Third Carlist War

The Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. It is sometimes referred to as the "Second Carlist War", as the earlier "Second" War was smaller in scale and trivial in political consequence. Leading up to the war, Queen Regnant Isabella II abdicated the throne in 1868, the unpopular Amadeo I, son of the King of Italy, was proclaimed King of Spain in 1870. In response, the Carlist pretender, Carlos VII, tried to earn the support of various Spanish regions by promising to reintroduce various area-specific customs and laws; the Carlists proclaimed the restoration of Catalan and Aragonese fueros, abolished at the beginning of the 18th century by King Philip V in his unilateral New Planning Royal decrees. The call for rebellion made by the Carlists was echoed in Catalonia and in the Basque region, where the Carlists managed to design a temporary state. During the war, Carlist forces occupied several inland Spanish towns, the most important ones being La Seu d'Urgell and Estella in Navarre.

They laid siege to the cities of Bilbao and San Sebastián, but failed to seize them. The Third Carlist War saw a series of regime changes in Spain, beginning with the declaration of the First Spanish Republic after the abdication of Amadeo I in February 1873. Over one year in December 1874, a military coup installed a new Bourbon monarch, Alfonso XII, marking the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. After four years of war, on 28 February 1876, Carlos VII was defeated, went into exile in France. On the same day, King Alfonso XII of Spain entered Pamplona. After the end of the war, the Basque charters were abolished, shifting the border customs from the Ebro river to the Spanish coast. In the chartered territories, home rule provisions, left over from the resolution of the First Carlist War, were abolished, conscription of youth in the Spanish army became compulsory; the war resulted in between 50,000 casualties. The Third Carlist War began in 1871, after the overthrow of Isabella II in the La Gloriosa in 1868 revolution and the subsequent coronation of Amadeo I of Savoy as King of Spain in 1870.

The selection of Amadeo I as King instead of the Carlist pretender, Carlos VII, was considered a great insult to the Carlists who had strong support in northern Spain in Catalonia and the Basque Provinces After some internal dissensions in 1870–1871, ending with the removal of Ramón Cabrera as the head of the Carlist party, the Carlists started a general uprising against Amadeo I's government and its Liberal supporters. The Third Carlist War became the final act of a long fight between Spanish progressives and traditionalists which started after the Spanish Peninsular War and the promulgation of the constitution of Cadiz in 1812 which ended the ancien regime in Spain. Mistrust and rivalry among members of the royal family enlarged the conflict; the three Carlist wars were started for diverse reasons: the establishment of the Pragmatic Sanction of Ferdinand VII caused the First Carlist War, the inability to find a compromise led to the Second Carlist War, the proclamation of a foreign king as Spanish monarch sparked the Third Carlist War.

Some contemporary authors described the Third Carlist War as deadly for civilians on the sidelines of the conflict. The bell rings to the death across the heroic town of Igualada... Horrible details... People death by bayonets, burned houses, factories attacked at dawn, rapings, insults... About the Carlists' entrance on Vendrell thousands atrocities are told, done by the followers of absolutism... If our brothers fell to the edge of the Carlist dagger, why we the liberals have to be considered with them?... It is necessary to fight the war with war and to employ all kind of resources to exterminate the bandits that burn and kill in the name of a religion and a peace; the Carlist party was formed in the last years of Ferdinand VII's reign. Carlism is named after count of Molina and Ferdinand's brother; the pragmatic sanction, published by Ferdinand in 1830, abolished the Salic Law, allowing women to be queens of Spain in their own right. This meant that Ferdinand's daughter, became heir instead of Carlos, his brother.

Carlos instantly became a cause around which Spain's conservative groups could unite. The anti-liberalism of authors such as Fernando de Zeballos, Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro and Francisco Alvarado during the 1820s was a precursor to the Carlist movement. Another important aspect of the Carlist ideology was its defense of the Catholic Church and its institutions, including the Inquisition and the special tributary laws, against the comparatively more liberal crown; the Carlists identified themselves with Spanish military traditions, adopting the Burgundian cross of the 16th- and 17th-century tercios. This nostalgia for Spain's past was an important rallying point for Carlism. There was a perceived support for the feudal system displaced by the French occupation, although this is disputed by historians; the Carlists summarized their beliefs in the motto: "For God, for the Fatherland and the King." In the religious and conservative atmosphere of 19th century Spain, Carlism attracted a large number of followers among sections of society which resented the growing liberalism of the Spanish state.

Carlism found most of its supporters in rural areas in places which had enjoyed special status before 1813, such as Catalonia and the Basque Country. In these parts of the country, Carlists enjoyed support from the Catholic peasantry a


Pertwood was an ancient settlement and parish, near Warminster in the county of Wiltshire in the west of England. Its land and houses now lie in the parishes of East Knoyle, Sutton Veny and Chicklade, have fewer than twenty inhabitants; the settlements are close together at Lower Pertwood. Higher Pertwood is now run as Pertwood Manor Farm, while Lower Pertwood is run as Pertwood Organic Farm by different people. Before the Norman Conquest, the manor of Pertwood was held by a man named Wlward. At the Domesday survey of 1086, it was held by Geoffrey de Mowbray, Bishop of Coutances, contained two hides, of which one and a half were in demesne and the rest was held of the manor by tenants. Two villeins, three bordars, one plough, twenty acres of pasture and four of woodland were recorded. Pertwood became a manor of the Earls of Gloucester, which it remained until the early 15th century. Pertwood Down, on high ground to the west of Pertwood, has several barrows and traces of Celtic field systems, but all such remains lie outside the area of the former parish.

Just to the north of Lower Pertwood Farm, the Romans, in building a straight road, unusually diverted their road around an ancient tumulus instead of going through it. In 1829, the Roman road near Pertwood was described as "still remarkably perfect". In 1808, a topographer wrote of Pertwood that it was "...a decayed parish in the hundred of Warminster... containing 2 houses and 15 inhabitants". The Revd John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales said of Pertwood: PERTWOOD, a parish in Mere district, Wilts. Post-town, under Salisbury. Acres, 450. Rated property, £480. Pop. 30. Houses, 5; the property is all in one estate. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Salisbury. Value, £56. Patron, Mrs. Seymour; the church is good. In 1885 the parish of Pertwood was extinguished, with its southern part being added to East Knoyle, its northern part to Sutton Veny. A detailed parish history was published in 1965 by the Wiltshire Victoria County History in its volume 8. In April 1993, the Tribal Gathering music festival took place at Pertwood, in 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 and 2000 it was the site of the Big Green Gathering.

The former Church of England parish church, which stands at Upper or Higher Pertwood, is called St Peter's. It was a small 12th-century stone building entered by a round-headed door on its south side, but in about 1812 it was "restored" by the lord of the manor, Richard Ricward, so that by 1822 there was nothing ancient to be seen, except one stoop. In the restored church a round-headed arch lay between the nave. In 1872 the church was rebuilt in flint, dressed with stone, with a single church bell in a small structure over the roof at the western end; this small building contains a nave, a chancel, a north aisle. In 1908 the bowl of a 14th-century font was returned to the church. Pertwood was a separate church parish until 1899, when was held by the rector of All Saints', Chicklade. In 1921 Chicklade with Pertwood was united with Hindon parish; the Victorian church became derelict and was closed in 1968 declared redundant in 1972. However the building was restored. Upper Pertwood, on high downland in the southern half of the former parish, is approached by a drive from the A350 road and consists of the original manor house, known as Manor Farm, five farm cottages, other buildings.

On the other side of the A350 is Lower Pertwood, with six cottages and a house. Numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 are no longer part of the farm and are owned. Lower Pertwood forms part of a large organic farm of 2,100 acres called Lower Pertwood Farm or Pertwood Organic Farm; the organic farming model was introduced by Mark Houghton Brown to conserve the thin soil, was continued by him until 2005 and thereafter by new owners. The farm is managed under Natural England's Higher Level Stewardship scheme. All local government functions are carried out by the Wiltshire Council unitary authority. Pertwood is represented in parliament by Andrew Murrison. In 1560, Sir John Mervyn of Pertwood was High Sheriff of Wiltshire. Lancelot Morehouse, a 17th-century Rector of Pertwood, has been described as John Aubrey's "most familiar learned acquaintance". Percy Scawen Wyndham, a younger son of the first Lord Leconfield, owned Pertwood from 1877 until his death, he was a soldier, Conservative politician and intellectual, one of the founding members of The Souls.

1400–1419: John Britte, of Hindon 1433: William Elys 1450: John Elys Late 15th & early 16th centuries: William Fletcher Agnes Maton and Margaret Ingram, daughters of William Fletcher1539: John Mervyn, son of Margaret Ingram, a moiety Robert Temmys Agnes Maton's son-in-law, a moiety 1553: John Mervyn c. 1570–1601: John Mervyn 1601: Thomas Mervyn George Mervyn to 1692: John Mervyn, grandson of George Mervyn 1692–1736: Sir James Howe 1736–1804: Henry Lee called Lee Warner 1804–1805: James Woodward, who assumed the name of Lee Warner 1805–1810: John Benett of Pythouse 1810: Richard Ricward of Longbridge Deverill 1838: Henry Seymour Alfred Seymour 1877–1911: Percy Scawen Wyndham 1911–1913: George Wyndham, son of Percy Scawen Wyndham 1913–1919: Guy Richard Charles Wyndham, grandson of Percy Scawen Wyndham 1919–1939: Arthur Mitchell 1939–1945: Paul Weldon 1945: Colonel Scrope Egerton 1963: Colonel Jack Houghton Brown Mark Houghton

Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge

Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located in the U. S. state of North Dakota. The majority of the land area of the refuge has been designated as wilderness and is known as the Chase Lake Wilderness; the refuge is one of the oldest in the U. S. having been set aside in 1908. The refuge has more breeding pairs of white pelicans than any other protected area in the U. S. Chase Lake NWR is managed through Arrowwwood National Wildlife Refuge Complex and in turn, a number of other refuges and wetland management districts are managed from Chase Lake including: Chase Lake WMD Chase Lake Prairie Project Valley City WMD Tomahawk NWR Stoney Slough NWR Sibley Lake NWR Halfway Lake NWR Hobart Lake NWRHome to as many as 30,000 white pelicans, the wilderness preserves habitat for the largest single grouping of pelicans in North America; the pelicans have enjoyed a tremendous rebound from the 50 or so examples that existed in the region when first counted in 1908. Tending to nest on two large islands within the lake for protection from predators, some of the pelicans have been banded and these same birds have been found as far south as the Everglades in Florida during the winter months.

Chase Lake is an alkaline lake and supports no fish species, so the pelicans rely on the plentiful tiger salamander as a food source. The white pelican is the largest of all pelicans. Many other bird species can be found here including herons, ibises, geese and terns to name but a few. White-tailed deer, weasels and badger inhabit the refuge. "Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2016-06-16. "USGS Lake Louise". TopoQuest. Retrieved 2008-06-29