Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but from violence and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies; the deadly clashes ravaged Europe. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period of January to May 1945 during World War II. One of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire. A war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers; these states employed large mercenary armies, the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence and a Habsburg attempt to rebuild the imperial authority in Germany.

The war was preceded by the election of the new Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to religious liberty, granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much less tolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant; these events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war; the Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia.

Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union. The southern states Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor; the Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.

The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories; the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic benefited, it subsequently enjoyed a time of great prosperity and development, known as the Dutch Golden Age, during which it became one of the world's foremost economic and naval powers. The Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia; the war altered the political order of European powers. The rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and dominant in the latter part of the 17th century.

The Peace of Augsburg, signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, establishing that: Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion of their realms. Subjects had to follow that emigrate. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. Lutherans co

Philaenus spumarius

Philaenus spumarius, the meadow froghopper or meadow spittlebug, is a species of insect belonging to the spittlebug family Aphrophoridae. In Italy, it is economically important as the vector of Xylella fastidiosa; the genus name Philaenus comes from the Greek philein, while the species name spumarius is from the Latin spuma, referred to the foam nests. Varietas within this species include: Philaenus spumarius var. populellus Philaenus spumarius var. vittatus Philaenus spumarius var. lateralis Philaenus spumarius var. fasciatus Philaenus spumarius var. gibbus These'froghoppers' are quite common and widespread. Their original distribution was restricted to the Palaearctic ecozone, it is present in North Africa, in part of Russia, in Afghanistan and in Japan. It has been introduced in North Canada; the species reaches a body length of 5–7 millimetres. Most females are larger than the males. In these polymorphic'froghoppers' the coloration of the body is variable, they are yellowish, brownish or black, with brighter patches on a dark background, but with dark markings on a lighter background.

The most common modes of locomotion are running and flying, but the most striking is their strong jumping ability, useful for escaping from predators. Philaenus spumarius is a very'eurytopic' species, meaning that these froghoppers can tolerate a wide range of environmental factors and therefore exist in many different habitats, they live in all open land habitats and in open forests. They are absent only in wet and dry habitats; the females lay eggs singly or in groups on the food plants of the larvae. A single female can produce up to 350 to 400 eggs. In unfavorable climatic periods, these froghoppers can survive in the form of eggs; the larvae are well known for the self-generated foam nests, that can be observed in Spring in meadows. Their larvae in the foam nests are protected from predators and get the necessary moisture for the development and temperature, so their mortality remains low in bad weather; the larval stage lasts about 50 days. The adults leave the foam nest only when it is dried.

This takes about ten days. The females mate soon after, they are polyphagous, the host plant specificity is low, so that they can feed on a variety of plants grasses, reed plants and sometimes trees. They have been identified on over 170 host plants. Olive quick decline syndrome

Benjamin S. Edwards

Benjamin S. Edwards was an Illinois lawyer and judge. Benjamin S. Edwards was born on June 3, 1818 in Edwardsville, the son of Ninian Edwards, governor of the Illinois Territory 1809-1818 and Governor of Illinois 1826-1830. Edwards was educated at Yale University, graduating in 1838, he spent a year reading law with Stephen T. Logan, before being admitted to the bar of Illinois in March 1840. Edwards practiced law for three years, in 1843, set up a law partnership with John T. Stuart that would last forty years, his law practice would bring him into regular contact with Abraham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, Edward Dickinson Baker, Jesse B. Thomas, other prominent Illinois lawyers. Edwards gained a reputation as an excellent attorney. Edwards was active in the Whig Party. In 1862, he served as a delegate from Sangamon County to the Illinois constitutional convention that produced the so-called "Copperhead Constitution", defeated by the voters. Edwards was one of many Whigs who supported Stephen A. Douglas over Abraham Lincoln as U.

S. Senator from Illinois, believing that Douglas was more to save the Union. Edwards spent 1869-70 as a judge on Illinois' Thirtieth Judicial Circuit. In 1885, the year before his death, he was elected to serve as president of the Illinois State Bar Association. Edwards was married to daughter of Henry Dodge. Edwards' home in Springfield, where he lived from 1843 until his death, was an Illinois social center, at various points Edwards entertained Ulysses S. Grant, Stephen A. Douglas, Lyman Trumbull, John Hay, Sidney Breese, other well-known Illinois political figures. In the pre-Civil War period, Edwards hosted annual "legislative parties" that were attended by all members of the Illinois General Assembly. Edwards' home was left to his daughter, who deeded it to the Springfield Art Association in 1913. Profile from Benjamin S. Edwards Place Edwards Place Edwards Place website