The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. The Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War was first adopted in 1929, but revised at the 1949 conference, it defines humanitarian protections for prisoners of war. There are 196 state parties to the Convention; this part sets out the overall parameters for GCIII: Articles 1 and 2 cover which parties are bound by GCIII Article 2 specifies when the parties are bound by GCIII That any armed conflict between two or more "High Contracting Parties" is covered by GCIII. "... Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations, they shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof." Article 3 has been called a "Convention in miniature." It is the only article of the Geneva Conventions.
It describes minimal protections which must be adhered to by all individuals within a signatory's territory during an armed conflict not of an international character: Non-combatants, members of armed forces who have laid down their arms, combatants who are hors de combat due to wounds, detention, or any other cause shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, including prohibition of outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment. The passing of sentences must be pronounced by a constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognised as indispensable by civilised peoples. Article 3's protections exist if one is not classified as a prisoner of war. Article 3 states that parties to the internal conflict should endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of GCIII. Article 4 defines prisoners of war to include: 4.1.1 Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict and members of militias of such armed forces 4.1.2 Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organised resistance movements, provided that they fulfill all of the following conditions: that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates.
4.1.3 Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a government or an authority not recognised by the Detaining Power. 4.1.4 Civilians who have non-combat support roles with the military and who carry a valid identity card issued by the military they support. 4.1.5 Merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favourable treatment under any other provisions of international law. 4.1.6 Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory, who on the approach of the enemy spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided they carry arms and respect the laws and customs of war. 4.3 makes explicit that Article 33 takes precedence for the treatment of medical personnel of the enemy and chaplains of the enemy. Article 5 specifies that prisoners of war are protected from the time of their capture until their final repatriation, it specifies that when there is any doubt whether a combatant belongs to the categories in article 4, they should be treated as such until their status has been determined by a competent tribunal.
This part of the convention covers the status of prisoners of war. Article 12 states that prisoners of war are the responsibility of the state, not the persons who capture them, that they may not be transferred to a state, not party to the Convention. Articles 13 to 16 state that prisoners of war must be treated humanely without any adverse discrimination and that their medical needs must be met; this part is divided into several sections: Section 1 covers the beginning of captivity. It dictates what information a prisoner must give and interrogation methods that the detaining power may use: "No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion", it dictates what private property a prisoner of war may keep and that the prisoner of war must be evacuated from the combat zone as soon as possible. Section 2 covers the internment of prisoners of war and is broken down into 8 chapters which cover: General observations Quarters and clothing Hygiene and medical attention The treatment of enemy medical personnel and chaplains retained to assist prisoners of war Religious and physical activities Discipline Military rank Transfer of prisoners of war after their arrival in a camp Section 3 covers the type of labour that a prisoner of war may be compelled to do, taking such factors as rank and sex into consideration, that which because it is unhealthy or dangerous can only be done by prisoners of war who volunteer for such work.
It goes into details about such things as the accommodation, medical facilities, that if the prisoner of war work
Since the first Tour de France in 1903, there have been 2,163 stages, up to and including the final stage of the 2019 Tour de France. Since 1919, the race leader following each stage has been awarded the yellow jersey. Although the leader of the classification after a stage gets a yellow jersey, he is not considered the winner of the yellow jersey, only the wearer. Only after the final stage, the wearer of the yellow jersey is considered the winner of the yellow jersey, thereby the winner of the Tour de France. In this article first-place-classifications before 1919 are counted as if a yellow jersey was awarded. There have been more yellow jerseys given than there were stages: In 1914, 1929, 1931, there were multiple cyclists with the same leading time, the 1988 Tour de France had a "prelude", an extra stage for a select group of cyclists; as of 2018 a total of 2,145 yellow jerseys have been awarded in the Tour de France to 286 different riders. In previous tours, sometimes a stage was broken in two.
On such occasions, only the cyclist leading at the end of the day is counted. The "Jerseys" column lists the number of days; the next four columns indicate the number of times the rider won the points classification, the King of the Mountains classification, the young rider competition, the years in which the yellow jersey was worn, with bold years indicating an overall Tour win. For example: Eddy Merckx has spent 96 days in the yellow jersey, won the general classification five times, won the points classification three times, won the mountains classification two times, never won the young rider classification, he wore the yellow jersey in the Tours of 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974 and 1975. Three cyclists have won the Tour de France with only two yellow jerseys in their career. Fabian Cancellara is, as of 2016 with twenty nine days in yellow, the rider with the most yellow jerseys for someone who has not won the Tour; the two active Tour de France winners Chris Froome and Vincenzo Nibali rank, as of 2018, 4th and 22nd, with fifty-nine and nineteen days in yellow respectively.
Alberto Contador was stripped of the yellow jersey and 6 days of wearing it in 2010 Tour de France because he tested positive for doping. Until the results of Lance Armstrong were annulled for cheating late 2012, he was ranked second in this list, leading the Tour for 83 stages from 1999 to 2005; the largest number of different riders wearing the yellow jersey in any year is 8. The smallest is 1; the yellow jersey has been awarded to 23 different countries since 1903. In the table below, "Jerseys" indicates the number of yellow jerseys that were given to cyclists of each country. "Tour wins" stands for the number of tour wins by cyclists of that country, "Points" for the number of times the points classification was won by cyclist of that country, "KoM" for the number of times the mountains classification in the Tour de France was won by a cyclist of that country, "Young rider" for the number of times the young rider classification was won by a cyclist of that country. The "Most recent" column shows the cyclist of the country that wore the yellow jersey most recently.
The "Different holders" column gives the number of different cyclists of the country that wore the yellow jersey. Sixteen riders have quit the Tour while wearing the yellow jersey; the winner of the Tour de France wins a stage, but, not necessary. It is possible to be the winner of the Tour de France without winning a stage, because the Tour de France is decided by the total raced time; this has happened eight times so far: Firmin Lambot 1922 Roger Walkowiak 1956 Gastone Nencini 1960 Lucien Aimar 1966 Greg LeMond 1990 Óscar Pereiro 2006 Chris Froome 2017 Egan Bernal 2019Of these eight cyclists and Bernal are the only ones never to win a Tour stage at all, although Bernal is still active. Firmin Lambot won stages in the 1913, 1914, 1919, 1920 and 1921 Tours, Gastone Nencini won stages in the 1956, 1957 and 1958 Tours, Aimar won a stage in the 1967 Tour, LeMond won stages in the 1985, 1986 and 1989 Tours, Pereiro won a stage in the 2005 Tour, Froome won stages in the 2012, 2013, 2015 and 2016 Tours.
Alberto Contador also belonged to this group, when he won the 2010 Tour de France. Every Tour de France only has one winner, but a cyclist that has won the Tour de France can enter the race again, a cyclist not winning the race can win the race in a year. In every Tour de France, there were multiple'former or future' Tour de France-winners in the race. Only seven times, the Tour started without any former Tour de France winner; this happened in 1903, 1927, 1947, 1956, 1966, 1999 and 2006. Only in 1903, apart from the cyclist that won the race, was there no other former or future Tour de France winner. In 1914, a record of seven former Tour de France winners started that year's Tour: Louis Trousselier Lucien Petit-Breton François Faber Octave Lapize Gustave Garrigou Odile Defraye Philippe Thys In addition to these seven cyclists, four cyclists in that year's Tour would go on to win a Tour later: Firmin Lambot Léon Scieur Henri Pélissier Lucien Buysse Eleven cyclists won the general
Terror Night is a 1987 American slasher film directed by Nick Marino. When a group of kids sneak into the dilapidated, apparently-abandoned mansion of vanished silent film star Lance Hayward, they are methodically killed off by the psychotic actor, who dons costumes from his classic film roles for each murder. John Ireland - Lance Hayward Cameron Mitchell - Detective Sanders Alan Hale Jr. - Jake Nelson Staci Greason - Kathy William Butler - Chip Michelle Bauer - Jo Timothy Elwell - Angel Carla Baron - Lorraine Ken Abraham - Greg Aldo Ray - Captain Ned Dan Haggerty - Ted Michaels While producer Nick Marino is credited as the director, numerous cast and crew members assert that several uncredited directors worked on the film, including Fred Lincoln and Andre DeToth. Several accounts claim that DeToth convinced veteran actors John Ireland and Cameron Mitchell to join the cast, shot the scenes they appear in after the majority of principal photography had been completed. DeToth wore a neckbrace after suffering an injury.
One shooting location was an estate. Although filming was completed in 1987, no record appears to exist of the film having an official release until 2004, when Fred Olen Ray's Retromedia put it on DVD under the title Bloody Movie. A Legacy Entertainment release from 2005 uses the film's original title. Allmovie called the film a "substandard horror film" and that "the real fun to be had in Terror Night is its limitless source of bizarre trivia for dedicated exploitation buffs." DVD Talk's Daniel W. Kelly wrote, "With a storyline revolving around vintage movies and appearances by some recognizable has-beens, the film has more of a camp quality than horror. It's not the worst of the genre. It's a bit simple and unexciting." Terror Night on IMDb Terror Night at AllMovie