A think tank or policy institute is a research institute which performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, military and culture. Most policy institutes are non-profit organisations, which some countries such as the United States and Canada provide with tax exempt status. Other think tanks are funded by governments, advocacy groups, or corporations, derive revenue from consulting or research work related to their projects; this article lists global policy institutes according to continental categories, sub-categories by country within those areas. These listings are not comprehensive, given; the Jixia Academy is an early ancestor of the modern think tank. Based on passages in the Records of the Grand Historian, the academy is credited to King Xuan and given a foundation date around 318 BC; the academy has been summarized as "the first time on record a state began to act as a patron of scholarship out of the apparent conviction that this was a proper function of the state".
According to historian Jacob Soll, the term "think tank" is modern, but "it can be traced to the humanist academies and scholarly networks of the 16th and 17th centuries." Soll notes that "in Europe, the origins of think tanks go back to the 800s, when emperors and kings began arguing with the Catholic Church about taxes. A tradition of hiring teams of independent lawyers to advise monarchs about their financial and political prerogatives against the church spans from Charlemagne all the way to the 17th century, when the kings of France were still arguing about whether they had the right to appoint bishops and receive a cut of their income." He writes, independent "research teams became common in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when states depended on independent scholars and their expertise."Several major current think tanks were founded in the 19th century. For instance, the Institute for Defence and Security Studies was founded in 1831 in London, as was the Fabian Society in 1884.
The oldest American think tank, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, was founded in Washington, D. C. in 1910 by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie charged trustees to use the fund to "hasten the abolition of international war, the foulest blot upon our civilization." The Brookings Institution was founded shortly thereafter in 1916 by Robert S. Brookings and was conceived as a bipartisan "research center modeled on academic institutions and focused on addressing the questions of the federal government."After 1945, the number of policy institutes increased, with many small new ones forming to express various issue and policy agendas. Until the 1940s, most think. During the Second World War, think tanks were referred to as "brain boxes" after the slang term for skull; the phrase "think tank" in wartime American slang referred to rooms where strategists discussed war planning. The term "think tank" was used to refer to organizations that offered military advice, such as the RAND Corporation, founded in 1946 as an offshoot of Douglas Aircraft and became an independent corporation in 1948.
For most of the 20th century, independent public policy institutes that performed research and provided advice concerning public policy were found in the United States, with a much smaller number in Canada, the UK and Western Europe. Although think tanks existed in Japan for some time, they lacked independence, having close associations with government ministries or corporations. There has been a veritable proliferation of "think tanks" around the world that began during the 1980s as a result of globalization, the end of the Cold War, the emergence of transnational problems. Two-thirds of all the think tanks that exist today were established after 1970 and more than half were established since 1980; the effect of globalisation on the proliferation of think tanks is most evident in regions such as Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, parts of Southeast Asia, where there was a concerted effort by the international community to assist in the creation of independent public policy research organizations.
A recent survey performed by the Foreign Policy Research Institute's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program underscores the significance of this effort and documents the fact that most of the think tanks in these regions have been established during the last 10 years. Presently there are more than 4,500 of these institutions around the world. Many of the more established think tanks, having been created during the Cold War, are focused on international affairs, security studies, foreign policy. Think tanks vary by ideological perspectives, sources of funding, topical emphasis and prospective consumers; some think tanks, such as The Heritage Foundation, which promotes conservative principles, the Center for American Progress are more partisan in purpose. Others, including the Tellus Institute, which emphasizes social and environmental topics, are more issue-oriented groups; the workings of think tanks are defined by their funding sources and intended consumers. Some think tanks receive direct government assistance, while others rely on private individual or corporate donors.
This invariably affects the degree of academic freedom within each policy institute and to whom or what the institution feels beholden. Funding may represent who or what the institution wants to influence.
House of Dilip Kumar, Peshawar housed the Indian film actor Dilip Kumar. Born as Mohammad Yusuf Khan in Peshawar on 11 December 1922, one of twelve siblings, he moved to Mumbai in the late 1930s with his family, it was named as a Pakistani national heritage monument on 13 July 2014 by the Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Kumar sentimentally kissed the soil. In 1988, he visited Peshawar and in an interview given at the PC Hotel fondly recalled the days of his childhood and growing up, lapsing into Hindko and Pashto time to time. In 1997, when he was awarded Nishan-e-Imtiaz, Pakistan's highest civilian honor, he was unable to reach the house because of uncontrollable crowds; the government had been trying to acquire the house. The house is located in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. On 13 July 2013, Nawaz Sharif directed the ministry of information and national heritage to acquire the house; the order was forwarded to the director general of Pakistan National Council of Arts for implementation.
According to media sources, the move was intended to promote the cultural India-Pakistan relations. The Pakistani government planned to convert the site into a museum after acquisition. Planning was being made to invite Dilip Kumar and other members of his family. On 26 July 2014, the house was declared as a "protected monument" under the Antiquity Act of 1997. Both growing up in Peshawar and in Bombay, Dilip Kumar and his family had close friendly relationship with the Kapoors. In his autobiography, The Substance And The Shadow, Kumar writes: “We were living in undivided India at the time and there was a sizeable Hindu population. Men as well as women mingled with Muslims in the market square, wishing each other and exchanging pleasantries so cheerfully. Aghaji, had many Hindu friends, one of them was Basheshwarnathji, who held an important job in the civil services, his elder son came to our house with him a few times and he stunned the ladies with his handsome appearances. That was Raj Kapoor’s father Prithviraj Kapoor.”
Isobel Marion Dorothea Mackellar, was an Australian poet and fiction writer. Her poem My Country is known in Australia its second stanza, which begins: "I love a sunburnt country/A land of sweeping plains,/Of ragged mountain ranges,/Of droughts and flooding rains." The third child and only daughter of physician and parliamentarian Sir Charles Mackellar and his wife Marion Mackellar, the daughter of Thomas Buckland, she was born in the family home Dunara at Point Piper, Australia in 1885. Her home was Cintra at Darling Point, in 1925, she commissioned a summer cottage, "Tarrangaua" at Lovett Bay, an isolated location on Pittwater reachable only by boat. A woman of independent means, she published poetry and other works between 1908 and 1926 and was active in the Sydney literary scene of the 1930s, being involved with the Sydney Publishers and Novelists Club, the Bush Book Club of New South Wales and the Sydney P. E. N. Club. In her years she ceased writing and, suffering poor health, her last eleven years were spent in a nursing home in Randwick where she died in 1968, aged 82.
She is buried in Sydney's Eastern suburbs in Australia. Although she was raised in a professional urban family, Mackellar's poetry is regarded as quintessential bush poetry, inspired by her experience on her brothers' farms near Gunnedah, in the north-west of New South Wales, her best-known poem is My Country, written at age 19 while homesick in England, first published in the London Spectator in 1908 under the title Core of My Heart: the second stanza of this poem is among the best known in Australia. Four volumes of her collected verse were published: The Closed Door. In addition to writing poems, Mackellar wrote novels, one by herself, Outlaw's Luck, at least two in collaboration with Ruth Bedford; these are Two's Company. According to Dale Spender, little has been written or is yet known about the circumstances behind this collaboration. In the New Year's Day Honours of 1968, Dorothea Mackellar was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for her contribution to Australian literature.
She died two weeks in Paddington, New South Wales after a fall. She is buried with her family in Waverley Cemetery overlooking the open ocean, her poem Colour, her own favourite, was read at the service. A federal electorate covering half of Sydney's Northern Beaches is named in her honour as well as a street in the Canberra suburb of Cook. On Australia Day, 26 January 1983, a memorial to Dorothea Mackellar was unveiled and dedicated in ANZAC Park, Gunnedah; the centrepiece of the memorial, a statue of Mackellar on horseback by Dennis Adams, was a temporary fibreglass version. The finished bronze version was installed in September 1983. In conjunction with the January unveiling, there was an exhibition of a series of 34 water colour paintings by Jean Isherwood illustrating My Country; the watercolours were put on permanent display in the Gunnedah Bicentennial Regional Gallery. Isherwood set about painting a series of oils based on the watercolours which were exhibited at the Artarmon Galleries in Sydney in 1986.
In 1984, Gunnedah resident Mikie Maas created the "Dorothea Mackellar Poetry Awards", which has grown into a nationwide poetry competition for Australian school students. Dorothea Mackellar biography page at Gunnedah Tourism Dorothea Mackellar portrait Portrait of Mackellar, aged 81, by Norman Grosskopf Dorothea Mackellar Poetry Awards MacKellar, Isobel Marion Dorothea in The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia Works by or about Dorothea Mackellar at Internet Archive Works by Dorothea Mackellar at LibriVox My Country Text published in The Chronicle 28 July 1932 p. 59 My Country Complete text. Listen to My Country read by Dorothea Mackellar and read more about it on australianscreen online