A third rail known as a live rail, is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. It is used in a mass transit or rapid transit system, which has alignments in its own corridors or fully segregated from the outside environment. Third rail systems are always supplied from direct current electricity; the third-rail system of electrification is not related to the third rail used in dual gauge railways. Third-rail systems are a means of providing electric traction power to trains using an additional rail for the purpose. On most systems, the conductor rail is placed on the sleeper ends outside the running rails, but in some systems a central conductor rail is used; the conductor rail is supported on ceramic insulators or insulated brackets at intervals of around 10 feet. The trains have metal contact blocks called collector shoes which make contact with the conductor rail.
The traction current is returned to the generating station through the running rails. In North America, the conductor rail is made of high conductivity steel or steel bolted to aluminium to increase the conductivity. Elsewhere in the world, extruded aluminum conductors with stainless steel contact surface or cap, is the preferred technology due to its lower electrical resistance, longer life, lighter weight; the running rails are electrically connected using wire bonds or other devices, to minimise resistance in the electric circuit. Contact shoes can be positioned below, above, or beside the third rail, depending on the type of third rail used: these third rails are referred to as bottom-contact, top-contact, or side-contact, respectively; the conductor rails have to be interrupted at level crossings and substation gaps. Tapered rails are provided at the ends of each section, to allow a smooth engagement of the train's contact shoes; the position of contact between the train and the rail varies: some of the earliest systems used top contact, but developments use side or bottom contact, which enabled the conductor rail to be covered, protecting track workers from accidental contact and protecting the conductor rail from frost, ice and leaf-fall.
Because third rail systems present electric shock hazards close to the ground, high voltages are not considered safe. A high current must therefore be used to transfer adequate power, resulting in high resistive losses, requiring closely spaced feed points; the electrified rail threatens electrocution of anyone falling onto the tracks. This can be avoided by using platform screen doors, or the risk can be reduced by placing the conductor rail on the side of the track away from the platform, when allowed by the station layout; the risk can be reduced by having an insulated coverboard to protect the third rail from contact, although many systems do not use one. In some modern systems such as the ground-level power supply, the safety problem is avoided by splitting the power rail into small segments, each of, only powered when covered by a train. There is a risk of pedestrians walking onto the tracks at level crossings. In the US, a 1992 Supreme Court of Illinois decision affirmed a $1.5 million verdict against the Chicago Transit Authority for failing to stop an intoxicated person from walking onto the tracks at a level crossing in an attempt to urinate.
The Paris Metro has graphic warning signs pointing out the danger of electrocution from urinating on third rails, precautions which Chicago did not have. The end ramps of conductor rails present a practical limitation on speed due to the mechanical impact of the shoe, 161 km/h is considered the upper limit of practical third-rail operation; the world speed record for a third rail train is 174 km/h attained on 11 April 1988 by a British Class 442 EMU. In the event of a collision with a foreign object, the beveled end ramps of bottom running systems can facilitate the hazard of having the third rail penetrate the interior of a passenger car; this is believed to have contributed to the death of five passengers in the Valhalla train crash of 2015. Third rail systems using top contact are prone to accumulations of snow, or ice formed from refrozen snow, this can interrupt operations; some systems operate dedicated de-icing trains to deposit an oily fluid or antifreeze on the conductor rail to prevent the frozen build-up.
The third rail can be heated to alleviate the problem of ice. Unlike third rail systems, overhead line equipment can be affected by strong winds or freezing rain bringing the wires down and stopping all trains. Thunderstorms can disable the power with lightning strikes on systems with overhead wires, disabling trains if there is a power surge or a break in the wires; because of the gaps in the conductor rail a train can stop in a position where all of its power pickup shoes are in gaps, so that no traction power is available. The train is said to be "gapped". Another train must be brought up behind the stranded train to push it on to the conductor rail, or a jumper cable may be used to supply enough power to the train to get one of its contact shoes back on the live rail. Avoiding this problem requires a minimum length of trains that can be run on a line. Locomotives have either had the backup of an on-board diesel engine system, or have been connected to shoes on the rolling stock (e.g. Metropolitan Railway
The Sharya Forest Museum Railway is a 750 mm -gauge forest railway based at open-air Sharya Forest Museum located in Sharya, opened in 2014. The Sharya Forest Museum Railway is a 750 mm narrow gauge railroad loop passing through the Sharya Park in Kostroma Oblast; the museum railway was opened in 2014. It has a total length of 2 kilometres and is operational as of 2016; the exhibit consists of locomotives and freight cars, skidders, forestry vehicles and machines. The museum owns many interesting vehicles, which are important for the Russian railway and forestry history including: TU8 – No. 0167 Draisine – TD-5u Passenger car – PV-40T Plane aircraft protection — An-2 Sharya Narrow gauge railways in Russia List of Russian narrow gauge railways rolling stock Photo – project "Steam Engine"
Hyakki Yagyō, variation: Hyakki Yakō, is an idiom in Japanese folklore. Sometimes an orderly procession, other times a riot, it refers to an uncontrolled horde of countless numbers of supernatural creatures known as oni and yōkai; as a terrifying eruption of the supernatural world into our own, it is similar to the concept of pandemonium in English. Over more than one thousand years of history, its role as a popular theme in traditional storytelling and art, a great deal of folklore has developed around the concept, making it difficult if not impossible to isolate any canonical meanings. One legend of recent vintage states that "every year the yōkai Nurarihyon, will lead all of the yōkai through the streets of Japan during summer nights." Anyone who comes across the procession would perish or be spirited away by the yōkai, unless protected by exorcism scrolls handwritten by Onmyōji spell-casters. It is said that only an onmyōji clan head is strong enough to pass Nurarihyon's Hyakki Yagyō unharmed.
According to another account in the Shūgaishō, a medieval Japanese encyclopedia, the only way to be kept safe from the night parade if it were to come by your house is to stay inside on the specific nights associated with the Chinese zodiac or to chant the magic spell: "KA-TA-SHI-HA-YA, E-KA-SE-NI-KU-RI-NI, TA-ME-RU-SA-KE, TE-E-HI, A-SHI-E-HI, WA-RE-SHI-KO-NI-KE-RI". The Hyakki Yagyō has appeared in several tales collected by Japanese folklorists. Uji Shūi Monogatari, in which a monk encounters a group of a hundred yōkai which pass by the Ryūsenji temple. Konjaku Monogatarishū, which tells that during the Jōgan era, the eldest son of minister Fujiwara was on his way to his lover's place when he saw 100 demons walking from the direction of the main street. Since his attire had the sonjoushi written on it, the demons who noticed it ran away. Ōkagami Gōdanshō Kohon Setsuwashū Hōbutsushū The night parade was a popular theme in Japanese visual art. One of the oldest and most famous examples is the 16th-century handscroll Hyakki Yagyō Zu, erroneously attributed to Tosa Mitsunobu, located in the Shinju-an of Daitoku-ji, Kyoto.
For other picture scrolls, the Hyakki Yagyō Emaki, contains the details of each member in the parade from the Muromachi period. Other notable works in this motif include those by Utagawa Yoshiiku. However, Toriyama's work presents yōkai in separate, encyclopedic entries rather than assembled in a parade, while Utagawa's Kokkei Wanisshi-ki employs the theme of 100 demons to comment on contemporary Japanese military actions in China. Nurarihyon no Mago Gazu Hyakki Yagyō Gazu Hyakki Tsurezure Bukuro Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki Konjaku Hyakki Shūi Nightmarchers Unseelie Court Wild Hunt
Warden is a station on the Bloor–Danforth line in Toronto, Canada. It is located at the southeast corner of St. Clair Avenue Warden Avenue; the main pedestrian street entrance is on the east side of Warden, with another entrance from St. Clair along a walkway on the west side of the elevated tracks. Vehicle entry to the passenger pick up and drop off entrance is on the south side of St. Clair, east of Warden, exiting on to Warden south of St. Clair; the station is on four levels: the subway platform is on the upper floor, the bus concourse to the connecting routes is below it, the two collector entrances and the concourse are found above street level, the two entrances and the bus platforms are on the lower floor. 1,071 parking spaces are located at this station for commuter use, with 920 in the North Lot and 151 in the South Lot. Warden station was opened in 1968 in what was the Borough of Scarborough, served as the Bloor-Danforth line's eastern terminus for 12 years until the extension to Kennedy was completed in 1980.
Until 1973, the buses and the subway trains serving the station were in separate fare zones and so the turnstiles and collector booths were placed between the bus bays and the subway platforms. When the zones were abolished, the layout was reconfigured to bring the buses inside the station's fare-paid area; the station's previous address was 3276 St. Clair Avenue East. Since around 2013-14, it has been changed to 701 Warden Avenue. After exiting the station eastbound towards Kennedy Station, the track returns to a tunnel at the Chestnut Portal, where it continues on its diagonal alignment under the former Canadian National Railway spur line. West of the station a small siding and storage shed are on the south side of the above ground tracks, which continue along the track bed of the former CNR line, all the way to Victoria Park Station. Nearby landmarks include the Providence Healthcare, Warden Woods Park, Warden Hilltop Community Centre and Pine Hills Cemetery, it is near much vacant industrial land where major redevelopment is expected over the coming years, including numerous new housing developments on the former Power Centre property.
It is near the Toronto District School Board high school W. A. Porter C. I. which brings about 700 students in the station each year. When the subway is closed, passengers may board or disembark from buses at the intersection of Warden Avenue and St. Clair Avenue. None of these routes are accessible to those with disabilities as the only connection between the subway and the bus terminal is via stairs. TTC routes serving the station include: Media related to Warden Station at Wikimedia Commons Warden station at the Toronto Transit Commission
Viseu is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Pará. It is located at a latitude 01º11'48 "south and a longitude 46º08'24" west, being at an altitude of 15 meters, its estimated population in 2017 was 59,735 inhabitants according to IBGE. It has an area of 4,915,073 km2 and, the population density of 12.09 inhabitants/km2. Most people are Catholic, according to the Brazilian Institute of Statistics; the municipal HDI is 0.515. The lands visuenses were discovered around June 1531 by the navigator Diogo Leite. There is a Vila Nazaré known as the village of km 74, part of Viseu, it is. With two Schools, Medical Office, CRÁS, ADEPARÁ, The beautiful church of St. Benedict, One of the founders of the Village still alive "Sr Alves" Patron of the Alves Family; the first navigator to land in Portugal was Diogo Leite in 1531, commanded by Martim Afonso de Sousa, who entered the bar of the Gurupi and Turiaçu rivers, commanding two vessels named Princess and Rosa, a fact corroborated by the historians Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen and Maurício Martins Meireles.
Diogo Leite gave his name to an open, which until today is the subject of discussions among historians, who have doubts about the location of this open: for some it would be at the mouth of the Gurupi river. The location of the Abra and not the arrival of that navigator at the mouth of the Gurupi River as early as 1531 is discussed, since they are quite plausible in stating that he arrived in the present lands of the municipality of Viseu, of the foundation of the city of Belém and 103 years before the foundation of Sousa do Caeté. Situated in the Gurupi area, it was inhabited by the Tupinambás, Tremembés and Apotiangas Indians. In the 19th century, the Urubus-Kaapor Indians, considered a warlike and violent nation, migrated to the Gurupi, there were numerous conflicts involving these Indians, the region's black quilombos and the whites; the French began to settle in Maranhão around 1594 and remained there until they were expelled and left definitively on November 3, 1615, after being surrounded by troops under the command of Alexandre de Moura.
Before that, in 1613, the Governor General Gaspar de Sousa sent an expedition to the region under the command of Diogo de Campos, who persuaded Jerônimo de Albuquerque to build a fort on the Piriá River in order to establish alliances with the Tremembes Indians. After the victory of the Portuguese in the region, the Kingdom began a real process of occupation of the region to avoid new invasions, it was in this way that through the Royal Charter of February 9, 1622, King Philip III of Spain donated the Captaincy of the Gurupi to Gaspar de Sousa, which ran from the river Caeté to the river Turiaçu, having 20 leagues in the background. According to the archives of the Historical and Geographical Institute of Pará, the Royal Charter of Felipe III of 1622 gave Gaspar de Sousa the legitimate right to choose a place or place of the Captaincy to benefit and make it populate. However, Gaspar de Sousa died without defining the place or place in which he preferred to fix his concession. In 1624, a Paradox of King Felipe III ordered Francisco Coelho de Carvalho to distribute the lands of Maranhão to the settlers and cultivators who wanted them.
The first settlement on the bank of the Gurupi River, named Vera Cruz, was only definitively founded in April 1627, on the orders of Francisco Coelho de Carvalho, was composed of Indians and dwellers who were taken from Pará and Maranhão. In 1758, three parishes were founded in the municipality of Viseu, which remained where today is the city of Viseu, São José do Gurupi and São José do Piriá. In 1655, Father Antônio Vieira founded the Jesuit mission of St. John the Baptist in the Gurupi River, which remained in that village until 1672, when it was transferred to Caeté. Vera Cruz was founded to be a connecting city between St. Louis; because the port of Vera Cruz was shallow, the town was abandoned by the rulers. This fact helped the migration of people from Vera Cruz to Sousa do Caeté. Although its lands were known from 1531 and received the visit of French and Portuguese in 1613, the city of Viseu was only definitively occupied in Century XVIII, having in 1758, was founded a parish. In 1781, the founding of the present city of Viseu was officialized, according to the letter of January 27, 1781, of the Governor of Pará, José de Nápoles Tello de Menezes to the Minister and Secretary of State, Martinho de Melo e Castro: "...
I had the honor of increasing with a new settlement called Viseu on the north bank of the Gurupi river..."
"Quiéreme mucho" is a criolla-bolero composed in 1911 by Gonzalo Roig with lyrics by Ramón Gollury and Agustín Rodríguez. The song was inspired by Roig's wife, Blanca Becerra, premiered in Havana in 1911 without much success. In 1917, it was included in the sainete El servicio militar obligatorio and performed by Becerra and Rafael Llorens to critical acclaim. Roig published and sold the rights to the song in 1921, the first recording was made in the United States by singer Tito Schipa in 1923; the English version, "Yours", was published in 1931 in the United States. It featured lyrics in English written by Jack Sherr. Both versions have been extensively recorded and arranged by different musicians, becoming Latin music standard. "Quiéreme mucho" was composed by Gonzalo Roig at 21 years of age in 1911, before he had finished his music studies. He played it on his piano, without making any further arrangements. Roig had been composing songs for a few years, since 1907, when he wrote "La voz del infortunio" at age 17.
At the time, Roig had begun to work as a pianist at the Monte Carlo cinema in Havana. For "Quiéreme mucho", he combined the structure of a criolla with that of a bolero, this being the first time both genres had been combined in one song; the song has a romantic style. While the music of the song was composed by Roig, the lyrics were written by him and his partner Blanca Becerra. Roig and Becerra had just got married in 1911 and decided to paraphrase verses by a now obscure poet and journalist, Ramón Rivera Gollury. Roig wrote the first three verses: "negra querida. No dudes nunca de mi querer. Él es muy grande, él es inmenso". And Becerra wrote the fourth: "Siempre, mi negro, yo te querré". However, this version was not published, since Roig decided instead to directly quote Gollury's poem, which became the known first stanza of the song: "Quiéreme mucho, dulce amor mío, que siempre amante te adoraré...". The second stanza was written by librettist Agustín Rodríguez, who would write the lyrics to many other songs by Roig.
Gollury did not know about the song until he saw it performed years at the Teatro Martí. The song was premiered by tenor Mariano Menéndez at the Nicolás Ruiz Espadero Hall in the Hubert de Blanck Conservatory of Havana under the title "Serenata cubana" in 1911. At first, the song did not have any success. Years Roig decided to include the song in the sainete El servicio militar obligatorio about World War I, which premiered at the Teatro Martí in 1917. In the play and Rafael Llorens performed the song as a duet, well received by the audience and spurred countless covers and performances, including many recordings made in the United States in the 1920s. In 1921, Roig published the song through the Viuda de Carrera shop with its definitive title, "Quiéreme mucho" and crediting Gollury under his pen name Roger de Lauria. However, he never received royalties for the song, since he sold the rights to Viuda de Carrera for 5 Cuban pesos. Italian tenor Tito Schipa, backed by an orchestra directed by Rosario Bourdon, made the first recording of the song on March 12, 1923, for the Victor Talking Machine Company.
This recording was subtitled "Serenata criolla" and translated as "Love Me Deeply". Of the four takes recorded by Schipa in Camden, New Jersey, only the fourth take survives. Other vocalists to record the original song in the 1920s include Elena Ehlers, José Moriche and Mariano Meléndez, who had first performed it in 1911. Meléndez's version featured Jaime Prats on piano; the success of the Spanish version of the song prompted its translation in the United States, where lyricists Albert Gamse and Jack Sherr published "Yours". This song became popular due to the recordings by the Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra, Vera Lynn, Dick Contino. A German version was published under the title "Du bist mein erster Gedanke" and first recorded by Mieke Telkamp, becoming her first hit in the country; the German version has been recorded by Cliff Richard with The Shadows, Julio Iglesias. The latter recorded the song in Spanish and French The recording by Jimmy Dorsey featured vocals by Bob Eberly and Helen O'Connell and was released by Decca Records as catalog number 3657.
It first reached the Billboard Best Seller chart on May 23, 1941, lasted 13 weeks on the chart, peaking at #2. The recording by Vera Lynn was released by London Records as catalog number 1261, it first reached the Billboard Best Seller chart on October 17, 1952, lasted 8 weeks on the chart, peaking at #8. The recording by Dick Contino, an instrumental, was released by Mercury Records as catalog number 70455, it reached #27 on its only week on the Billboard Best Seller chart on November 24, 1954. The recording by Cliff Richard in German, went to #15 in Germany in 1966; the French recording by Julio Iglesias went to number 1 in France in 1979 achieving double platinum sales. A Spanish-English version by Julio was a hit in England in 1981