Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, music and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have been called musicals. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America; these were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century.
The Princess Theatre musicals and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat and Oklahoma!. Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed include West Side Story, The Fantasticks, Hair, A Chorus Line, Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, The Producers and Hamilton. Musicals are performed around the world, they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia and Latin America.
Since the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals, able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter. The three main components of a book musical are its music and book; the book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto. The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence set to music combining song with spoken dialogue." The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties and sound.
The creative team and interpretations change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the original production. There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are presented in two acts, with one short intermission, the first act is longer than the second; the first act introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Les Misérables and Hamilton.
Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades. Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing. In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character and their situation within the story; as The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be." Many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the plot; the ma
A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program or video game. These screenplays can be original adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated. A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay; the format is structured so that one page equates to one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ballpark estimate and bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 10 pitch Courier Typeface; the major components are dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects; the dialogue is the words the characters speak, is written in a center column. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines. A slug line called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene and contains three pieces of information: whether the scene is set inside or outside, the specific location, the time of day.
Each slug line begins a new scene. In a "shooting script" the slug lines are numbered consecutively for ease of reference. American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size, they are held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to read the script. In the United Kingdom, double-hole-punched A4 paper is used, taller and narrower than US letter size; some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper. Because each country's standard paper size is difficult to obtain in the other country, British writers send an electronic copy to American producers, or crop the A4 size to US letter. A British script may be bound by a single brad at the top left hand side of the page, making flicking through the paper easier during script meetings.
Screenplays are bound with a light card stock cover and back page showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script, covers are there to protect the script during handling which can reduce the strength of the paper. This is important if the script is to pass through the hands of several people or through the post. Reading copies of screenplays are distributed printed on both sides of the paper to reduce paper waste, they are reduced to half-size to make a small book, convenient to read or put in a pocket. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Screenplays and teleplays use a set of standardizations, beginning with proper formatting; these rules are in part to serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies, to serve as a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known as the studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, transitions, character names and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as font size and line spacing.
One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of one page per minute. This rule of thumb is contested — a page of dialogue occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood. There is no single standard for studio format; some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. The Nicholl Fellowship, a screenwriting competition run under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has a guide to screenplay format. A more detailed reference is The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats. A "spec script" or speculative screenplay is a script written to be sold on the open market with no upfront payment, or promise of payment; the content is invented by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can be based on established works, or real people and events.
For American TV shows, the format rules for hour-long dramas and single-camera sitcoms are the same as for motion pictures. The main difference is. Multi-camera sitcoms use a specialized format that derives from stage plays and radio. In this format, dialogue is double-spaced, action lines are capitalized, scene headings, character entrances and exits, sound effects are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs, many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format; that is, the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to di
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Claude Binyon was a screenwriter and director. His genres were comedy and romances; as a Chicago-based journalist for the Examiner newspaper, he became city editor of the show business trade magazine Variety in the late 1920s. According to Robert Landry, who worked at Variety for 50 years including as managing editor, Binyon came up with the famous 1929 stock market crash headline, "Wall Street Lays An Egg." He switched from writing about movies for Variety to screenwriting for the Paramount Studio with 1932's If I Had A Million. Throughout the 1930s, Binyon's screenplays were directed by Wesley Ruggles, including the "classic" True Confession. Fourteen feature films by Ruggles had screenplays by Binyon. Claude Binyon was the scriptwriter for the second series of the Bing Crosby Entertains radio show. In 1948, Binyon made his directorial bow with The Saxon Charm, for which he wrote the screenplay, he went on to write and direct the low-key comedy noir Stella, Mother Didn't Tell Me, Aaron Slick of Pun'kin Crick, the Clifton Webb farce Dreamboat.
He directed, but didn't write, Family Honeymoon as well as Bob Hope's sole venture into 3-D, Here Come the Girls. After his death on February 14, 1978, he was buried at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. Cross My Heart Mother Didn't Tell Me Mowis, I. S. "Mini Bio". Internet Movie Database. Details Binyon's career as a journalist and director. Swindell, Larry. Screwball: The Life of Carole Lombard. Morrow. ISBN 9780688002879. Describes the relationship of Carole Lombard and Binyon. See "From headline writer to headlined writer".. Claude Binyon on IMDb
Bert Lawrence Glennon was an American cinematographer and film director. He directed the first film released by RKO Radio Pictures. Glennon was born in Anaconda, Montana in 1893 and attended Stanford University, where he graduated in 1912. Before gaining fame in Hollywood, Glennon served as a pursuit pilot instructor during World War I, he began his work in film in 1912 as a stage manager for theater entrepreneur Oliver Morosco and c. 1913 worked for Keystone and Famous Players was laboratory superintendent for Clune Film Corporation, for four years. In 1915 he did his first film as cinematographer The Stingaree and in 1928 he directed his first film The Perfect Crime, he was nominated for three Academy Awards in Best Cinematography for the films Stagecoach, Drums Along the Mohawk, Dive Bomber. Glennon worked as a cinematographer on over 100 films for directors that included John Ford, André De Toth, Josef Von Sternberg, Raoul Walsh, Cecil B. DeMille, his son James Glennon was an Academy Award-nominated cinematographer.
Gang War The Air Legion Syncopation Girl of the Port Around the Corner Paradise Island In Line of Duty Second Wife The Patchwork Girl of Oz Gallagher, John A.. "Glennon, Bert". In Cook, Samantha. International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers. 4. Writers and Production Artists. St James Press. ISBN 9781558620407. Short essay on Glennon. Bert Glennon on IMDb
Jack L. Warner
Jack Leonard "J. L." Warner, born Jacob Warner, was a Canadian-American film executive, the president and driving force behind the Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California. Warner's career spanned some 45 years, its duration surpassing that of any other of the seminal Hollywood studio moguls; as co-head of production at Warner Bros. Studios, he worked with his brother, Sam Warner, to procure the technology for the film industry's first talking picture. After Sam's death, Jack clashed with his surviving older brothers and Albert Warner, he assumed exclusive control of the film production company in the 1950s, when he secretly purchased his brothers' shares in the business after convincing them to participate in a joint sale of stocks. Although Warner was feared by many of his employees and inspired ridicule with his uneven attempts at humor, he earned respect for his shrewd instincts and tough-mindedness, he recruited many of Warner Bros.' Top promoted the hard-edged social dramas for which the studio became known.
Given to decisiveness, Warner once commented, "If I'm right fifty-one percent of the time, I'm ahead of the game."Throughout his career, he was viewed as a contradictory and enigmatic figure. Although he was a staunch Republican, Warner encouraged film projects that promoted the agenda of Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, he opposed European fascism and criticized Nazi Germany well before America's involvement in World War II. An opponent of Communism, after the war Warner appeared as a friendly witness before the House Un-American Activities Committee, voluntarily naming screenwriters, fired as suspected Communists or sympathizers. Despite his controversial public image, Warner remained a force in the motion picture industry until his retirement in the early 1970s. Jack Warner was born in London, Ontario, in 1892, his parents were Jewish immigrants from Poland who spoke Yiddish. Jack was the fifth surviving son of Benjamin Warner a cobbler from Krasnosielc and his wife, the former Pearl Leah Eichelbaum.
Following their marriage in 1876, the couple had three children in Poland, one of whom died at a young age. One of the surviving children was Hirsch; the Warner family had occupied a "hostile world", where the "night-riding of cossacks, the burning of houses, the raping of women were part of life's burden for the Jews of the'shtetl'". In 1888, in search of a better future for his family and himself, Benjamin made his way to Hamburg and took a ship to America; the Warner surname was originally "Wonsal" or "Wonskolaser" Upon arriving in New York City, Benjamin introduced himself as "Benjamin Warner", the surname "Warner" remained with him for the rest of his life. Pearl Warner and the couple's two children joined him in Baltimore, less than a year later. In Baltimore, the couple had five more children, including Sam Warner. Benjamin Warner's decision to move to Canada in the early 1890s was inspired by a friend's advice that he could make an excellent living bartering tin wares with trappers in exchange for furs.
Their sons Jack and David were born in Ontario. After two arduous years in Canada and Pearl Warner returned to Baltimore, bringing along their growing family. Two more children and Milton, were added to the household there. In 1896, the family relocated to Youngstown, following the lead of Harry Warner, who established a shoe repair shop in the heart of the emerging industrial town. Benjamin worked with his son Harry in the shoe repair shop until he secured a loan to open a meat counter and grocery store in the city's downtown area. Jack spent much of his youth in Youngstown, he observed in his autobiography. Warner wrote: "J. Edgar Hoover told me that Youngstown in those days was one of the toughest cities in America, a gathering place for Sicilian thugs active in the Mafia. There was a murder or two every Saturday night in our neighborhood, knives and brass knuckles were standard equipment for the young hotheads on the prowl." Warner claimed that he belonged to a street gang based at Westlake's Crossing, a notorious neighborhood located just west of the city's downtown area.
Meanwhile, he received his first taste of show business in the burgeoning steel town, singing at local theaters and forming a brief business partnership with another aspiring "song-and-dance man". During his brief career in vaudeville, he changed his name to Jack Leonard Warner. Jack's older brother Sam disapproved of these youthful pursuits. "Get out front where they pay the actors," Sam Warner advised Jack. "That's where the money is." In Youngstown, the Warner brothers took their first tentative steps into the entertainment industry. In the early 20th century, Sam Warner formed a business partnership with another local resident and "took over" the city's Old Grand Opera House, which he used as a venue for "cheap vaudeville and photoplays"; the venture failed after one summer. Sam Warner secured a job as a projectionist at Idora Park, a local amusement park, he convinced the family of the new medium's possibilities and negotiated the purchase of a Model B Kinetoscope from a projectionist, "down on his luck".
The purchase price was $1,000, Jack Warner contributed $150 to the venture by pawning a horse, according to his obituary. The enterprising brothers screened a well-used copy of The Great Train Robbery throughout Ohio and Pennsylvania before renting a vacant store in New Castle, Pennsylvania; this makeshift theatre, called the Bijou, was furnished with chai
Alan Hale Sr.
Alan Hale Sr. was an American movie actor and director, most remembered for his many supporting character roles, in particular as a frequent sidekick of Errol Flynn, as well as films supporting Lon Chaney, Wallace Beery, Douglas Fairbanks, James Cagney, Clark Gable, Cary Grant, Humphrey Bogart, Ronald Reagan, among dozens of others. Hale was born Rufus Edward Mackahan in Washington, D. C, he studied to be an opera singer and had success as an inventor. Among his innovations were a sliding theater chair, the hand fire extinguisher, greaseless potato chips, his first film role was in the 1911 silent movie the Lady. He played "Little John" in the 1922 film Robin Hood, with Douglas Fairbanks and Wallace Beery, reprised the role 16 years in the 1938 The Adventures of Robin Hood with Errol Flynn and Basil Rathbone played him yet again in Rogues of Sherwood Forest in 1950 with John Derek as Robin Hood's son, an unprecedented 28-year span of portrayals of the same character in theatrical films. Hale played Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, in The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex, featuring in a pivotal confrontation with the Earl of Essex, portrayed by Flynn.
His other films include the 1922 epic The Trap with 1928's Skyscraper. He co-starred with Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland in the successful western film Dodge City where he played the dimwitted but likeable and comical Rusty Hart, sidekick to Flynn's character, Sheriff Wade Hatton. Hale co-starred with Errol Flynn in 13 movies. Hale acted in 235 theatrical films. Hale's wife of over 30 years was Gretchen Hartman, a former child actress, silent film player, mother of their three children, he was the father of actor Alan Hale Jr. best known as "the Skipper" on television's Gilligan's Island. Father and son resembled one another, leading to occasional confusion after Hale Sr.'s death when Hale Jr. dropped the Jr. from his name. In what may have been, in the second instance, stunt casting, Hale Sr. and Hale Jr. both played the same character, Porthos the musketeer, in movies 40 years apart. Alan Hale Sr. played the character in the 1939 film Man in the Iron Mask, while Alan Hale Jr. played him in The Fifth Musketeer in 1979.
Alan Hale Sr. died in Hollywood, California, on January 22, 1950, following a liver ailment and viral infection. He is interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, next to his wife. Biography portal Alan Hale Sr. on IMDb Alan Hale Sr. at the Internet Broadway Database Alan Hale Sr. at Find a Grave