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Thin Lizzy

Thin Lizzy are a hard rock band formed in Dublin, Ireland, in 1969. Two of the founding members, drummer Brian Downey and bass guitarist and lead vocalist Phil Lynott, met while still in school. Lynott led the group throughout their recording career of twelve studio albums, writing most of the material; the singles "Whiskey in the Jar", "The Boys Are Back in Town" and "Waiting for an Alibi" were international hits. After Lynott's death in 1986, various incarnations of the band emerged over the years based around guitarists Scott Gorham and John Sykes, though Sykes left the band in 2009. Gorham continued with a new line-up including Downey. Lynott, Thin Lizzy's de facto leader, was composer or co-composer of all of the band's songs, the first black Irishman to achieve commercial success in the field of rock music. Thin Lizzy featured several guitarists throughout their history, with Downey and Lynott as the rhythm section, on the drums and bass guitar; as well as being multiracial, the band drew their early members not only from both sides of the Irish border but from both the Catholic and Protestant communities during The Troubles.

Their music reflects a wide range of influences, including blues, soul music, psychedelic rock, traditional Irish folk music, but is classified as hard rock or sometimes heavy metal. Rolling Stone magazine describes the band as distinctly hard rock, "far apart from the braying mid-70s metal pack". AllMusic critic John Dougan has written that "As the band's creative force, Lynott was a more insightful and intelligent writer than many of his ilk, preferring slice-of-life working-class dramas of love and hate influenced by Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, Bruce Springsteen, all of the Irish literary tradition." Van Morrison, Jeff Beck and Jimi Hendrix were major influences during the early days of the band, influences included American artists Little Feat and Bob Seger and the pioneering twin lead guitars found in Wishbone Ash. In 2012, Gorham and Downey decided against recording new material as Thin Lizzy so a new band, Black Star Riders, was formed to tour and produce new releases such as their debut album All Hell Breaks Loose.

Thin Lizzy plan to reunite for occasional concerts. Two of the founding members of Thin Lizzy, bass guitarist and vocalist Phil Lynott and drummer Brian Downey, first met while at school in Dublin in the early 1960s. Lynott, born 20 August 1949 in West Bromwich, England to an Irish mother Philomena and Guyanese father Cecil Parris, was brought up in Dublin from the age of three. Downey, born 27 January 1951, is a Dublin native. Lynott joined a local band, The Black Eagles, as vocalist in 1963, Downey was recruited as their drummer in 1965. In 1967, Lynott was asked to join Skid Row by bass guitarist Brush Shiels, who brought teenage Belfast guitarist Gary Moore into the band early in 1968. After a disappointing television appearance in June 1969, Shiels fired Lynott, although they remained on good terms and Shiels subsequently taught Lynott to play bass guitar. Lynott formed Orphanage with Downey on drums after Downey's previous band, Sugar Shack, had split. Guitarist Eric Bell, born in Belfast on 3 September 1947, began his career playing in local bands such as The Deltones, Shades of Blue and The Bluebeats, the last incarnation of Them to feature Van Morrison, between September and October 1966.

Bell moved to Dublin and joined an Irish showband named The Dreams, but left in 1969 with a view to forming a rock band. An acquaintance of Bell's, Belfast organist Eric Wrixon a former member of Them, had moved to Dublin and joined the showband circuit, but had similar plans to progress towards rock music. In December 1969, Bell and Wrixon met by chance in a pub in Dublin and found that they shared similar ideas of forming a band, decided to visit the Countdown Club where they saw Lynott and Downey perform with Orphanage. Lynott was not playing bass guitar at this time, but Bell was impressed by Downey, introduced himself to Lynott and Downey during a break; when Bell asked if they would consider forming a band together, Downey was sceptical, but both men were aware of Bell's musical reputation. They agreed that night on condition that Lynott play bass guitar as well as sing, that the band would perform some of Lynott's compositions. Bell said, "From there on in we were a band." Wrixon was included as organist in the as yet unnamed band, making the initial line-up a quartet.

The following week, Lynott visited Bell at his flat and played him recordings of some of his own songs. Bell was impressed: "They were so good. I knew right away I could put my guitar style into them."The band started to attract attention in the Irish music press immediately, as the band began rehearsals in January 1970. On 1 January, New Spotlight magazine announced that Wrixon were to be a part of a new band. By early February, the press had begun to question the delay in any public announcement of the "Bell-Lynott supergroup"; the name Thin Lizzy was announced to the press on 18 February. The name came from a robot character in The Dandy called Tin Lizzie, which they adjusted to Thin Lizzy as a playful reference to the local Dublin accent, in which "thin" would be pronounced as "t'in". For some of their early gigs, the band were mistakenly promoted as "Tin Lizzy" or "Tin Lizzie". Thin Lizzy's first gig was at a school hall in Cloghran, near Dublin Airport, in 1970, though sources vary on the date from 16 February, 19 February, 20 February.

In July 1970, the band released a single, "The Farmer"/"I Need You", on EMI with the B-side written by John D'ardis, who owned Trend Studios where the single was recor

Aspergillus microcysticus

Aspergillus microcysticus is a species of fungus in the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus microcysticus produces aspochalasin A, aspochalasin C, aspochalasin D, the antibiotic asposterol. A. microcysticus has been cultivated on both Czapek yeast extract agar plates and Malt Extract Agar Oxoid® plates. The growth morphology of the colonies can be seen in the pictures below. Machida, edited by Masayuki. Aspergillus: molecular biology and genomics. Wymondham, Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic. ISBN 978-1-904-45553-0. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Gunstone, senior reporter F. D.. Aliphatic and related natural product chemistry. London: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-851-86652-9. Samson, R. A.. W.. C.. "New species in Aspergillus section Terrei". Studies in Mycology. 69: 39–55. Doi:10.3114/sim.2011.69.04. PMC 3161753. PMID 21892242

Wheelgate Park

Robin Hoods Wheelgate Park is a 30 acre family theme park and water park in Farnsfield, England. The park includes two large indoor play centres, a farm and a water park, all included with admission. Known as Wonderland Adventure Park, in 2007 the park gained new management by Bendalls Leisure Ltd who owns Twinlakes Theme Park and Woodlands Family Theme Park in Melton Mowbray and Devon, changed its name to Wheelgate Park, underwent major redevelopment resulting in two new indoor play centres and new play equipment. In December 2012 it was reopened as "Robin Hoods Wheelgate Park" after development to build a water-park on the site, opened at the beginning of 2013; the site is home to escape games uk. The park is open all year round excluding Christmas, Boxing Day, New Years. Animals are the residents of Wheelgate Park, throughout the park there are many places where kids can see and visit the animals. There are many animals in the Animal Adventure Zone, including rabbits, ponies and other reptiles, a mongoose, llamas and birds.

There are many play zones within the park each having a specific associated theme. Within each zone, are rides and activities that follow the theme of each zone; the zones are as follows: Alien Galaxy Zone: A 20,000 sq ft galactic indoor zone full of rides and games Animal Adventure Zone: A 10,000 sq ft area of animals, interactive activities and close encounters Black Diamond Mining Zone: Features rides, an area where kids can play in the sand. This is the only area of the park to contain a roller coaster, High Hazel Mine Train. Land of The Pharaohs Zone: 20,000 sq ft indoor play centre, which features a swing ride, a soft play containing 6 slides. Robin Hood Zone: Outdoor adventure for all ages, including the water park and many rides and games Sheriff's Falconry Zone: Birds of Prey exhibit their speed and dexterity and demonstrate their abilities The Tropical Zone: Old fashioned fun including rides and games, meeting tropical birds and animals, indoor play for kids Official website

Myxococcus xanthus

Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative, rod-shaped species of myxobacteria that exhibits various forms of self-organizing behavior as a response to environmental cues. Under normal conditions with abundant food, it exists as a predatory, saprophytic single-species biofilm called a swarm. Under starvation conditions, it undergoes a multicellular development cycle. A swarm of M. xanthus is a distributed system, containing millions of entities that communicate among themselves in a non-centralized fashion. Simple patterns of cooperative behavior among the members of the colony combine to generate complex group behaviors in a process known as "stigmergy". For example, the tendency for one cell to glide only when in direct contact with another results in the colony forming swarms called "wolf-packs" that may measure up to several inches wide; this behavior is advantageous to the members of the swarm, as it increases the concentration of extracellular digestive enzymes secreted by the bacteria, thus facilitating predatory feeding.

During stressful conditions, the bacteria undergo a process in which about 100,000 individual cells aggregate to form a structure called the fruiting body over the course of several hours. On the interior of the fruiting body, the rod-shaped cells differentiate into spherical, thick-walled spores, they undergo changes in the synthesis of new proteins, as well as alterations in the cell wall, which parallel the morphological changes. During these aggregations, dense ridges of cells move in ripples, which wane over 5 hours. An important part of M. xanthus behavior is its ability to move on a solid surface by a mechanism called "gliding". Gliding Motility is a method of locomotion that allows for movement, without the help of flagella, on a solid surface. Gliding Motility is separated into two groups for the M. xanthus: S-motility. In A motility, single cells move. In S motility, single cells do not move; this leads to a spatial distribution of cells with lots of few isolated single cells. More than 37 genes are involved in the A-motility system, which comprises multiple motor elements that are arrayed along the entire cell body.

Each motor element appears to be localized to the periplasmic space and is bound to the peptidoglycan layer. The motors are hypothesized to move on helical cytoskeletal filaments. Gliding force generated by these motors is coupled to adhesion sites that move in the outer membrane, which provide a specific contact with the substratum aided by extracellular polysaccharide slime. S-motility may represent a variation of twitching motility, since it is mediated by the extension and retraction of type IV pili that extend through the leading cell pole; the genes of the S-motility system appear to be homologs of genes involved in the biosynthesis and function of twitching motility in other bacteria. In response to starvation, myxobacteria develop species-specific multicellular fruiting bodies. Starting from a uniform swarm of cells, some aggregate into fruiting bodies, while other cells remain in a vegetative state; those cells that participate in formation of the fruiting body transform from rods into spherical, heat-resistant myxospores, while the peripheral cells remain rod-shaped.

Although not as tolerant to environmental extremes as, Bacillus endospores, the relative resistance of myxospores to desiccation and freezing enables myxobacteria to survive seasonally harsh environments. When a nutrient source becomes once again available, the myxospores germinate, shedding their spore coats to emerge into rod-shaped vegetative cells; the synchronized germination of thousands of myxospores from a single fruiting body enables the members of the new colony of myxobacteria to engage in cooperative feeding. It is likely that cells communicate during the process of fruiting and sporulation, because a group of cells that starved together form myxospores inside fruiting bodies. Intercellular signal appears to be necessary to ensure that sporulation happens in the proper place and at the proper time. Research supports the existence of an extracellular signal, A-factor, necessary for developmental gene expression and for the development of a complete fruiting body, it has been shown that an M. xanthus swarm is capable of eavesdropping on the extracellular signals that are produced by the bacteria it preys upon, leading to changes in swarm behaviour increasing its efficiency as a predator.

This allows for a adaptive physiology that will have contributed to the near ubiquitous distribution of the myxobacteria The complex life cycles of the myxobacteria make them attractive models for the study of gene regulation as well as cell to cell interactions. The traits of M. xanthus make it easy to study, therefore important to research. Laboratory strains of M. xanthus are available that are capable of planktonic growth in shaker culture, so that they are easy to grow in large numbers. The tools of classical and molecular genetics are well-developed in M. xanthus. Although the fruiting bodies of M. xanthus are primitive compared with, the elaborate structures produced by Stigmatella aurantiaca and other myxobacteria, the great majority of genes known to be involved in development are conserved across species. In order to make agar cultures of M. xanthus grow into fruiting bodies, one can plate the bacteria on starvation media. Furthermore, it is possible to artificially induce the production of myxospores without the intervening formation of fruiting bodies, by adding compounds such as glycerol or various metabolites to the medium.

In this way, different stages in the developmental cycle c

St Andrews International School Bangkok

St. Andrews International School Bangkok is a British International School located on Sukhumvit soi 71; the school opened its doors in 1997 to provide a British-style education in English to children living in Bangkok. Following the National Curriculum of England and Wales, St. Andrews welcomes over 1100 students representing more than 44 nationalities; the International Baccalaureate provides the academic backbone of the programme offered in years 12 and 13. St. Andrews has multiple facilities, including a purpose built Early Years learning centre. In August 2017 the High School moved into a brand new campus located between Ekkamai and Pra Khanong BTS stations. In April 2007 St. Andrews completed a three-year accreditation process with the World Wide Education Service of CfBT Education Trust, a non-profit international agency based in the UK; the school was awarded full accreditation for all areas of its performance for five years. The international accreditation process was linked with the Public Office responsible for the assessment of education in all public and private schools in Thailand, the Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment.

The school was the first school in Thailand to receive this joint accreditation award. This means that a St. Andrews International School Bangkok Graduation Diploma will be equivalent to the Thai School Mor 6 qualification, essential for Thai students to enter many Universities in Thailand. St. Andrews is an examination centre for both Edexcel IGCSE and the University of Cambridge IGCSE, as well as SATs; the school is an IB World School and is authorised to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. The school follows the National Curriculum of England and Wales until students sit IGCSEs in year 11. Senior students prepare for the International Baccalaureate Diploma, or Diploma Course Certificates, in Year 13, many go on to study at leading universities around the world; the year 12 and 13 programme provides students with well-respected and recognised qualifications for entry into higher education and universities worldwide. Students and staff are allocated a House. Siblings are put into the same House to encourage House spirit both at home.

Students remain in the same House throughout their time at St. Andrews; the four Houses are named after hill tribes in Northern Thailand - Akha, Karen and Lahu. Every Friday all teachers and staff wear their coloured House t-shirt to school, on most Friday mornings students and teachers take part in House activities. House points can be earned by each student participating in these activities. At the end of each academic year the House with the highest overall number of points will be announced and presented with a trophy. St. Andrews International School Bangkok website International Schools Association of Thailand Cambridge IGCSE

Munich Class S tram

The class S tram is an articulated electric motor tram built by Stadler Rail for use on the Munich tramway. The units were built off Stadler's Variobahn design and are operated by MVG; the five-section 100% low-floor trams have a total length of 33.94 metres. The first delivered S-car, number 2301, was used for the first time in Munich on 19 March 2009 for a press tour; as of December 2015, the S series operates on lines 17, 19, 20, 21 and 22. A total of 14 trams were built between 2008 and 2011; the vehicles are designed for 221 passengers each. The top speed is 60 km / h. After problems with the running gear shortly after delivery, no further trams of this series were bought. Instead, MVG ordered Siemens Avenio vehicles for their class T1 vehicles. In order to retire the last three trains of the aging P series, MVG planned to buy additional ADtranz low floor trams in a joint order with VAG Nuremberg. However, owing to Bombardier's discontinuation of this product line following their takeover of ADtranz in 2001, the price quoted was higher than that of newer models.

MVG therefore instead ordered three Variobahn trains in a joint purchase with VAG in October 2002. Shortly thereafter, a further Variobahn was ordered as a replacement for a R-wagon damaged by a construction crane and another 18 wagons were put on option. In order to meet the increased demand caused by the newly established line 23, MVG ordered a further ten vehicles of the type on September 2, 2008, so that the order consisted of 14 units; the total costs amounted to around 40 million euro with each individual tram amounting to 3 million euro. The first car, number 2301, was presented to the public at InnoTrans Berlin in September 2008 and delivered on March 11. Eight days the vehicle was introduced to the Munich press by Munich's Lord Mayor Christian Ude and MVG boss Herbert König and completed its maiden journey. In the same year three other cars, numbers 2302 to 2304, were delivered. All four trains received only a provisional authorization, since among other things it was believed that the tram carriages would not adhere to the track gauge.

In December 2008, following a timetable change, the cars entered service on lines 20 and 21, later on line 19. The approval was abruptly aborted by the Oberbayern technical supervisory authority on 19 July 2010 due to problems with the chassis, meaning that the trains could no longer be used in regular service until December 2011; the delivery of the other cars was scheduled for mid-2011 but they did not come until spring 2012. They entered service on the lines 19, 20 and 21, on line 22 since December 2012 replacing older vehicles on those lines. At the end of March 2012, MVG announced that damage had occurred to the wheels of nine cars, where the rubber grommets between the tire and the wheel had cracked after a few weeks and had to be replaced. A commissioned report mentioned errors in the composition and the production of the rubber elements as a cause; the issue of definitive authorization, planned on April 1, 2012, was thereby halted. In order to keep the lines running, the planned conversion of the predecessor R series trains was delayed, plans were drafted to borrow trams from other companies.

The rubber parts were replaced in summer 2012, with the provisional approval extended by nine months, to approve the new parts. Following further software changes to the doors and air-conditioning systems, the final approval of the trams was postponed again from 31 May to 30 September 2013, when the trams received their final approval. On 10 May 2016 the trams received approval to operate lines 17, 27 and 28. Due to the deficiencies with the trains, a transitional timetable was put in place for 2013, which added extra peak time journeys using the trams if they were available, the replacement of the trams with buses if they were not. In addition, since the timetable change, the trams have been used on the newly opened line 22. Owing to the problems with the trams, MVG announced on 28 September 2012 that they had chosen not to exercise their option of a further eight trams, instead ordering eight new Siemens Avenio trams, designated as the T series. On 12 December 2014, during maintenance work, cracks were discovered on the underside of the wagon boxes on seven different trams, which were put out of operation.

The other six trams approved for passenger operation showed no abnormalities, with MVG implementing shorter periods between checks for the six unaffected trams. After further inspections by Stadler, on 7 January 2015, TAB, the Technical Supervisory Authority, ordered that vehicles which had not been affected by the damage should decommissioned and remedied; the vehicles were returned to service in May