SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Kazuhito Tanaka

Kazuhito Tanaka is a Japanese gymnast, Olympic silver and 3-time World medalist. Younger siblings, sister Rie Tanaka and brother Yusuke Tanaka, are both professional gymnasts. Tanaka's first major international competition was the 2009 World Championships, where he qualified 10th to the individual all-around with a score of 86.650. In the final, he placed fourth with a tenth of a point behind third place, he won the bronze medal in the parallel bars final, scoring 15.500. Tanaka competed for the Japanese team which won the silver medal in the team-all around competition at the 2010 World Championships, contributing scores of 14.166 on still rings, 15.483 on parallel bars, 14.433 on high bar. His team matched this feat the next year at the 2011 World Championships, where he contributed scores of 15.500 on parallel bars and 15.141 on high bar. He qualified seventh to the parallel bars final, placed eight with a score of 15.166. At the 2012 Olympic Games, he competed on all six apparatuses during qualification, where he qualified in twenty-second place to the individual all-around final with a total score of 86.841, was named as the third reserve for the rings final with a score of 15.100, qualified second to the parallel bars final with a score of 15.725.141 behind his brother Yusuke.

During the team final 2012 Olympics, he contributed scores of 13.733 on floor, 13.433 on pommel horse, 15.366 on parallel bars, 15.166 on high bar towards the Japanese team's second-place finish. In the individual all-around, Tanaka was in the silver medal position going into the final rotation, when a mistake on the pommel horse dropped him to sixth, his overall score was 89.407, a major improvement from his performance in qualification, just over a point away from medalling. In the parallel bars final, he once again just missed out on a medal, placing fourth with a score of 15.500

HMA No. 1

His Majesty's Airship No. 1 was designed and built by Vickers and Maxim at their works in Barrow-in-Furness, England, as an aerial scout airship for the Royal Navy. It was the first British rigid airship to be built, was constructed in a direct attempt to compete with the German airship programme. Referred to as "Mayfly", a nickname given to it by the lower deck, in public records it is designated ‘HMA Hermione’ because the naval contingent at Barrow were attached to HMS Hermione, a cruiser moored locally preparing to act as its tender; when it was moved from its shed in Cavendish Dock to conduct full trials on 24 September 1911, it broke in two as a result of being subject to strong winds before it could attempt its first flight. Although Mayfly never flew, its brief career provided valuable training and experimental data for British airship crews and designers. In July 1908, Captain Reginald Bacon, the Royal Navy's Director of Naval Ordnance, recommended that the Navy should acquire an airship that would compete with the success of the early German rigid airships designed by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.

The British Government agreed that a sum of £35,000 "should be allocated to the Admiralty for the building of a dirigible balloon", in March 1909 the armament firm of Vickers and Maxim advised that they could construct the ship for £28,000, not including the goldbeater's skin gas bags and outer cover, for which the Admiralty was required to provide contractors, that they would erect a constructional shed at their own expense in return for a 10-year monopoly on airship construction, similar to the submarine agreement they had with the Crown. The contract was awarded to Vickers on 7 May 1909, with design responsibility divided between Lieutenant N. F. Usborne at the Admiralty and C. G. Robertson of Vickers. Mayfly was intended to be an aerial scout, was similar in design to contemporary Zeppelins, but with some major differences. At 512 ft length and 46 ft in diameter, it was 66 ft longer than the contemporary LZ 6 and had a 50% larger volume, giving a correspondingly greater lift. Zeppelins of the time were capable of flying at 37 mph.

The Vickers design, designated HMA No. 1, was intended to be moorable on water, carry wireless equipment, be capable of 40 kn for 24 hours, have a ceiling of 1,500 ft, carry a crew of 20 in comfort. The mooring was to be to a mast, a practice that the British were the first to adopt as standard, Mayfly was the first rigid airship to be fitted with the mooring equipment in the nose of the ship. Before construction began an experimental section was constructed; this used a variety of construction techniques: one end used hollow timber spars, the centre frame used a combination of timber and aluminium, while the other end used aluminium only. Although wood proved the most satisfactory, the Admiralty preferred metal. In late 1909 duralumin became available, it was decided to use this new alloy, which would allow a considerable weight saving while forming a stronger structure; the hull was made up of 40 twelve-sided transverse frames spaced 12.5 ft apart: some of which were cross-braced by wires, dividing the structure into 17 bays of irregular length, varying from 12.5 ft to 37.5 ft.

The frames were connected by 12 longitudinal girders and a triangular section keel below the main structure. The hull shape was based on work by the American aerodynamicist Albert Zahm, its head resistance was claimed to be 40% of that of contemporary Zeppelins. A streamlined shape had been proposed, but was rejected by the Admiralty as being too difficult to construct, it was not until 1917/18 that a streamlined airship, the R80, was constructed. Experiments were carried out to determine the most suitable material for the outer cover, resulting in the choice of a treated silk; the covering of the upper half was additionally treated to reduce heat absorption by adding aluminium powder to the coating. This resulted in the top aluminium coloured; the design of the control surfaces, based on a design by Short Brothers and adopted after experiments by the National Physical Laboratory, consisted of quadruple rudders and triple elevators attached to the trailing edges of the cruciform tail surfaces, supplemented by forward mounted triplane elevators and small triple rudders behind the aft gondola.

The two gondolas were constructed of mahogany using the Consuta process to make them watertight so that the craft could be operated off water. Each contained a Wolseley 160 hp water-cooled V-8 piston engine, that in the front gondola drove a pair of 11 ft 10 in diameter four-bladed propellers mounted on outriggers and geared to rotate at half engine speed; the rear engine drove. Equipment to recover water from the exhaust gases was fitted to replace the weight of fuel as it was consumed and so avoid the necessity to vent lifting gas; the construction shed which doubled as a hangar, was designed by Vickers and built from the wall of Cavendish Dock at their "Naval Construction Yard" in Barrow, out to piles driven into the basin floor. It contained a float on which construction of the airship took place and which could be taken out of the shed together with the airship. Beginning in 1909, the work was due to be completed in August that year and the ship delivered two months but in June trouble occurred with driving the piles into the floor of the dock.

Cons