The saxophone is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. Although most saxophones are made from brass, they are categorized as woodwind instruments, because sound is produced by an oscillating reed, traditionally made out of woody cane, rather than lips vibrating in a mouthpiece cup as with the brass instrument family; as with the other woodwinds, the pitch of the note being played is controlled by covering holes in the body tube to control the resonant frequency of the air column by changing the effective length of the tube. The saxophone is used in classical music, military bands, marching bands and contemporary music; the saxophone is used as a solo and melody instrument or as a member of a horn section in some styles of rock and roll and popular music. Saxophone players are called saxophonists. Since the first saxophone was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in the early 1840s, saxophones have been produced in a variety of series distinguished by transpositions within instrument sets and tuning standard.
Sax patented the saxophone on June 1846, in two groups of seven instruments each. Each series consisted in alternating transposition; the series pitched in B♭ and E♭ soon became dominant and most saxophones encountered today are from this series. Instruments from the series pitched in C and F never gained a foothold and constituted only a small percentage of instruments made by Sax. High Pitch saxophones tuned sharper than the A = 440 Hz standard were produced into the early twentieth century for sonic qualities suited for outdoor uses, but are not playable to modern tuning and are considered obsolete. Low Pitch saxophones are equivalent in tuning to modern instruments. C soprano and C melody saxophones were produced for the casual market as parlor instruments during the early twentieth century. Saxophones in F never gained acceptance; the modern saxophone family consists of instruments in the B♭ - E♭ series and experimental instruments notwithstanding. The saxophones with widest use and availability are the sopranos, altos and baritones.
In the keyed ranges of the various saxophones, the pitch is controlled by keys with shallow cups in which are fastened leather pads that seal toneholes, controlling the resonant length, thereby frequency, of the air column within the body tube. Small holes called vents, located between the toneholes and the mouthpiece, are opened by an octave key to raise the pitch by eliminating the fundamental frequency, leaving the first harmonic as the frequency defining the pitch. Most modern saxophones are keyed to produce a low B♭ with all keys closed; the highest keyed note has traditionally been F two and a half octaves above low B♭, while the keyed range is extended to F♯ on most recent performance-class instruments. A high G key is most common on modern soprano saxophones. Notes above F are considered part of the altissimo register of any saxophone, can be produced using advanced embouchure techniques and fingering combinations. Keywork facilitating altissimo playing is a feature of modern saxophones.
Modern saxophone players have extended the range to over four octaves on alto. Music for most saxophones is notated using treble clef; because all saxophones use the same key arrangement and fingering to produce a given notated pitch, it is not difficult for a competent player to switch among the various sizes when the music has been suitably transposed, many do so. Since the baritone and alto are pitched in E♭, players can read concert pitch music notated in the bass clef by reading it as if it were treble clef and adding three sharps to the key signature; this process, referred to as clef substitution, makes it possible for the Eb instruments to play from parts written for baritone horn, euphonium, string bass, trombone, or tuba. This can be useful if a orchestra lacks one of those instruments; the straight soprano and sopranino saxophones consist of a straight conical tube with a flared bell at the end opposite the mouthpiece. The interior of the tube is called the bore. Alto and larger saxophones include a detachable curved neck above the highest tone hole, directing the mouthpiece to the player's mouth and, with rare exceptions, a U-shaped bow that directs the bell upward and a curve in the throat of the bell directing it forward.
The set of curves near the bell has become a distinctive feature of the saxophone family, to the extent that soprano and sopranino saxes are sometimes made in the curved style. The baritone and contrabass saxophones accommodate the length of the bore with extra bows and right-angle bends between the main body and the mouthpiece; the left hand operates keys from the upper part of the body tube while the right hand operates keys from the lower part. The right thumb sits under a thumb hook and left thumb is placed on a thumb rest to stabilize and balance the saxophone, while the weight of most saxophones is supported by a neckstrap attached to a strap ring on the rear of the body of the instrument; the left thumb operates the octave key. With soprano and smaller saxophones weight tends to be borne by the right thumb while a neckstrap provides security for the instrument. Keys consist of the cups, and
Gary Barnacle is an English saxophonist, brass instrument arranger and producer noted for session work, live work incl. Various Princes Trust Concerts at Wembley Arena, the Royal Albert Hall and the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham, plus the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute at Wembley Stadium in 1988, television/video appearances, during the 1980s and 1990s, with a large number of popular music acts, including The Clash, The Ruts, Level 42, Paul Hardcastle, Kim Wilde, Holly Johnson, Derek B, Soul II Soul, Jimmy Ray, Tina Turner, General Public, Soft Cell, Elvis Costello, Del Amitri, Shed Seven, T'Pau, Roger Daltrey, David Bowie, The Big Dish, The Cross, Pet Shop Boys, Stock Aitken Waterman and Paul McCartney, among others, he was in an electropop duo called Leisure Process from 1982–83, with ex-Positive Noise singer, Ross Middleton. Gary Barnacle was born in Dover, England in 1959, he started playing in bands in and around the Dover area, with his father Bill Barnacle, his brothers Steve Barnacle and Pete Barnacle and their friend Topper Headon.
He moved, with his two brothers, to London in 1976 and began a career as a session musician. Barnacle performed the saxophone part in many albums by The Clash. Early examples are "City of the Dead", B-side of "Complete Control", "1-2 Crush On You", the B-side of "Tommy Gun" released as a single on 24 November 1978, their version of Booker T. & the M. G.'s' classic "Time Is Tight", released on the 1980 extended play Black Market Clash. Both songs can be heard on the 1993 compilation album, Super Black Market Clash, he played on their albums Sandinista! Released on 12 December 1980 as a triple album, the single This Is Radio Clash released on 20 November 1981 and Combat Rock released on 14 May 1982 through Epic Records, he was introduced to The Clash through their drummer, school friend of Barnacle's, Topper Headon, became involved in The Clash's infamous 1978 "pigeon shooting" incident. Barnacle formed a horn section in 1978 with trumpeter Luke Tunney, called the Hit And Run Horns. In 1979 they added Annie Whitehead on trombone.
These three played on many sessions together for the next 3 years or so. Barnacle collaborated with The Ruts on their first two albums, both on Virgin label, The Crack, released in September 1979, Grin & Bear It, released in October 1980. After the death of their frontman, Malcolm Owen, found dead from a heroin overdose on 14 July 1980 at the age of 26, the band continued as Ruts D. C. in a different musical vein. Barnacle became a stable member of the band and they released two other albums, Animal Now in May 1981 on Virgin, Rhythm Collision released in July 1982 on Bohemian Records. Ruts D. C. split in 1983. During 1979–1980 he contributed to M's debut album, New York • London • Paris • Munich, released in 1979, to Sanity Stomp, released by Kevin Coyne in 1980. In 1981, contributed to the debut albums by Positive Noise - Heart of Darkness, Stray Cats and In Trance as Mission by Simple Minds plus "Power and the Passion" by Midnight Oil and performed saxophone on Rick Wakeman's 1984, a solo concept album based on the classic novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell.
That year he played saxophone on the Black Snake Diamond Röle debut solo album by former Soft Boys frontman Robyn Hitchcock. But, one of Barnacle's longest associations has been with Level 42, with whom he has played on several albums, including the band's 1981 debut, the 1984 True Colours, the 1985 World Machine, the 1987 Running in the Family. From 1990 to 1994 Barnacle toured with Level 42 and recorded two of the band's albums and Forever Now; the horn section he formed with British trumpet and fluegelhorn player, John Thirkell, for Level 42 is known as The Hen Pecked Horns. Since Barnacle and Thirkell provided the horn section to many recordings, along with trombonist Peter Thoms, they formed The Phantom Horns, one of the UK's most respected horn sections that appears on a number of recordings from 1987 on, they recorded a acclaimed brass-sample CD Phantom Horns, re-issued by Zero-G as a double CD-rom in 2011. Impressive, more comprehensive, was Brit Horns brass-sample CD featuring Gary Barnacle, Peter Thoms and Stuart Brooks, re-issued as a double audio/WAV CD by AMG in 2010.
Both of these sample CDs have, continue to be used on commercial recordings worldwide. In 1982, he and ex-Positive Noise singer, Ross Middleton, formed an electropop duo called Leisure Process; the Band released four singles on Epic label, two in 1982, "Love Cascade" and "A Way You'll Never Be", which featured Mark King and Phil Gould of Level 42, two in 1983, "Cashflow" and "Anxiety". All four singles were produced by Martin Rushent. In 1982, Barnacle collaborated on Julien Clerc's Femmes, Indiscrétion, Blasphème, Mike Rutherford's Acting Very Strange, Marius Müller-Westernhagen's Das Herz eines Boxers, with Visage on their second album. Two years in 1984, with his brother Steve in the band, when Billy Currie and Dave Formula departed the band and Andy Barnett replaced them for what would become Visage's Beat Boy album, released in September 1984 and produced two singles, "Love Glove" and "Beat Boy". A decision to make Visage a live band instead of a studio-based project failed and the band subsequently split in 1985.
In 1983, he contributed to Catch as Catch Can by pop singer, Kim Wilde, and
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Mick Jones (The Clash guitarist)
Michael Geoffrey Jones is a British musician and songwriter best known as the lead guitarist, co-lead vocalist, co-founder and songwriter for The Clash until 1983. In 1984, he formed Big Audio Dynamite with Don Letts. Jones has played with the group Carbon/Silicon along with Tony James since 2002 and has toured the world as part of the Gorillaz live band. In late 2011, Jones collaborated with Pete Wylie and members of the Farm to form the Justice Tonight Band. Michael Geoffrey Jones was born on 26 June 1955 in Wandsworth, England, to a Welsh father, Tommy Jones, a Russian Jewish mother, Renee Zegansky, he spent much of his early life living with Stella Class, in South London. Jones' cousin is the Conservative MP for Welwyn Hatfield. Jones went to Strand School in South London and art school, because " thought that's how you get into bands and stuff", but before The Dolls, I used to follow bands around. I followed Mott the Hoople down the country. I'd go to Liverpool or Newcastle or somewhere—sleep on the Town Hall steps, bunk the fares on the trains, hide in the toilet when the ticket inspector came around.
I'd climb over the fence. It was great times, I always knew I wanted to be in a band and play guitar; that was it for me. He started gaining recognition as a guitarist in the early 1970s with his glam rock band, The Delinquents. A short time he met Tony James and formed the protopunk London SS. By 1976, that band had broken up and remaining members Jones, Paul Simonon and Keith Levene were seeking a new direction; when he was 21, he and Paul Simonon were introduced to Joe Strummer by Bernie Rhodes in a squat in Shepherd's Bush. The band rehearsed in a former railway warehouse in Camden Town and The Clash was formed. Jones played lead guitar, co-wrote songs from the band's inception until he was fired by Strummer and Simonon in 1983. One of the songs he wrote, "Train in Vain," was about Jones' relationship with Viv Albertine, guitarist of The Slits. Jones' lack of punctuality played a major role in his dismissal from the band. Jones agreed to give a rare interview about the disintegration of The Clash and the reasons behind his dismissal from'his own band' in Danny Garcia's 2012 documentary film and book The Rise and Fall of the Clash.
For his time with The Clash, along with the rest of the band, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2003. While promoting the band's 2013 box set, Sound System, which Jones says will be the final time he works on Clash music, he discussed the band reuniting prior to Strummer's death. There were a few moments at the time I was up for it, Joe was up for it. Paul wasn't, and neither was Topper Headon, who didn't wind up coming in the end. It didn't look. I mean, you play at that ceremony when you get in. Joe had passed by that point, so we didn't. We were never in agreement, it was never at a point. Most for us, we became friends again after the group broke up, continued that way for the rest of the time; that was more important to us than the band. In an October 2013 interview with BBC 6Music, Jones confirmed that Strummer did have intentions of a Clash reunion and in fact new music was being written for a possible album. In the months prior to Strummer's death and Strummer began working on new music for what he thought would be the next Mescaleros album.
Jones said "We wrote a batch – we didn't use to write one, we used to write a batch at a time – like gumbo. The idea was he was going to go into the studio with the Mescaleros during the day and send them all home. I'd come in all night and we'd all work all night." Jones said. Jones was curious as to what would become of the songs he and Strummer were working on and Strummer informed him that they were going to be used for the next Clash album. After his expulsion from The Clash, Jones was a founding member of General Public. Though he is listed in the credits of the band's 1984 début album All the Rage as a member, Jones left General Public part way through the recording process and was replaced by Kevin White. White's picture appears on the back cover. Jones did play guitar on many of the album's tracks, including the North American top 40 single "Tenderness". Leaving General Public behind, in 1984 Jones formed Big Audio Dynamite with film director Don Letts, who had directed various Clash videos and the Clash documentary Westway to the World.
The band's début album This Is Big Audio Dynamite was released the following year, with the song "E=MC²" getting heavy rotation in dance clubs, both singles "Medicine Show" and "E=MC2" charting in the UK. For Big Audio Dynamite's second album, No. 10, Upping St. Jones reunited with Strummer. Together, the two wrote several songs on the album, including "Beyond the Pale", "V. Thirteen", "Sightsee M. C!". Their reunion did not last long, following that collaboration, the two did not work together again for some time. Big Audio Dynamite's third album, Tighten Up, Vol. 88, featured album cover art painted by the ex-Clash bassist, Paul Simonon. Shortly following its release, Jones developed chickenpox and pneumonia, spent several months in hospital. After his recovery, Jones released one more album with Big Audio Dynamite, Megatop Phoenix, before reshuffling the line-up, renaming the band Big Audio Dynamite II and releasing The Globe album; the BAD II lineup had an international #1 hit with their song "Rush", topping the Billboar
Nicholas Bowen "Topper" Headon, known as "Topper" because of his resemblance to Mickey the Monkey from the Topper comic, is an English drummer, best known as the drummer of the punk rock band The Clash. He joined The Clash in 1977 and his drumming skills were a vital part of the band, he was dismissed from the band in 1982 because of his drug use. Topper Headon spent his early childhood in Crockenhill, northwest Kent, before attending Dover Grammar School for Boys, he started playing drums at an early age and was a jazz fan, citing Billy Cobham as a strong influence. In 1973, Headon joined the cult progressive rock outfit Mirkwood, he appeared with them for a year and a half and they supported major acts such as Supertramp. He played with a band which opened for American R&B legends the Temptations and admits to falsely claiming that he played with the Temptations. Headon joined the Clash in 1977 with the intention of establishing a reputation as a drummer, before moving on to other projects, but he soon realised their full potential and remained with them for four and half years.
Headon appeared on the albums Give'Em Enough Rope, The Clash, London Calling, Sandinista! and Combat Rock, as well as several landmark singles the Clash recorded during their early period. Of note are his lead vocal on "Ivan Meets G. I. Joe" from Sandinista and his work on the hit single "Rock the Casbah" from Combat Rock, on which Headon composed most of the music and played drums and bass guitar, he appeared on Super Black Market Clash, which included B-sides from the band's single releases. Clash singer/guitarist Joe Strummer is quoted as saying that Headon's drumming skills were a vital part of the band. Tensions rose between Headon and his fellow band members due to his addiction, he left the band on 10 May 1982, at the beginning of the Combat Rock tour; the band covered up the real reason for Headon's departure, the apparent growing use of heroin, claiming Headon's exit was due to exhaustion. In a interview for the rockumentary The Clash: Westway to the World, he apologized for his addiction and speculated that had he not been asked to leave the Clash, the band might have lasted longer and might still be together.
He lamented the fact that the best known Clash line-up had been considering a reunion at the time of Strummer's death, after the positive reunion during the Westway to the World rockumentary. After leaving the Clash, he was considered as drummer in Mick Jones' post-Clash band Big Audio Dynamite and played in a short-lived group called Samurai, with bassist Pete Farndon, guitarist Henry Padovani, organist Mick Gallagher, vocalist Steve Allen. Headon subsequently focused on recording a solo album Waking Up, which featured Mick Gallagher, Bobby Tench and Jimmy Helms, he released a cover version of the Gene Krupa instrumental "Drumming Man" as a single, which featured Headon's "DuKane Road" on the B-side. His own composition "Hope for Donna" was included on the Mercury Records sampler Beat Runs Wild, in the same year. During the 1980s Headon produced albums for New York band Bush Tetras. In 1989 He contributed drums to the punk rock band Chelsea's Underwraps. After a live show in 2002, he was informed of the death of Clash frontman Joe Strummer.
An emotional Headon stated: It's taken Joe's death to make me realise just how big the Clash were. We were a political band and Joe was the one who wrote the lyrics. Joe was one of the truest guys you could meet. If he said'I am behind you' you knew he meant it 100 percent. Headon was extensively interviewed for the Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten documentary film about the late Clash frontman, released in 2007. In this documentary Headon related his experiences during this period, how he became addicted to heroin and how there were problems before his dismissal. Topper stated that seeing the video of "Rock the Casbah" with "someone else in my place playing my song" caused him to fall in greater depression and heavier drug addiction. On 11 January 2008 he performed with Carbon/Silicon at the Carbon Casino Club in Portobello London, being included with the line-up of Mick Jones, Tony James, Leo Williams and Dominic Greensmith. Headon joined the band on stage during the Clash's "Train in Vain".
An encore followed with Headon playing drums on "Should I Stay or Should I Go". This performance marked the first time since 1982 that Headon and Jones had performed together on stage. In a February 2008 newspaper article Headon revealed that in 2003 he started to experience serious back pain, a frequent complaint of ageing rock drummers. Diagnosed with hyperkyphosis, a forward curvature of the back, he underwent intense posture adjustment treatment and continues to exercise daily, he notes. At some point in the 1980s, Headon contracted hepatitis C, along with his alcohol intake, led to severe liver problems. Headon underwent interferon treatment for his hepatitis in 2007 and became a spokesman for the Hepatitis C Trust; the BBC featured Headon in a February 2009 feature on drumming as therapy. He shares some of his story in a brief video interview. In 2012 Headon was interviewed by fellow drummer Spike Webb, sharing stories from his years drumming for The Clash and his experience writing'Rock The Casbah'.
In 2016, actor Alex Gold portrayed Headon in the 2016 film London Town which tells the story of a Clash-obsessed teenager who crosses paths with Joe Strummer by happenstance in 1979 and finds his life changing as a result. The film was met with negative reviews, he lives in the Dover area of Kent, in the southeast o
The Singles (2007 The Clash album)
A new version of The Clash's previous singles compilation The Singles or Singles Box, this compilation presents a stripped down view of the singles of The Clash's career, not including any of the B-sides incorporated into the release of the earlier collection and compiled onto a single disc. "London Calling" "Rock the Casbah" "Should I Stay or Should I Go" "I Fought the Law" " In Hammersmith Palais" "The Magnificent Seven" "Bankrobber" "The Call Up" "Complete Control" "White Riot" "Remote Control" "Tommy Gun" "Clash City Rockers" "English Civil War" "Hitsville U. K." "Know Your Rights" "This Is England" "This Is Radio Clash" "Train in Vain" "Groovy Times"
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o