Third Council of Toledo

The Third Council of Toledo marks the entry of Visigothic Spain into the Catholic Church, known for codifying the filioque clause into Western Christianity. The council enacted restrictions on Jews, the conversion of the country to Catholic Christianity led to repeated conflict with the Jews. In the 4th century, the bishop Wulfila invented a script for the Gothic language, translated the Bible into Gothic, converted the Goths to Arian Christianity; when the Visigoths traveled west, they encountered Latin Christians. The Visigoths refused to join the Catholic Church. Prior to the Council in Toledo, King Reccared had convened informal assemblies of bishops to resolve the religious schism in his kingdom. At the second assembly both Arian and Catholic bishops presented their arguments, while Reccared pointed out that no Arian bishop had performed a healing miracle; the last assembly consisted of only Catholic bishops, where upon Reccared accepted the Catholic faith. The Council was organized by Bishop Leander of Seville, who had worked tirelessly to convert the Arian Visigothic kings and had succeeded with Reccared.

Abbot Eutropius had the chief day-to-day management of the council, according to the chronicler John of Biclaro. In the king's name, Leander brought together bishops and nobles in May of 589. However, King Reccared and Bishop Leander were only able to persuade eight Arian bishops to attend the council; the Council opened with three days of prayer and fasting. The public confession of King Reccared was read aloud by a notary, its theological precision defining Trinitarian and Arian tenets, establishing Reccared's newly achieved orthodoxy, its extensive quotation from scripture revealed that it was in fact ghostwritten for the king, doubtless by Leander. In it, Reccared declared that God had inspired him to lead the Goths back to the true faith, from which they had been led astray by false teachers, he declared that not only the Goths but the Suebi, who by the fault of others had been led into heresy, had been brought back to the faith. These nations he dedicated to God by the hands of the bishops, whom he called on to complete the work.

He anathematized Arius and his doctrine, declared his acceptance of the councils of Nicaea, Ephesus and pronounced an anathema on all who returned to Arianism after being received into the Church by the chrism, or the laying on of hands. This confession was received with a general acclamation. One of the Catholic bishops called on the assembled bishops and Gothic nobles to declare publicly their renunciation of Arianism and their acceptance of Catholicism, they replied that although they had done so when they had gone over with the king to the Church, they would comply. Followed 23 anathemas directed against Arius and his doctrines, succeeded by the creeds of Nicaea and Constantinople and the definition of Chalcedon, the whole being subscribed by 8 Arian bishops with their clergy, by all the Gothic nobles; the bishops were Ugnas of Barcelona, Ubiligisclus of Valencia, Murila of Palencia, Sunnila of Viseu, Gardingus of Tuy, Bechila of Lugo, Argiovitus of Oporto, Froisclus of Tortosa. The names of the eight are Germanic in origin.

Four come from sees within the former kingdom of the Suebi showing that Leovigild, after his conquest, had displaced the Catholic bishops by Arians. Reccared instructed the council with his licence to draw up any requisite canons one directing the creed to be recited at Communion, so that henceforward no one could plead ignorance as an excuse for misbelief. Followed 23 canons with a confirmatory edict of the king; the 1st confirmed the decrees of previous councils of the Catholic Church and synodical letters of the popes. Christian slaves whom they had circumcised, or made to share in their rites, were ipso facto freed; the canons were subscribed first by the king by 5 of the 6 metropolitans, of whom Masona signed first. All those of Tarraconensis and Septimania appeared or by proxy; the proceedings closed with a triumphant homily by Leander on the conversion of the Goths, preserved by his brother Isidore as Homilia de triumpho ecclesiae ob conversionem Gothorum a homily upon the "triumph of the Church and the conversion of the Goths."

The proscriptions

Just the 3 of Us

Just the 3 of Us is a 2016 Philippine romantic comedy-drama film directed by Cathy Garcia Molina with a script developed and written by the collaboration of Kiko Abrillo, Gillian Ebreo, Katherine Labayen, Vanessa R. Valdez, was produced by ABS-CBN Film Productions; the film stars John Lloyd Cruz, Jennylyn Mercado with a special participation of Richard Yap. It was released on May 2016 under Star Cinema; the film marks Mercado's first movie project together. In Just the 3 of Us, Jennylyn plays a flight stewardess, infatuated with a pilot played by John Lloyd; the film was a commercial success earning 100 million worldwide. The film revolves around CJ Manalo who are both involved in the airline industry; the former is an airline pilot who aspires to be a captain and the latter is part of the ground crew who aspires to be a flight attendant. After a one night stand the two were forced to live together to deal with each other's contrasting personalities with Manalo now pregnant and claiming that Abusado is the father of her unborn child.

John Lloyd Cruz as Capt. Uno Abusado Jennylyn Mercado as Flight Attendant CJ Manalo Abusado Richard Yap as Capt. Alex Gatchalian Joel Torre as Arturo Manalo Billy Roque as Jill Ketchup Eusebio as Tyson Maria Isabel Lopez as Lulu Manalo Joem Bascon as BJ Manalo Yana Asistio as Pauline Victor Silayan as Tim Fifth Solomon as Felix Manuel Chua as AJ Manalo PJ Endrinal as DJ Manalo Michael Agassi as Dexter Josef Elizalde as Jerome Jed Montero as Daisy Lucas Maggalang as FJ Manalo Paulo Angeles as EJ Manalo Baron Geisler as Marco Chun Sa Jung as Hopia The film's theatrical release was scheduled in March 2016; the scheduled released was moved to April 27, 2016 and to May 4, 2016 to achieve simultaneous international screenings. The film was simultaneously released internationally in selected cinemas in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and the United States, as well as in the Middle East and Saipan in the Northern Mariana Islands. In late February 2016, the trailer for the film was released; the title of the film was revealed to the public through the trailer.

Earlier, Jennylyn Mercado posted an image of her with John Lloyd Cruz at her official Facebook page announcing to the public of a then-upcoming Star Cinema film where she and John Lloyd Cruz would be paired together. The official theatrical poster of Just the 3 of Us was released through Star Cinema's Instagram account on March 27, 2016. Jennylyn Mercado and John Lloyd Cruz made live appearance and made guest appearances in GMA and ABS-CBN, their respective networks, to promote the film; the official theme song of the film is "Getting To Know Each Other" and was recorded by It's Showtime host Billy Crawford. The music video for the song premiered on April 2016 via Star Music's YouTube channel; the music video stars Coleen Garcia. As of June 2016, Just the 3 of Us has grossed ₱230 million worldwide; the film opened in the Philippines alongside Viva Films' This Time. It made ₱16 million on its opening day compared to This Time with ₱15 million; this was confirmed on Mico del Rosario's Instagram account.

On May 9, it breached the ₱100 million mark in the box office, the 3rd Filipino film in 2016 to reached the mark. According to Box Office Mojo, on their first week of showing on United Arab Emirates it earned $128,630 in its opening week. While on United Kingdom it earned $14,437, on New Zealand it earned $3,373, on Australia it earned $20,282. Just the 3 of Us received mixed to positive reviews from film critics. Movies Philippines gave a mixed review, saying that "Just The 3 Of Us is everything you love about John Lloyd and Jennylyn in one movie, their charms, their ability to make people laugh effortlessly and of course their effectiveness in dramatic scenes. But it’s disappointing to see them in a Star Cinema formula, though tried and tested, it still feels tired." With a rating of 3 stars out of 5. Oggs Cruz from Rappler praised the two main actors, stating that "Cruz and Mercado seamlessly turn their characters’ errors and dysfunctions into anchors for affection."Just the 3 of Us is graded B by the Cinema Evaluation Board of the Philippines.

Director Cathy Garcia-Molina, says that Star Cinema is planning a sequel for Just the 3 of Us if not another film starring Jennylyn Mercado and John Lloyd Cruz, following the film's box office feat. Just the 3 of Us on IMDb


An anvil is a metalworking tool consisting of a large block of metal, with a flattened top surface, upon which another object is struck. Anvils are as massive as is practical, because the higher their inertia, the more efficiently they cause the energy of striking tools to be transferred to the work piece. In most cases the anvil is used as a forging tool. Before the advent of modern welding technology, it was a primary tool of metal workers; the great majority of modern anvils are made of cast Iron or forged steel, heat treated. Inexpensive anvils have been made of cast iron and low quality steel, but are considered unsuitable for serious use as they deform and lack rebound when struck; because anvils are ancient tools and were at one time commonplace, they have acquired symbolic meaning beyond their use as utilitarian objects. They have found their way into popular culture including episodes of Looney Tunes, the name of a heavy metal band, usage by blacksmiths as well as jewelers and metal smiths.

The primary work surface of the anvil is known as the face. It is made of hardened steel and should be flat and smooth with rounded edges for most work. Any marks on the face will be transferred to the work. Sharp edges tend to cut into the metal being worked and may cause cracks to form in the workpiece; the face is hardened and tempered to resist the blows of the smith's hammer, so the anvil face does not deform under repeated use. A hard anvil face reduces the amount of force lost in each hammer blow. Hammers and work pieces of hardened steel should never directly strike the anvil face with full force, as they may damage it; the horn of the anvil is a conical projection used to form various round shapes and is unhardened steel or iron. The horn is used in bending operations, it is used by some smiths as an aid in "drawing down" stock. Some anvils European, are made with two horns, one square and one round; some anvils are made with side horns or clips for specialized work. The step is that area of the anvil between the "horn" and the "face".

It is used for cutting. The hardy hole is a square hole into which specialized forming and cutting tools, called hardy tools, are placed, it is used in punching and bending operations. The pritchel hole is a small round hole, present on most modern anvils; some anvils have more than one. It is used for punching. At times, smiths will fit a second tool to this hole to allow the smith more flexibility when using more than one anvil tool. An anvil needs to be placed upon a sturdy base made from an fire resistant material, it requires being fastened to the base, so it will not move when struck with a hammer. A loose anvil is unsafe, as it can fall off the base and is an ineffective forging tool. Common methods of attaching an anvil are spikes, steel or iron straps, bolts where there are holes provided, cables. A smith would use whatever was at hand, as long as it held the anvil in place; the anvil is placed as near to the forge as is convenient no more than one step from the forge to prevent heat loss in the work piece.

The most common base traditionally was a hard wood log or large timber buried several feet into the floor of the forge shop floor. This was done to make the anvil immobile when heavy bending were done upon the anvil. In the industrial era cast iron bases became available, they had the advantage of adding additional weight to the anvil, making it more stable while making the anvil movable. These bases are sought after by collectors today; when concrete became available, there was a trend to make steel reinforced anvil bases by some smiths, though this practice has been abandoned. In more modern times many anvils have been placed upon bases fabricated from steel a short thick section of a large I-Beam. In addition, bases have been made from dimensional lumber bolted together to form a large block or steel drums full of oil-saturated sand to provide a damping effect. In recent times tripod bases of fabricated steel have become popular with some smiths. There are many designs for anvils, which are tailored for a specific purpose or to meet the needs of a particular smith.

For example, there were anvils made for farriers, general smiths, chain makers, saw tuners, coach makers and many other types of metal workers. Such designs have originated in diverse geographic locations; the common blacksmith's anvil is made of either forged or cast steel, forged wrought iron with a hard steel face or cast iron with a hard steel face. Cast iron anvils are not used for forging as they are incapable of standing up to the impact and will crack and dent. Cast iron anvils without a hard steel face do not have the rebound that a harder anvil would and will tire out the smith; some anvils have been made with a smooth top working face of hardened steel welded to a cast iron or wrought iron body, though this manufacturing method is no longer in use. At one end, the common smith's anvil has a projecting conical bick used for hammering curved work pieces; the other end is called the heel. The other end is provided with a bick rectangular in section. Most anvils made since the late 18th century have a hardy