A lifeboat is a small, rigid or inflatable boat carried for emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard a ship. Lifeboat drills are required by law on larger commercial ships. Rafts are used. In the military, a lifeboat may double as a whaleboat, dinghy, or gig; the ship's tenders of cruise ships double as lifeboats. Recreational sailors carry inflatable life rafts, though a few prefer small proactive lifeboats that are harder to sink and can be sailed to safety. Inflatable lifeboats may be equipped with auto-inflation canisters or mechanical pumps. A quick release and pressure release mechanism is fitted on ships so that the canister or pump automatically inflates the lifeboat, the lifeboat breaks free of the sinking vessel. Commercial aircraft are required to carry auto-inflating life rafts in case of an emergency water landing. Ship-launched lifeboats are lowered from davits on a ship's deck, are hard to sink in normal circumstances; the cover serves as protection from sun and rain, can be used to collect rainwater, is made of a reflective or fluorescent material, visible.
Lifeboats have oars and mirrors for signaling, first aid supplies, food and water for several days. Some lifeboats are more capably equipped to permit self-rescue, with supplies such as a radio, an engine and sail, navigational equipment, solar water stills, rainwater catchments and fishing equipment; the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Life-Saving Appliance Code requires certain emergency equipment be carried on each lifeboat and liferaft used on international voyages. Modern lifeboats carry an Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon and either a radar reflector or Search and Rescue Transponder. During the Age of Sail, the ship's boats were also used as lifeboats in case of emergency. In March 1870, answering a question at the House of Commons of the United Kingdom about the sinking of PS Normandy, George Shaw-Lefevre said that...in the opinion of the Board of Trade, it will not be possible to compel the passenger steamers running between England and France to have boats sufficient for the numerous passengers they carry.
They would encumber the decks, rather add to the danger than detract from it. In the late 1880s, Maria Beasley improved the design of life rafts, she patented a life-saving raft in both the United States and England in 1880. By the turn of the 20th century larger ships meant more people could travel, but safety rules regarding lifeboats remained out of date: for example, British legislation concerning the number of lifeboats was based on the tonnage of a vessel and only encompassed vessels of "10,000 gross register tons and over", it was not until after the sinking of RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912, that a broader movement began to require a sufficient number of lifeboats on passenger ships for all people on board. Titanic, with a gross tonnage of 46,000 tonnes and carrying 20 lifeboats, exceeded the regulations laid down by the Board of Trade, which required a ship of her size to carry boats capable of carrying a total of 1,060 people. Titanic's boats had a capacity of 1,178 people on a ship capable of carrying 3,330 people.
The type of life raft used on Titanic were the ones patented by Beasley. The need for so many more lifeboats on the decks of passenger ships after 1912 led to the use of most of the deck space available on the large ships, creating the problem of restricted passageways; this was resolved by the wider use of collapsible lifeboats, a number of, carried on Titanic. During World War II and the Battle of the Atlantic with convoys going to northern Russia through the Arctic Ocean it was found that the chance of the crews of merchant ships surviving in open lifeboats was not good unless they were rescued in a couple of hours; the US Navy asked various groups and manufacturers to suggest solutions. The result was the first enclosed, self-righting lifeboat, manufactured in Delanco, New Jersey; these radically new lifeboats were 24 feet in length and weighed 5,000 lb. They had two enclosed cabins which could hold a total of 25 persons; the space in between was designed to help persons in the water be pulled aboard, could be enclosed with a canvas top.
The new type lifeboat could be driven either by a small motor or sail. In 1943 the US developed a balsa wood liferaft that would not sink, irrespective of the number of holes in it; these balsa liferafts were designed to hold five to ten men on a platform suspended on the inside or fifteen to twenty-five hanging lines placed on the outsides. They were inexpensive, during the war thousands were stored in any space possible on US warships and merchant ships; these liferafts were intended only for use during a short term before lifeboats or another ship in the convoy or group could bring them aboard. When USS Indianapolis, a cruiser operating alone, was sunk in 1945, none of its larger lifeboats were launched, the survivors had to rely on balsa liferafts automatically released as the ship sank. Today, enclosed lifeboats are the preferred lifeboats fitted on modern merchant ships because of their superior protection against the elements; each merchant ship has one lifeboat fitted on the port side and one on the starboard side, so that a lifeboat is always available if the ship is listing to one side.
Lifeboat capacity is specified
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
A second mate or second officer is a licensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship holding a Second Mates Certificate of Competency, issued by the administration. The second mate is the third in command and a watchkeeping officer, customarily the ship's navigator. Other duties vary, but the second mate is the medical officer and in charge of maintaining distress signaling equipment. On oil tankers, the second mate assists the chief mate with the Cargo operations; the Navigator's role focuses on creating the ship's passage plans. A passage plan is a comprehensive, step by step description of how the voyage is to proceed from berth to berth or one port to another; the plan includes undocking, the en route portion of a voyage and mooring at the destination. The GMDSS officer role consists of performing tests and maintenance, ensuring the proper log-keeping on the ship's Global Maritime Distress Safety System equipment. Safety equipment includes Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons, a NAVTEX unit, INMARSAT consoles, various radios and Rescue Transponders, Digital Selective Calling systems.
A second mate is always a watchkeeper. In port and at sea, the second mate is responsible to the captain for keeping the ship, its crew, its cargo safe for eight hours each day. Traditionally, the second mate stands a "12-4" watch: from midnight until noon until 4 pm. On watch, he must enforce all applicable regulations, such as safety of life at sea and pollution regulations. In port, the watch focuses on duties such as cargo operations and security watches, monitoring communications, the anchor or mooring lines. IMO regulations require the officer be fluent in English; this is required for a number of reasons, such as to use charts and nautical publications, understand weather and safety messages, communication with other ships and coast stations, to be able to work with a multi-lingual crew. At sea, the mate on watch has three fundamental duties: to navigate the ship, to safely avoid traffic, to respond to emergencies. Mates stand watch with able seamen who act as helmsman and lookout; the helmsman executes the lookout reports dangers such as approaching ships.
These roles are combined to a single helmsman/lookout and, under some circumstances, can be eliminated completely. The ability to smartly handle a ship is key to safe watchstanding. A ship's draught, trim and under-keel clearance all affect its turning radius and stopping distance. Other factors include the effects of wind and current, shallow water, similar effects. Shiphandling is key when the need arises to anchor, or to moor the ship; the officer must be able to transmit and receive signals by Morse light and to use the International Code of Signals. On the ship the second officer is the officer that works under the Master, i.e. the Captain of the ship and shoulders the responsibility of checking the functionality of all the navigational equipment, such as the Echo-sounder, Radar, ECDIS, AIS, on some vessels the GMDSS radio equipment, however it has been observed that Companies tend to designate the responsibility of maintaining the GMDSS equipment to the third officer. These checks are made in according to the companies planned maintenance system.
In addition these checks are made prior to arrival and departure ports. If any navigational equipment is suspected of being faulty it should be checked that the equipment is in working order as per the given performance standards. Correction of Navigation Charts and the duties of keeping the charts up to date rests on the Second mate; these corrections are received in the Weekly/Monthly/Annual Notices to Mariners, if Admiralty Charts are used on board. Corrections are to be made using the standard Symbols from Chart 5011. Admiralty Publication NP 294 How to Keep Charts Up to Date, should be used as a reference to maintenance of charts; however due to the introduction of the ECDIS in a phased manner, due to be introduced on most Merchant Vessels by 2018, manual correction of charts is fast becoming obsolete. ECDIS has ushered in the age of SENC,Vector Charts these charts can be updated remotely by the broadcasts of the service provider, provided that the ship is connected to the Internet. Corrections may be received via email, or Correction CD's depending on the service provider and your needs.
Celestial, terrestrial and coastal navigation techniques are used to fix a ship's position on a navigational chart. Accounting for effects of winds, tides and estimated speed, the officer directs the helmsman to keep to track; the officer uses supplemental information from nautical publications, such as Sailing Directions, tide tables, Notices to Mariners, radio navigational warnings to keep the ship clear of danger in transit. Safety demands the mate be able to solve steering control problems and to calibrate the system for optimum performance. Since magnetic and gyrocompasses show the course to steer, the officer must be able to determine and correct for compass errors. Weather's profound effect on ships requires the officer be able to interpret and apply meteorological information from all available sources; this requires expertise in weather systems, reporting procedures, recording systems. The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea are a cornerstone of safe watchkeeping.
Safety requires that one follow the principles of safe watchkeeping. Maximizing bridge teamwork, including Bridge Resource Management is an emerging focus in watchkeeping; the main purpose for Radar and Aut
Watchkeeping or watchstanding is the assignment of sailors to specific roles on a ship to operate it continuously. These assignments known as watches are active as they are considered essential to the safe operation of the vessel, allow the ship to respond to emergencies and other situations quickly; these watches are divided into work periods to ensure that the roles are always occupied at all times, while those members of the crew who are assigned to a work during a watch are known as watch keepers. On a typical seafaring vessel, be it naval or merchant, personnel "keep watch" in various locations and duties across the ship, such as the bridge and engine room. Typical bridge watchkeepers include a lookout and a deck officer, responsible for the safe navigation of the ship. A wide variety of types of watches have developed due to the different needs aboard merchant and naval vessels; this table gives some examples: A watch system, watch schedule, or watch bill is a method of assigning regular periods of watchkeeping duty aboard ships and some other areas of employment.
A watch system allows the ship's crew to operate the ship 24 hours a day while allowing individual personnel adequate time for rest and other duties. Watch durations vary between vessels due to a number of restrictions. Many watch systems incorporate the concept of a dog watch, whereby one watch is split into two shorter watches so that there is an odd number each day. Doing so allows crew members to have a different watch schedule each day; the dog watches are set at dinner time to allow the entire crew to be fed in short order. The traditional watch system arose from sailing ships of the late 19th century and was used by the Royal Navy and many other Commonwealth navies, it consisted of 2 two-hour periods. Those members of the crew whose work must be done at all times of the day were assigned to one of two divisions: the Starboard or the Port division; these can be further divided into two parts, e.g. First Port, Second Starboard; the Royal Navy traditional submarine three watch system is 2 on 4 off during the day and 3 on 6 off during the night.
The same arrangement of watch times can be used with a crew divided into three sections. This gives each sailor more time off-duty, sometimes allowing sleeping periods of over seven hours. Names for the three watches—instead of Port and Starboard—vary from ship to ship. Naming schemes such as "Foremast", "Mainmast" and "Mizzen" and "Red", "White" and "Blue" are common; the so-called "five-and-dime" arrangement splits the day into five-hour watches, with the exception of a four-hour watch from 22:00 to 02:00. The "Six-Hour-Shift" splits the day in four 6-hour watches, permitting a three section crew to maximize rest time in a 3-day working cycle; this watch systems takes into better account the meal times, so that the ingoing team will be fed first keep watch, while the outgoing team will be relieved of watch, proceed to the messdeck. Aboard United States submarines, the crew is divided into three sections, with each section keeping 8 hours of watch followed by 16 hours off-watch; this schedule has been a recent change to submariner work and rest routines.
For nearly 45 years prior to 2015, submariners were on 18-hour days with 6 hours of watch followed by 12 hours off watch. The 12 hours off-watch were further divided into the first 6 hours being used for maintenance and entertainment. Note that this arrangement resulted in one of the sections having two watches in one day, there were no dog watches. Watch reliefs occurred no than the bottom of the hour; the first 30 minutes of the hour were used for the oncoming section to eat while the second 30 minutes of the hour were used for the off-going section to eat. Some warships now use the one-in-two system known as 7s and 5s, for the duration of the watches; this watch system is sometimes referred to as Port and Starboard watches. This gives the sailors a longer sleeping period than the traditional two-watch system, while still maintaining the ability for the ship to function. Meals are scheduled around the watch turnovers at 0700, 1200, 1700. Various alternative watch schedules have been devised, which are referred to as Swedish watches.
Although there is no standard for what constitutes a Swedish watch, the variations all feature some element of extended watches to accommodate longer time off. Like the traditional watch system, they begin at 2000 hours; some popular variations have durations of 6, 6, 4, 4, 4 and 5, 5, 5, 5, 4. On merchant ships, watchkeepers keep watch for three periods of four consecutive hours; this system has a couple of advantages: it is easy to remember and it is consistent. For example, a member of watch team 1 will only have to remember that he is on the "4–8" watch, knows that he goes on watch at 4 a.m. and 4 p.m. This scheme allows inexperienced watchkeepers to keep watch from 8–12 a.m. and 8–12 p.m. when senior watchkeepers are to be awake and ready to assist in case of trouble. By custom, in a ship with five deck officers the junior third mate takes the 8 to 12 watch, the senior third mate the 12 to 4 watch, the second mate the 4 to 8 wa
Physical security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm. Physical security involves the use of multiple layers of interdependent systems which include CCTV surveillance, security guards, protective barriers, access control protocols, many other techniques. Physical security systems for protected facilities are intended to: deter potential intruders, it is up to security designers and analysts to balance security controls against risks, taking into account the costs of specifying, testing, using, managing and maintaining the controls, along with broader issues such as aesthetics, human rights and safety, societal norms or conventions. Physical access security measures that are appropriate for a high security prison or a military site may be inappropriate in an office, a home or a vehicle, although the principles are similar; the goal of deterrence methods is to convince potential attackers that a successful attack is unlikely due to strong defenses.
The initial layer of security for a campus, office, or other physical space uses crime prevention through environmental design to deter threats. Some of the most common examples are the most basic: warning signs or window stickers, vehicle barriers, vehicle height-restrictors, restricted access points, security lighting and trenches. Physical barriers such as fences and vehicle barriers act as the outermost layer of security, they serve to prevent, or at least delay and act as a psychological deterrent by defining the perimeter of the facility and making intrusions seem more difficult. Tall fencing, topped with barbed wire, razor wire or metal spikes are emplaced on the perimeter of a property with some type of signage that warns people not to attempt to enter. However, in some facilities imposing perimeter walls/fencing will not be possible or it may be aesthetically unacceptable. Barriers are designed to defeat defined threats; this is part of building codes as well as fire codes. Apart from external threats, there are internal threats of fire, smoke migration as well as sabotage.
The National Building Code of Canada, as an example, indicates the need to defeat external explosions with the building envelope, where they are possible, such as where large electrical transformers are located close to a building. High-voltage transformer fire barriers can be examples of walls designed to defeat fire and fragmentation as a result of transformer ruptures, as well as incoming small weapons fire. Buildings may have internal barriers to defeat weapons as well as fire and heat. An example would be a counter at a police station or embassy, where the public may access a room but talk through security glass to employees in behind. If such a barrier aligns with a fire compartment as part of building code compliance multiple threats must be defeated which must be considered in the design. Another major form of deterrence that can be incorporated into the design of facilities is natural surveillance, whereby architects seek to build spaces that are more open and visible to security personnel and authorized users, so that intruders/attackers are unable to perform unauthorized activity without being seen.
An example would be decreasing the amount of dense, tall vegetation in the landscaping so that attackers cannot conceal themselves within it, or placing critical resources in areas where intruders would have to cross over a wide, open space to reach them. Security lighting is another effective form of deterrence. Intruders are less to enter well-lit areas for fear of being seen. Doors and other entrances, in particular, should be well lit to allow close observation of people entering and exiting; when lighting the grounds of a facility distributed low-intensity lighting is superior to small patches of high-intensity lighting, because the latter can have a tendency to create blind spots for security personnel and CCTV cameras. It is important to place lighting in a manner that makes it difficult to tamper with, to ensure that there is a backup power supply so that security lights will not go out if the electricity is cut off. Alarm systems can be installed to alert security personnel. Alarm systems work in tandem with physical barriers, mechanical systems, security guards, serving to trigger a response when these other forms of security have been breached.
They consist of sensors including motion sensors, contact sensors, glass break detectors. However, alarms are only useful. In the reconnaissance phase prior to an actual attack, some intruders will test the response time of security personnel to a deliberately tripped alarm system. By measuring the length of time it takes for a security team to arrive, the attacker can determine if an attack could succeed before authorities arrive to neutralize the threat. Loud audible alarms can act as a psycholo
A boatswain, bo's'n, bos'n, or bosun known as a Petty Officer or a qualified member of the deck department, is the seniormost rate of the deck department and is responsible for the components of a ship's hull. The boatswain supervises the other members of the ship's deck department, is not a watchstander, except on vessels with small crews. Additional duties vary depending upon ship and circumstances; the word boatswain has been in the English language since 1450. It is derived from late Old English batswegen, from bat concatenated with Old Norse sveinn, meaning a young man, apprentice, a follower, retainer or servant. Directly translated to modern Norwegian it would be båtsvenn, while the actual crew title in Norwegian is båtsmann. While the phonetic spelling bosun is reported as having been observed since 1868, this latter spelling was used in Shakespeare's The Tempest written in 1611, as Bos'n in editions; the rank of boatswain is the oldest rank in the Royal Navy, its origins can be traced back to the year 1040.
In that year, when five English ports began furnishing warships to King Edward the Confessor in exchange for certain privileges, they furnished crews whose officers were the master, boatswain and cook. These officers were "warranted" by the British Admiralty, they were the standing officers of the navy. The boatswain was the officer responsible for the care of the rigging, anchors, boats and other stores; the Royal Navy's last official boatswain, Commander E W Andrew OBE, retired in 1990. The rank of cadet boatswain, in some schools, is the second highest rank in the combined cadet force naval section that a cadet can attain, below the rank of coxswain and above the rank of leading hand, it is equivalent to the rank of colour sergeant in the royal marines cadets. The boatswain works in a ship's deck department as the foreman of the unlicensed deck crew. Sometimes, the boatswain is a third or fourth mate. A bosun must be skilled in all matters of marlinespike seamanship required for working on deck of a seagoing vessel.
The bosun is distinguished from other able seamen by the supervisory roles: planning and assigning work. As deck crew foreman, the boatswain assigns tasks to the deck crew; as work is completed, the boatswain checks on completed work for compliance with approved operating procedures. Outside the supervisory role, the boatswain inspects the vessel and performs a variety of routine and semi-skilled duties to maintain all areas of the ship not maintained by the engine department; these duties can include cleaning and maintaining the vessel's hull and deck equipment as well as executing a formal preventive maintenance program. A boatswain's skills may include cargo rigging, winch operations, deck maintenance, working aloft, other duties required during deck operations; the boatswain is well versed in the care and handling of lines, has knowledge of knots, bends and splices as needed to perform tasks such as mooring a vessel. The boatswain operates the ship's windlasses when letting go and heaving up anchors.
Moreover, a boatswain may be called upon to lead firefighting efforts or other emergency procedures encountered on board. Effective boatswains are able to integrate their seafarer skills into supervising and communicating with members of deck crew with diverse backgrounds. On board sailing ships the boatswain was in charge of a ship's anchors, colours, deck crew and the ship's boats; the boatswain would be in charge of the rigging while the ship was in dock. The boatswain's technical tasks were modernised with the advent of steam engines and subsequent mechanisation. A boatswain is responsible for doing routine pipes using what is called a boatswain's call. There are specific sounds which can be made with the pipe to indicate various events, such as emergency situations or notifications of meal time. A common slang name for this instrument was the pippity dippity. A number of boatswains and naval boatswains mates have achieved fame. Reuben James and William Wiley are famous for their heroism in the Barbary Wars and are namesakes of the ships USS Reuben James and USS Wiley.
Medal of Honor recipients Francis P. Hammerberg and George Robert Cholister were U. S. Navy boatswain's mates. Victoria Cross recipients John Sheppard, John Sullivan, Henry Curtis, John Harrison were Royal Navy boatswain's mates. There are a handful of boatswains and boatswain's mates in literature; the boatswain in William Shakespeare's The Tempest is a central character in the opening scene, which takes place aboard a ship at sea, appears again in the final scene. Typhoon by Joseph Conrad has a nameless boatswain who tells Captain MacWhirr of a "lump" of men going overboard during the peak of the storm; the character Bill Bobstay in Gilbert and Sullivan's musical comedy H. M. S. Pinafore is alternatively referred to as a "bos'un" and a "boatswain's mate." Another boatswain from literature is Smee from Peter Pan. Lord Byron had a Newfoundland dog named Boatswain. Byron had a monument made for him at Newstead Abbey. Quartermaster is the highest rank in the BSA, an older youth co-ed programme; the youth can elect a youth leader, giving that youth the title "boatswain".
A Boatswain is in the Netherlands the patrol leader of a Se
Sailing Directions are written directions, describing the routes to be taken by boats and ships during coastal navigation, port approaches. There are products known as Sailing Directions, which are books written by various Hydrographic Offices throughout the world, they are known as Pilot Books, because they provide local knowledge of routes and landmarks, which would be provided by a local marine pilot. As such, they are used by naval and government vessels, who are exempted from'Compulsory Pilotage' in many ports. Many nations publish Sailing Directions for their home waters, where they are the International Hydrographic Organization's primary charting authority. However, the most used Sailing Directions product is the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office's,'Admiralty Sailing directions'; the ASDs, sold under the Admiralty brand, provide the most comprehensive geographic coverage of coastal routes worldwide. They are designed to supplement and enhance the data shown on British Admiralty Nautical Charts, by describing routes for seagoing vessels, relative to coastal features.
Ocean routes are covered by the Admiralty book'Ocean Passages for The World', which describes Offshore routes separately for power driven vessels, low powered / sailing vessels. There is a 42-volume American navigation publication published by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Sailing Directions consists of 37 Enroute volumes, 4 Planning Guide volumes, 1 volume combining both types. Planning Guides describe general features of ocean basins and country-specific information such as firing areas, pilotage requirements, regulations and rescue information, ship reporting systems, time zones; the American Sailing Directions are available for free download, via the NGA MSI Portal Also, via the Office of Coastal Survey's website, as well as other products, including charts. Sailing Directions are updated; these data are obtained from several sources, including pilots and Sailing Directions from other countries. One book comprises the Planning Enroute for Antarctica; this consolidation allows for a more effective presentation of material on this unique area.
Sailing Directions and Sailing Directions are updated. In early 2005, NGA discontinued production of these publications in printed form. Between editions, Sailing Directions are corrected via a binary patch process referred to as Publication Data Update. Figure 1 shows an overview of Sailing Directions coverage. Planning Guide volumes assist the navigator in planning an extensive oceanic voyage, give information on individual countries, applicable to all ports in those countries; each of the Planning Guides covers an area determined by an arbitrary division of the world's seas. Individual Planning Guides are divided into Countries and Ocean Basins, as follows: Pub. 120—51 Countries and 1 Ocean Basin. Pub. 140—87 Countries and 6 Ocean Basins. Pub. 160—61 Countries and 3 Ocean Basins. Pub. 180—5 Countries and 1 Ocean Basin. Country entries may contain information on the following subjects—buoyage systems, firing areas, fishing areas, holidays, industries, mined areas, navigational information, offshore drilling, pollution, prohibited areas, restricted areas and rescue, submarine operating areas, time zone, traffic separation schemes, U.
S. embassy, vessel traffic services. Information that cannot be depicted within the alphabeticized country text may be listed as an appendix at the end of the dountry text. Ocean casin entries may contain information on the following subjects—climatology, fishing areas, geophysical features, ionospheric disturbance, magnetic field, mined areas, navigational information, optical phenomena, pollution, routes, ship reporting systems and surface temperatures; each Enroute volume contains numbered sectors through a strait. Each sector is discussed in turn. A preface with detailed information about authorities and conventions used in each book precedes the sector discussions. A table showing conversions between feet and meters is provided; each volume provides a list of used abbreviations that may be found in the text. The chart information graphics, the first items in each sector, are a graphic key for charts and digital nautical charts pertaining to a sector; the graduation of the border scale of the chartlets enable navigators to identify the largest scale chart for a location and to find a feature listed in the index-gazetteer.
A foreign terms glossary and a comprehensive index-gazetteer follow the sector discussions. The index-gazetteer is an alphabetical listing of described and charted features; the index-gazetteer lists each feature by sector-paragraph number. The text of this article originated from sections 402 to 404 of the American Practical Navigator, a document produced by the government of the United States of America and amended by marine analysts at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. American Practical Navigator Australian Pilot Buoy Coast Pilots Light List List of Lights Local Notice to Mariners Notice to Ma