Once in a Lifetime: The Best of Talking Heads
Once in a Lifetime: The Best of Talking Heads is a compilation album by Talking Heads. A single disc version of Sand in the Vaseline: Popular Favorites, it was released outside of the US and UK in place of that album. All songs written by David Byrne, Chris Frantz, Jerry Harrison, Tina Weymouth except as noted: "Psycho Killer" "Take Me to the River" "Once in a Lifetime" "Burning Down the House" "This Must Be the Place" "Slippery People" "Life During Wartime" "And She Was" "Road to Nowhere" "Wild Wild Life" "Blind" " Flowers" "Sax and Violins" "Lifetime Piling Up"
Crazy, Stupid, Love
Crazy, Love. is a 2011 American romantic comedy film directed by Glenn Ficarra and John Requa, written by Dan Fogelman, starring Steve Carell, Ryan Gosling, Julianne Moore, Emma Stone, Marisa Tomei, Kevin Bacon. It follows a divorced man who seeks to rediscover his manhood and is taught how to pick up women at bars; the film was released in the United States by Warner Bros. Pictures on July 29, 2011, grossing over $142 million against its $50 million budget. Gosling was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for his performance. Cal Weaver is a middle-aged man, told by his wife Emily that she has cheated on him with a co-worker, David Lindhagen, wants a divorce. After moving into his own apartment, son Robbie and daughter Molly staying at the house with Emily, Cal goes to a bar night after night, talking loudly about his divorce, until he attracts the attention of a young man named Jacob Palmer, a womanizer who beds different women each night, although a young woman named Hannah has rejected his advances.
Jacob offers to teach him how to pick up women. Using Jacob's teachings, Cal seduces a woman named Kate at the bar. After the encounter, Cal manages to seduce other women at the bar, he sees Emily again at their 13-year-old son Robbie's parent-teacher conference. The interaction goes well until they discover that Robbie's teacher is Kate, who reveals to Emily that she and Cal have had sex together. Cal confesses to having sex with nine women since their separation. Emily leaves in disgust and begins dating David. Meanwhile, Hannah, a recent law school graduate, is expecting her boyfriend Richard to propose marriage while they celebrate her passing the bar exam, but he does not, offering her a position at his law firm. Offended and hurt, Hannah returns to the bar where she rejected Jacob's advances and kisses Jacob passionately. At the same time, Robbie makes numerous grand gestures to try to win the heart of his 17-year-old babysitter, Jessica Riley, who has a crush on Cal. On the advice of her classmate Madison, she takes nude photos with raunchy expressions of herself to send to Cal and tucks them away in an envelope inside her dresser drawer.
Emily calls Cal under the guise of needing help with the house's pilot light, but Cal sees through the ruse since he is secretly gardening at the old house in the night and sees that Emily did not need any help. Realizing that she called just because she too was missing him, Cal decides to win her back. Meanwhile, Jacob returns Cal's calls and asks for advice about being in a real relationship and meeting his girlfriend's parents. Jessica's mother, friends with Emily, who dislikes Cal, discovers Jessica's naked photos in the dresser drawer and shows them to Jessica's father, Bernie. Bernie was Cal's best friend before Claire made him end their friendship in the aftermath of the breakup. Bernie rushes to the Weaver residence to confront him with Jessica in pursuit. Cal and his kids create a makeshift mini golf set in their backyard to remind Emily of their first date. During the gathering and Hannah show up at the house, Hannah is revealed to be Cal and Emily's first daughter born to them right out of high school.
Cal is appalled that Jacob is dating his daughter, forbids her from seeing him. At that moment, Bernie attacks Cal. Jessica tells her father that Cal knew nothing of the pictures. David arrives on the scene to return Emily's sweater from a previous date. Jacob asks David if his name is Lindhagen and when David replies "yes," Jacob punches him in the face for the pain he caused Cal. Cal, Jacob and Bernie get into a scuffle, soon broken up by the police. Cal starts spending time at the bar again and receives a visit from Jacob, who confesses that he is in love with Hannah and has begun to re-evaluate his life as a result. Cal replies that he is happy that Jacob is a changed man but does not approve of Jacob and Hannah's relationship, having seen Jacob's former lifestyle. Jacob resigns without harboring any ill feelings. At Robbie's eighth grade graduation, Robbie is the salutatorian and gives a pessimistic speech about how he no longer believes in true love and soulmates. Cal stops him and instead begins to recount his courtship with Emily to the audience, saying that, while he does not know if things will work out, he will never give up on Emily.
With renewed faith, Robbie reaffirms his love for Jessica, to the audience's applause. After the ceremony, Cal gives Hannah his blessing. Jessica gives Robbie an envelope containing the nude photos of herself that were intended for Cal to "get him through high school." Cal and Emily have a laugh talking about the events that have transpired the past year, hinting that they might get back together. The film was called Untitled Marital Crisis Comedy, as the actress Emma Stone claimed in an interview for ANS. Dan Fogelman started writing the screenplay in 2009 about love among a group of people, it was written with Steve Carell in mind. After Fogelman sent it to his manager, within a week Carell came aboard the project. In December 2009, Warner Bros. secured the rights of the then-untitled project for $2.5 million. In January 2010, the film was in pre-production. On March 16, 2010, Emma Stone was in negotiations to star in the film. On April 7, 2010, Analeigh Tipton was in final talks to appear in the film.
On April 12, Kevin Bacon joined the cast. It is the first project produced by Carell's Carousel Productions. Principal photography took place in and aro
This Must Be the Place (film)
This Must Be the Place is a 2011 European drama film directed by Paolo Sorrentino, written by Sorrentino and Umberto Contarello and released in the United States in late 2012. It stars Frances McDormand; the film deals with a middle-aged wealthy rock star who becomes bored in his retirement and takes on the quest of finding his father's tormentor, a Nazi war criminal, a refugee in the United States. The film was an Italian-majority production with co-producers in Ireland. Principal photography began in August, 2010. Filming took place in Ireland and Italy, as well as the states of Michigan, New Mexico, New York; the film was in competition at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. Cheyenne is a wealthy former rock star, now bored and jaded in his 20-year retirement in Dublin, he retired. He travels to New York to reconcile with his estranged father during his final hours, only to arrive too late; the reason he gives for not communicating with his father for 30 years was that his father rejected him when he put on goth make-up at the age of 15.
He reads his father's diary and learns about his father's persecution in Auschwitz at the hands of former SS officer Alois Lange. He visits a professional Nazi hunter named Mordecai Midler. Cheyenne begins a journey across the United States to track down Lange. Cheyenne finds Lange's granddaughter and a businessman, he buys a large gun. At the gun shop, a bystander delivers a soliloquy about a certain type of pistol that allows people to "kill with impunity," and given that ability, "if we’re licensed to be monsters we end up having just one desire – to be monsters." When Cheyenne tracks Lange down with the aid of Mordecai, now blind, says that he received hate mail from Cheyenne's father for decades. Lange recounts the incident that led to Cheyenne's father's obsession with Lange, in which Cheyenne's father peed his pants from fear. Lange describes this as a "minor incident" in comparison to the true horrors of Auschwitz, but mentions that he came to admire the man's single-minded determination to dedicate his life to making his own miserable.
Cheyenne takes a photo of Lange and whispers that it was an injustice for his father to die before Lange did. Cheyenne forces the old blind man to walk out into the salt flats naked, like a Holocaust victim. Cheyenne and Mordecai drive away soon afterwards. Cheyenne travels home via airplane, cuts his rockstar hair and stops wearing his goth make-up, jewelry and outfits. Sean Penn as Cheyenne Frances McDormand as Jane Judd Hirsch as Mordecai Midler Eve Hewson as Mary Kerry Condon as Rachel Grant Goodman as Tommy Harry Dean Stanton as Robert Plath Joyce Van Patten as Dorothy Shore David Byrne as himself Máirín O'Donovan as Woman in Bank Olwen Fouéré as Mary’s mother Shea Whigham as Ernie Ray Liron Levo as Richard Heinz Lieven as Alois Lange Simon Delaney as Jeffrey Kristine Graverson as Shopper Er Li Deng as Tai Chi master Fritz Weaver as the voice of Cheyenne's deceased father Paolo Sorrentino said Sean Penn told him he wanted to work with him after seeing Sorrentino's film Il Divo at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival, where Penn headed the jury.
With Penn in mind, Sorrentino wrote the screenplay for This Must Be the Place with Umberto Contarello. Sorrentino had for a long time been fascinated by Nazi war criminals who had managed to keep their former crimes secret, went on to live ordinary lives. To add an element of irony to a story about such a person, Sorrentino came up with Penn's character: "a slow, rock star, bored enough and closed in his self-referential world to the point of being the last person who would embark on a crazy search for a Nazi criminal dead by now, across the United States." Sorrentino was attracted to this juxtaposition as it would add a great risk of failure, which he considers vital for the prospect of a story to be good. In selecting the name of the rock star and his band, Sorrentino thought of what he considered the most inspired names in rock star history and the Banshees, changed it into "Cheyenne and the Fellows"; the look of the character was inspired by Robert Smith of The Cure. Sorrentino had seen The Cure perform several times in his youth, when he saw them again in 2008, he was fascinated by the fact that Smith off the stage, still wore the same kind of attire as in the past: "Here was a fifty-year-old who still identified with a look which, by definition, is that of an adolescent.
But there was nothing pathetic about it. There was just this one thing that, in the movies and in life, creates an incredible feeling of wonder: the extraordinary, a unique and thrilling exception." As soon as the screenplay was finished, Sorrentino sent it to Penn. This Must Be the Place; the film had a production budget of US$28 million. Production was led by Lucky Red and Medusa Film. Italian bank Intesa Sanpaolo invested €2.5 million in the film, while Eurimages provided €600,000 in funding. The film received funding from France and Ireland. Principal photography began on 16 August 2010 in Ireland. In September, production moved to Michigan where filming took place in Bad Axe, Ubly and Sterling Heights. Filming in New Mexico began in October and took place in Bingham, Carrizozo, Eagle Nest, Red River and Questa. In late October, filming took place in New York City. Post-production took place in Rome. Original music for the film was written by David Byrne of Talking Heads
Adelle Lutz is an American artist and actress, most known for work using unconventional materials and strategies to explore clothing as a communicative medium. She first gained attention for the surreal "Urban Camouflage" costumes featured in David Byrne's film True Stories, she has designed costumes for film director Susan Seidelman, theater directors Robert Wilson and JoAnne Akalaitis, musicians including Byrne and Michael Stipe. In the 1990s, she began to shift from costume to sculpture, installation art, performance. Lutz's art and design have been exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Fashion Institute of Technology, the Victoria and Albert Museum and Barbican Art Centre, the Montreal Museum of Decorative Arts, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, among many venues. In 2002, the Judith Clark Costume Gallery in London presented a career survey, her work has been featured in The New York Times, Harper's Magazine, Village Voice, Vanity Fair and Paper, in books on fashion and public art, including Fashion and Surrealism, Designed for Delight, Twenty Years of Style: The World According to Paper, Because Dreaming is Best Done in Public: Creative Time in Public Spaces.
Her work Ponytail Boot is part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art collection. Lutz was born in Lakewood, Ohio in 1948, her parents were Walter Lutz, an American businessman in international trade, Mona Miwako Furuki, a native of Japan who studied couture. Their collection of over 1,000 Asian bamboo works and objects is part of the Denver Art Museum's collection and was exhibited in the museum's Walter + Mona Lutz Gallery, which Adelle co-designed; as a teenager, Lutz moved with her family to Tokyo, where she attended International Christian University, with her sister, jewelry designer Tina Chow, modeled for the cosmetics company Shiseido, among other firms, between 1967–1972. Lutz was working with theater director Robert Wilson, when she met David Byrne in 1982, she and Byrne married in 1987, their daughter, Malu Abeni Valentine Lutz Byrne, was born in 1989. Lutz has lived in Los Angeles since 2008. Writers and critics have sometimes struggled with Lutz's creative identity, situating her, in Met curator Harold Koda's words, "in a netherworld of fashion and art."
Carlo McCormick summed up Lutz's eclectic, collaborative output as "uncannily eccentric work" that "has danced along the periphery of fashion, performance art and film for decades" before shifting to individual art in the late 1990s. Writers note her affinities to the unexpected juxtapositions and deadpan humor of Dada and Surrealism, a Pop-like appreciation of everyday, consumerist objects and culture, a consistent engagement with concepts and materials related to the body and dress. In the catalogue to her 2002 retrospective, Koda concluded, "despite her apparent whimsy and good humor, like the Dadaists, Lutz is if subtly, subversive." Lutz has created costuming for film, theater, as artwork. Between 1983–6, she designed costumes for the Talking Heads videos "Burning Down the House," "This Must Be the Place," "Road to Nowhere," and "Love For Sale," before attracting widespread attention for the "Urban Camouflage” clothing featured in the fashion show segment of David Byrne's True Stories.
The surreal garments mimicked conventional low-brow materials and explored the idea of camouflage as a metaphor for conformity to manicured, middle-class suburban life. Curator Judith Clark described them as "dead-pan jokes" that viewers get without being disturbed by the their "strangeness". Subsequent to the film, the costumes were featured in an Annie Leibovitz photo shoot in Vanity Fair and shows at FIT, the Museum of Contemporary Design and Applied Arts and Imperial War Museum, London. In the decade that followed, Lutz worked on diverse projects, she designed a contemporary wardrobe for Jesus for a tongue-in-cheek, 1987 Harper's Magazine feature that commissioned professionals in various fields to create components for a fictional, second-coming of Jesus of Nazareth "American Tour." Her Christmas 1992 window design for Barneys displaying unconventionally dressed reindeer women were twice written up in The New York Times. In 1997, Lutz created Muscle Suit for David Byrne's "Feelings" concert tour, a costume whose entire surface displayed an anatomical illustration of human musculature.
She produced concert costumes for Michael Stipe for the R. E. M. "Green" tour. Lutz has created costume designs for experimental theater directors, she worked on the The Knee Plays segment of Robert Wilson's opera, the CIVIL warS, JoAnne Akalaitis’s productions of Leon Lena and Dream Play, David Gordon's The Firebugs and Punch and Judy Get Divorced. Her film costuming credits include Checking Out and the Paul Auster-directed films Lulu on the Bridge and The Inner L
A jam session is a informal musical event, process, or activity where musicians instrumentalists, play improvised solos and vamp on tunes and chord progressions. To "jam" is to improvise music without extensive preparation or predefined arrangements, except for when the group is playing well-known jazz standards or covers of existing popular songs. Original jam sessions, also'free flow sessions', are used by musicians to develop new material and find suitable arrangements. Both styles can be used as a social gathering and communal practice session. Jam sessions may be based upon existing songs or forms, may be loosely based on an agreed chord progression or chart suggested by one participant, or may be wholly improvisational. Jam sessions can range from loose gatherings of amateurs to evenings where a jam session coordinator or host acts as a "gatekeeper" to ensure that only appropriate-level performers take the stage, to sophisticated improvised recording sessions by professionals which are intended to be broadcast live on radio or TV or edited and released to the public.
One source for the phrase "jam session" came about in the 1920s when white and black musicians would congregate after their regular paying gigs, to play the jazz they could not play in the "Paul Whiteman" style bands they played in. When Bing Crosby would attend these sessions, the musicians would say he was "jammin' the beat", since he would clap on the one and the three, thus these sessions became known as "jam sessions". Mezz Mezzrow gives this more detailed and self-referential description, based on his experience at the jazz speakeasy known as the Three Deuces: I think the term'jam session' originated right in that cellar. Long before that, of course, the colored boys used to get together and play for kicks, but those were private sessions for professional musicians, the idea was to try to cut each other, each one trying to outdo the others and prove himself best; those impromptu concerts of theirs were known as'cuttin' contests.' Our idea…was to play together, to make the improvisation collective… Down in that basement concert hall, somebody was always yelling over to me,'Hey Jelly, what you gonna do?'—they gave me that nickname, or sometimes called me Roll, because I always wanted to play Clarence Williams" Jelly Roll'—and every time I'd cap them with,'Jelly's gonna jam some now,' just as a kind of play on words.
We always used the word'session' a lot, I think the expression'jam session' grew up out of this playful yelling back and forth. The New York scene during World War II was famous for its after-hours jam sessions. One of the most famous was the regular after-hours jam at Minton's Playhouse in New York City that ran in the 1940s and early 1950s; the jam sessions at Minton's were a fertile meeting place and proving ground for both established soloists like Ben Webster and Lester Young, the younger jazz musicians who would soon become leading exponents of the bebop movement, including Thelonious Monk, saxophone player Charlie Parker, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. The Minton's jams had competitive "cutting contests", in which soloists would try to keep up with the house band and outdo each other in improvisational skill. Influenced by jazz, Cuban music saw the emergence of improvised jam sessions during the filin movement of the 1940s, where boleros and other song types were performed in an extended form called descarga.
During the 1950s these descargas became the basis of a new genre of improvised jams based on the son montuno with notable jazz influences pioneered by the likes of Julio Gutiérrez and Cachao. During the 1960s, descargas played an important role in the development of salsa the salsa dura style; as the instrumental proficiency of pop and rock musicians improved in the 1960s and early 1970s, onstage jamming—free improvisation—also became a regular feature of rock music. However, they can be shorter on the recorded version. Though the Grateful Dead are credited as being the first jam band, Cream incorporated long improvisations into their songs as early as 1967. However, the Grateful Dead allowed the "jam band" to become a genre unto itself. Umphreys Mcgee, Widespread Panic, all of which feature extended improvisational sessions. Other bands, such as the Red Hot Chili Peppers regularly perform live jam sessions. Progressive rock band Coheed and Cambria end shows with a jam session to their song "The Final Cut" with different instruments.
Bluegrass music features a tradition of jamming. Bluegrass jams happen in the parking lots and campgrounds of bluegrass festivals, in music stores and restaurants and on stages. Bluegrass jams tend to be segregated by the skill level of the players. Slow jams for beginners provide an entry point. Open bluegrass jams are open to all comers, but the players in an open jam will expect a certain level of proficiency from participants; the abilities to hear chord progressions and keep time are essential, the ability to play improvised leads that contain at least a suggestion of the melody is desirable. Jams that require advanced musical proficiency are private events, by invitation only. Jamming Free improvisation Free jazz Freestyle rap Scat singing Session musician and Irish traditional music session Collaborative website for jam session Finding Bluegrass (and acousti
Stop Making Sense
Stop Making Sense is a 1984 American concert film featuring a live performance by Talking Heads. Directed by Jonathan Demme, it was shot over the course of four nights at Hollywood's Pantages Theater in December 1983, as the group was touring to promote their new album Speaking in Tongues; the film is the first made using digital audio techniques. The band raised the budget of $1.2 million themselves. The film has been hailed by Leonard Maltin as "one of the greatest rock movies made", "the finest concert film" according to Robert Christgau, while Pauline Kael of The New Yorker described it as "close to perfection". Lead singer David Byrne walks on to a bare stage with a portable cassette tape player and an acoustic guitar, he introduces "Psycho Killer" by saying he wants to play a tape, but in reality a Roland TR-808 drum machine starts playing from the mixing board. The gunshot-like beats cause Byrne to stagger "like Jean-Paul Belmondo in the final minutes of'Breathless,' a hero succumbing, surprised, to violence that he'd thought he was prepared for."With each successive song, Byrne is joined by more members of the band: first by Tina Weymouth for "Heaven", second by Chris Frantz for "Thank You for Sending Me an Angel", third by Jerry Harrison for "Found a Job".
Performance equipment is wheeled out and added to the set to accommodate the additional musicians: back-up singers Lynn Mabry and Ednah Holt, keyboardist Bernie Worrell, percussionist Steve Scales, guitarist Alex Weir. The first song to feature the entire lineup is "Burning Down the House", although the original 1985 RCA/Columbia Home Video release has the entire band performing "Cities" before this song. Byrne leaves the stage at one point to allow the Weymouth–Frantz-led side-band the Tom Tom Club to perform their song "Genius of Love"; the band performs two songs from Byrne's soundtrack album The Catherine Wheel, "What a Day That Was" and "Big Business." The film includes Byrne's "big suit", an absurdly large business suit that he wears for the song "Girlfriend Is Better". The suit was inspired by Noh theatre styles, became an icon not only of the film – as it appears on the movie poster, for instance – but of Byrne himself. Byrne said: "I was in Japan in between tours and I was checking out traditional Japanese theater – Kabuki, Bunraku – and I was wondering what to wear on our upcoming tour.
A fashion designer friend said in his droll manner,'Well David, everything is bigger on stage.' He was referring to gestures and all that, but I applied the idea to a businessman's suit." Pauline Kael stated in her review: "When he comes on wearing a boxlike'big suit' – his body lost inside this form that sticks out around him like the costumes in Noh plays, or like Beuys' large suit of felt that hangs off a wall – it's a perfect psychological fit." On the DVD he gives his reasoning behind the suit: "I wanted my head to appear smaller and the easiest way to do, to make my body bigger, because music is physical and the body understands it before the head." The following are in order of appearance. David Byrne - lead vocals, guitar Tina Weymouth - bass, keyboard bass, lead vocals in Tom Tom Club Chris Frantz - drums, vocals in Tom Tom Club Jerry Harrison - guitar, backing vocals Steve Scales - percussion, backing vocals Lynn Mabry - backing vocals Ednah Holt - backing vocals Alex Weir - guitar, backing vocals Bernie Worrell - keyboards The filming of Stop Making Sense spanned four live shows at the Pantages Theater in Los Angeles.
It pioneered the use of 24-track digital sound recording which resulted in a clear soundtrack. Demme has stated that one night of shooting was dedicated entirely to wide shots from a distance, to minimize the intrusion of cameras on stage. Demme had considered additional shooting on a soundstage made to recreate the Pantages Theater, but the band declined to do this, as they thought the lack of audience response would have hindered the energy of their performance. All songs in the film are written by David Byrne, Chris Frantz, Jerry Harrison, Tina Weymouth, except where noted: "Psycho Killer" "Heaven" "Thank You for Sending Me an Angel" "Found a Job" "Slippery People" "Burning Down the House" "Life During Wartime" "Making Flippy Floppy" "Swamp" "What a Day That Was" "This Must Be the Place" "Once in a Lifetime" "Genius of Love" "Girlfriend Is Better" "Take Me to the River" "Crosseyed and Painless" Extra songs available on the DVD and Blu Ray and on the original VHS and LaserDisc: "Cities" "Big Business" /"I Zimbra" The film premiered during the San Francisco International Film Festival on April 24, 1984 and entered commercial release in the United States on October 18, 1984.
The movie version of "Once in a Lifetime" was released as a single and appeared on the opening credits to the 1986 film Down and Out in Beverly Hills. In Europe, "Slippery People" became a big single, appearing on a single-disc greatest hits album released in 1991. Radio stations will play the film's version of "Life During Wartime"; when the film was first released on home video, the songs "I Zimbra", "Big Business", "Cities" were restored to the performance, thus forming what was dubbed as the "special edition" of the
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45