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Third Anglo-Dutch War

The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic that lasted from 7 April 1672 to 19 February 1674. It was part of the Franco-Dutch War between the Dutch Republic and her allies—the Quadruple Alliance—and France. In 1667, Charles II of England was humiliated by the Dutch Raid on the Medway. In 1668, Louis XIV of France felt offended by the Dutch preventing his conquest of the Spanish Netherlands through the Triple Alliance. Both kings in 1670 concluded the Secret Treaty of Dover, intending to destroy and subjugate the Dutch state; the land army of the Dutch was weak but their navy was strong. The prospect of war was unpopular in England, so Charles had difficulty obtaining the necessary money, he relied on secret French subsidies, refusing to pay the Crown debts. He fabricated diplomatic incidents to justify a conflict; the French offensive in May and June 1672 was successful. They advanced to the north, causing the collapse of the weak eastern border defences of the Republic.

An attempt to blockade the Dutch coast failed because Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter surprised and damaged the Anglo-French fleet in the Battle of Solebay. When French troops penetrated into the heart of the Republic, the Dutch asked for peace terms. Riots brought down Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and William III of Orange was appointed stadtholder. William was Charles's nephew, so the king attempted to make the province of Holland an English protectorate rump state with William as its monarch. To his surprise, the Prince of Orange refused the English demands to occupy strategic ports. Negotiations were protracted, allowing the Dutch to flood a water barrier blocking further French advance. In 1673, the Royal Navy again joined a French squadron, trying to defeat the Dutch fleet and invade the Republic from the sea; this was prevented by three strategic victories by De Ruyter. Meanwhile, several German states had become worried by the French conquests and with Dutch subsidies began to operate large armies on the Rhine.

Louis was forced to retreat from most of the territory of the Republic. He prepared a conquest of the Spanish Netherlands. William launched a propaganda campaign convincing the English people that the alliance with France was part of a plot to make their country Roman Catholic. Anti-Catholic sentiment and the prospect that the Parliament of England would refuse a war budget, forced Charles to abandon the costly and fruitless war; the Second Peace of Westminster confirmed the situation as it was before the war. The larger conflict between the Republic and France would be protracted until 1678; the 1652-1654 First Anglo-Dutch War was the result of commercial rivalry and Orangist support for the exiled Charles II, uncle of William of Orange. Peace terms agreed in 1654 with the English Protectorate included the permanent exclusion of the House of Orange-Nassau from public office, ensuring Republican political control; when Charles regained the English throne in 1660, his Orangist links meant Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt opposed negotiations for an Anglo-Dutch alliance.

Using France as a barrier against England and the Orangists had risks, since despite their alliance against Spain, French objectives in the Low Countries threatened Dutch commercial interests. The 1648 Peace of Münster permanently closed the Scheldt estuary, benefiting De Witt's power base of Amsterdam by eliminating their closest rival, Antwerp. Changes in this region concerned England, since control of ports on the North Flemish coast allowed a hostile power to blockade the Channel. In 1665, an attack by the Duke of York on the West-Indische Compagnie led to the Second Anglo-Dutch War; the prospect of an English victory led Louis to activate the 1662 treaty, although the Dutch considered the support provided inadequate. When the States of Holland blocked his requests for territorial compensation, Louis launched the War of Devolution in May 1667 and occupied much of the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comté. Charles refused to recall Parliament to obtain funding, obliging him to pay off his fleet in early 1667, leading to the humiliating Raid on the Medway.

The Dutch were more worried by French gains. Sensing an opportunity, Charles proposed an Anglo-French agreement to Louis, however, was unwilling to pay the subsidies he demanded and preferred to rely on De Witt. Charles sent envoys to The Hague to continue discussions, publicly supported by De Witt, both seeing it as a way to put pressure on Louis. French tariffs on imports imposed in early 1667 increased opposition in the States General, who in any case preferred a weak Spain as a neighbour to a strong France. On 23 January 1668, the Republic and Sweden signed the Triple Alliance, committing to mutual support in the event of an attack on one by France or Spain. A secret clause agreed to provide Spain military assistance. Louis returned most of his acquisitions in the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, although he retained towns like Charleroi and Tournai; as Dutch and French aims in the Spanish Netherlands could not be reconciled, it made sense to eliminate the Dutch Republic first. Detaching Sweden from the Triple Alliance was straightforward, since the subsidies promised by the Dutch remained unpaid.

Nagar parishad

A nagar parishad or city council is a form of an urban political unit in India comparable to a municipality. An urban local body that administers with less than 100,000 and more than 20,000 inhabitants is classified as a "nagar palika" or "nagar parishad". Nagar parishad are a form of local self-government, entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined and guided upon by the Constitutional Act, 1992.e. G. Kondagaon is Nagar Palika in Bastar division; each nagar parishad has a committee consisting of a chairman/mayor with ward members. Membership consists of a minimum of three nominated members; the N. A. C. members of the nagar parishad are elected from the several wards of the nagar parishad on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years. There are seats reserved for Scheduled Tribes, backward classes and women; the councillors or ward members chosen by direct election from electoral wards in the nagar parishad. The chairman is the head of the Notified Area Committee; the executive officer is the official in charge of the Notified Area Council.

Executive officers monitor the implementation of all the programs related to planning and development of the Notified Area Council with the coordination of N. A. C. chairman and all ward members. Provide essential services and facilities to the urban area. Sanitation programme in township. Street lighting and providing roads in every wards and main roads of town. Water supplying to every wards of urban area. Drainage system to clear the solid and liquid wastes from town. Build culverts for underground drainage system. Maintain the records of births and death. Set up and run school urban area. Implementation of government schemes smoothly. Taxes on water, pilgrimage,land tax, transport, etc. Annual grants from the state government Municipal governance in India List of municipal corporations of India

1878 Quebec general election

The 1878 Quebec general election was held on May 1, 1878 to elect members of the 4th Legislative Assembly for the Province of Quebec, Canada. The result was a hung parliament, with no party having a clear majority. Only one seat divided the two major parties, the Quebec Conservative Party and the Quebec Liberal Party; the balance of power was held by two Independent Conservatives. The incumbent premier, Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, was able to form a minority government with the support of the Independent Conservatives though the Conservative Party had one seat more than the Liberals; the election was called in unusual circumstances. On March 8, 1878, the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, Luc Letellier de Saint-Just, dismissed the Conservative premier, Charles Boucher de Boucherville, in a dispute over proposed railway legislation; the Lieutenant Governor appointed Joly de Lotbinière, the leader of the Liberals, as premier. Since the Conservatives still maintained a substantial majority in the Legislative Assembly, on March 22, 1878 Joly de Lotbinière requested the dissolution of the Assembly and a general election, which Letellier de Saint-Just ordered.

The election was fought in part over economic issues and in part over the actions of the Lieutenant Governor, criticised by the Conservatives for having installed Joly de Lotbinière by a coup d'état. One of the leading Conservatives, Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau, opened his campaign with the slogan: "Silence the voice of Spencer Wood and let the mighty voice of the people speak." Joly de Lotbinière agreed that the people should decide, campaigned on the slogan “The province must choose between direct taxation and economy.”Following the election results, Joly de Lotbinière was able to stay in office for one year as the leader of a minority government supported by the Independent Conservatives though the Conservative Party had one more seat than the Liberals. In 1879, he was defeated in the Assembly by the Conservatives; the Legislative Assembly was composed of sixty-five single-member constituencies or "ridings". The 1878 election was conducted under the pre-Confederation electoral map of the former Province of Canada.

That map had set the boundaries for the sixty-five constituencies of Canada East, which became Quebec. The British North America Act, 1867 provided that the pre-Confederation electoral map would continue to be used for Quebec elections until altered by the Legislature of Quebec; the map of the sixty-five constituencies was to be used in federal elections, until altered by Parliament. The election was conducted under a provincial statute, it was the second election. The Act required that each municipality prepare a voter list in March of each year, based on the valuation of property and ownership used for the tax rolls; the list was drawn up the secretary-treasurer of each municipality. The municipal council reviewed the list and could make corrections to it. Once approved by the municipal council, the list was in force until the preparation of the list in the next year. Any person, dissatisfied by their inclusion or exclusion from the list could appeal to the local judge of the superior court or district magistrate, whose decision on the issue was final.

The election began with a proclamation issued by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, setting the date for nomination of candidates. The date was the same for all constituencies; the provincial Clerk of the Crown in Chancery issued sixty-five writs, directed to the Returning Officer for each constituency, directing them to conduct the election. The Returning Officer would be the sheriff of the constituency. On the date set for nominations, the Returning Officer would hold a public meeting to receive nominations; the meeting was conducted at the most central and convenient location in the constituency, in a court house, city hall or registry office, between noon and one o'clock. To be nominated, a candidate had to file a nomination paper with the Returning Officer, signed by at least twenty-five supporters eligible to vote in the constituency, accompanied with a deposit of $200; the nomination paper and deposit had to be filed before the nomination meeting. If only one nomination was received, the Returning Officer would declare that person to be elected, report the result to the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery with the return of the writ.

If two or more candidates were nominated, voting would occur one week after the nomination date set in the writ. The Returning Officer would establish polling stations throughout the constituency. On polling day, the polls would open in each station and voters would cast their ballots in the locked ballot box; when the polls closed, the deputy returning officers would unlock the ballot box, count the ballots in the presence of the candidates or their agents, prepare a record of the vote. The deputy returning officer would place all of the records and ballots in the ballot box, lock it, deliver the ballot box to the Returning Officer. Once all the ballot boxes were received, the Returning Officer would open all the ballot boxes in the presence of witnesses and total the votes from each polling station; the Returning Officer would declare the candidate with the most votes elected. If there was a tie between the top two candidates, the Returning Officer was required to give a written casting vote to decide the election.

In no other circumstances could the Returning Officer vote. The Returning Officer would prepare a complete report of the results of the election, along with his return of the writ, forward it all to the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery; the election