements and medications are available to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi and Wernicke encephalopathy. Other uses include the treatment of maple syrup urine Leigh syndrome, they are taken by mouth, but may be given by intravenous or intramuscular injection. Thiamine supplements are well tolerated. Allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, may occur. Thiamine is in the B complex family, it is an essential micronutrient. Thiamine is required for metabolism including that of glucose, amino acids, lipids. Thiamine was discovered in 1897, was the first vitamin to be isolated in 1926, was first made in 1936, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.
Thiamine is available as a generic medication, as an over-the-counter drug. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.17 per one gram vial. In the United States a month's supply of a multivitamin containing thiamine is less than US$25. Thiamine is used to treat thiamine deficiency. In less severe cases, non-specific signs include malaise, weight loss and confusion. Well-known disorders caused by thiamine deficiency include beriberi, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, optic neuropathy, Leigh's disease, African Seasonal Ataxia, central pontine myelinolysis. In Western countries, thiamine deficiency is seen in chronic alcoholism. Thiamine deficiency is present in alcohol misuse disorder. At risk are older adults, persons with HIV/AIDS or diabetes, persons who have had bariatric surgery. Varying degrees of thiamine deficiency have been associated with the long-term use of high doses of diuretics furosemide in the treatment of heart failure. Women who are pregnant or lactating require more thiamine.
For pregnant and lactating women, the consequences of thiamine deficiency are the same as those of the general population but the risk is greater due to their temporarily increased need for this nutrient. In pregnancy, this is due to thiamine being preferentially sent to the fetus and placenta during the third trimester. For lactating women, thiamine is delivered in breast milk if it results in thiamine deficiency in the mother. Pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum are at an increased risk for thiamine deficiency due to losses when vomiting. Thiamine is an important aspect for not only mitochondrial membrane development, but synaptosomal membrane function, it has been suggested that thiamine deficiency plays a role in the poor development of the infant brain that can lead to sudden infant death syndrome. Thiamine is a treatment for some types of maple syrup urine Leigh disease. Thiamine is well tolerated and non-toxic when ingested; some adverse side effects have been reported when thiamine is given parenterally including allergic reactions, nausea and impaired coordination.
Thiamine is a colorless organosulfur compound with a chemical formula C12H17N4OS. Its structure consists of a thiazolium ring linked by a methylene bridge; the thiazole is substituted with methyl and hydroxyethyl side chains. Thiamine is soluble in water and glycerol and insoluble in less polar organic solvents, it is unstable in alkaline solutions. Thiamine, a persistent carbene, is used by enzymes to catalyze benzoin condensations in vivo. Thiamine is stable during frozen storage, it is unstable when exposed to ultraviolet gamma irradiation. Thiamine reacts in Maillard-type reactions. Complex thiamine biosynthesis occurs in bacteria, some protozoans and fungi; the thiazole and pyrimidine moieties are biosynthesized separately and combined to form thiamine monophosphate by the action of thiamine-phosphate synthase. The biosynthetic pathways may differ among organisms. In E. coli and other enterobacteriaceae, ThMP may be phosphorylated to the cofactor thiamine diphospate by a thiamine-phosphate kinase.
In most bacteria and in eukaryotes, ThMP is hydrolyzed to thiamine, which may be pyrophosphorylated to ThDP by thiamine diphosphokinase. The biosynthetic pathways are regulated by riboswitches. If there is sufficient thiamine present in the cell the thiamine binds to the mRNAs for the enzymes that are required in the pathway and prevents their translation. If there is no thiamine present there is no inhibition, the enzymes required for the biosynthesis are produced; the specific riboswitch, the TPP riboswitch, is the only riboswitch identified in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Thiamine is found in a wide variety of processed and whole foods, with edible seeds, rice and processed foods, such as breakfast cereals, having among the highest contents; the salt thiamine mononitrate, rather than thiamine hydrochloride, is used for food fortification, as the mononitrate is more stable, does not absorb water from natural humidity, whereas thiamine hydrochloride is hygroscopic. When thiamine mononitrate dissolves in water, it releases nitrate and is ther
King of the North is the third by UK grime rapper Bugzy Malone. The EP was released on 14 July 2017 by Ill Gotten Records, an independent record label set up by Malone, it is categorised as hip hop. The album consists of eight tracks and was released after Malone's Part 2 Fire In The Booth on BBC Radio 1 Xtra with Charlie Sloth, it was certified silver by the British Phonographic Industry recognising album equivalent sales of 60,000+. The album had three charting singles, "Through the Night", "Memory Lane" and "Bruce Wayne", charting at 92, 74 and 99, respectively; the guest appearances for the album include DJ Luck and MC Neat. All songs in the album were classified as explicit; the main producers in the album were DJ Luck, Shift K3Y and Z. Dot. Others producers involved were Ali Karim, S-X and Toddla T. For the music videos uploaded in the album, the directors were Connor Hamilton, G. Kuba & Wayne Lennox
Prince Stefanos Mengesha Seyoum. Born on 24 October 1952 at the Haile Selassie I Hospital is a member of the Imperial Family of Ethiopia, he serves as the Imperial Chancellor of Imperial Ethiopian Order of Saint Mary of Zion. He is the son of Princess Aida Desta. Through his father he is a great-great grandson of Emperor Yohannes IV, through his mother, he is a great-grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie, he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Royal Confraternity of San Teotonio. He was educated at the University of Canada, he is Director of the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Deputy Grand Master of the Ethiopian Order of Baronets. Chancellor of the Imperial Ethiopian Order of Saint Mary of Zion. Chancellor of the Imperial Solomonic Order of Merit. Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem. Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Confraternity of Sao Teotonio. Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Intare. Line of succession to the former Ethiopian throne Seyum Mangasha
Sir Nevil Macready, 3rd Baronet was a British Army officer and public servant. Sir Nevil was born on the son of 2nd baronet, he was educated at Cheltenham College and St John's College, from where he was appointed MA in 1947. During World War II, Sir Nevil served with the Royal Artillery, was mentioned in staff despatches, promoted to staff captain in 1945, he joined the BBC European Service in 1947 for three years. He joined the oil industry, he was named Managing Director at Mobil Oil, 1975–1985. He was President of the Royal Warrant Holders Association, 1979–1980, Institute of Petroleum. Appointed CBE in 1983, he became Chairman of the British Horseracing Advisory Council from 1984–1995. From 1993, he was Deputy Chairman of the British Horseracing Board. A Trustee of Victoria and Albert Museum, he served as Chairman of the Mental Health Foundation. Sir Nevil married Mary, only daughter of Sir Donald Balfour Fergusson, of Manor Farm, Ebbesbourne Wake, Wiltshire on 16 September 1949, his family lived at the White House, Hampshire, RG29 1LG.
They had four children: Charles Nevil Macready was born on 19 May 1955. In 1981, he married Lorraine, daughter of Brian McAdam, of Connah's Quay, Clwyd, he has succeeded to the title as 4th baronet. Caroline Elisabeth was born on 20 December 1950. Sarah Diana Mary was born on 22 July 1953. Anna Louise was born 26 September 1963. Sir Nevil died at home in Cheltenham on 27 September 2014. There was a funeral held on 10 October 2014, at Holy Trinity church, Crookham Village, Hampshire
Harpalus laevipes is a species of black coloured phytophagous ground beetle in the Harpalinae subfamily, absent in the following European and African countries and islands: Andorra, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, the Channel Islands, Crete, Cyclades Cyprus, Faroe Islands, Franz Josef Land, Greece, Madeira, Moldova Monaco, North Aegean islands, Novaya Zemlya, San Marino, Selvagens Islands, Sicily and Jan Mayen, Vatican City. It is found in such Asian countries as Georgia, Kazakhstan and Chinese provinces of Shanxi and Xinjiang, it is common in Canada and the United States. The species is 9.5–12 millimetres long. In Ireland, the species is found in Little Sugar Black Head in the Burren, Clare. In Russia, it is found in Siberia and the Caucasus, it is found in shallow soils. It can be found under stones, low herbal shrubs and limestone; the species is quite equipped to the mountainous lifestyle. It feeds on Calluna species. Harpalus laevipes on UK Beetles
Grace Akallo is a Ugandan woman who, at the age of 15, while attending a Catholic school, was abducted by Joseph Kony to be used as a child soldier in the Lord's Resistance Army. As part of her initiation into the army, she was forced to kill another girl, a common practice among armies that employ child soldiers, she remained in the LRA for seven months. She became a sexual slave, she was rehabilitated and became a mother. The 2007 book Girl Soldier: A Story of Hope for Northern Uganda's Children is a biography of Akallo, she is interviewed in the 2011 documentary film Not My Life on the subject of human trafficking, saying that "this kind of evil must be stopped."After escaping, Grace returned to St. Mary's school to finish her high school education, she began her college education at the Uganda Christian University. After giving a speech for Amnesty International in New York, she received a scholarship to finish her undergraduate degree at a college in Massachusetts. Grace majored in communications with a desire to continue studying International relations and conflict resolution.
Grace went on to receive her master's degree from Clark University. She would use her information gained in her studies and experiences to try to keep what happened to her from happening to other innocent children. Grace used the experiences she had from being a child soldier to help counsel children who had escaped like her. Grace gave many speeches at educational establishments such as Rutgers University in New Jersey, Roosevelt University in Chicago, she shared her story on shows including The Oprah Winfrey Show. Grace worked lobbying United States congressmen about the issue of child slavery in Uganda. Grace began her career as an advocate for peace and justice with jobs at Rachelle Rehabilitation Center and World Vision USA. Grace worked as a Public Relations and Advocacy Intern in America, writing press releases and documents for media use, she reported on conferences including The Interfaith Summit on Africa, drafted amendments for the Senate bill on children affected by war. In America she has started a non-profit organisation that aims to end the prosecution of child soldiers.
Grace Akallo has catalysed action in Washington D. C. to help end the violence in Uganda. She appears in the documentary film Grace, Lucy... Child Soldiers