Oliver Ames Jr.
Oliver Ames Jr. was president of Union Pacific Railroad when the railroad met the Central Pacific Railroad in Utah for the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in North America. Born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, he was a son of Oliver Ames Sr. and Susannah Ames, a brother of Oakes Ames. Young Oliver attended public schools for a few years Franklin Academy in North Andover, he entered the law field, but left to help in the family shovel business. By 1844, Oliver and his brother Oakes Ames entered into partnership with their father, operating under the company name of Oliver Ames & Sons, it was a good time to be in the shovel business, as the nation was experiencing a dramatic expansion of canals and other major infrastructure, all of which were built by men swinging shovels. Oliver Ames Jr. served as president of Union Pacific Railroad while the railroad was busy building the First Transcontinental Railroad in North America. He was its president pro tem from 1866 until 1868, was formally elected president of the company on March 12, 1868.
He continued as president until March 8, 1871. His tenure was marked by controversy since his 1866 ascent to the presidency was over Thomas C. Durant who had tried to gain the position for himself. Durant filed lawsuits against Ames that stopped construction, Ames retaliated by garnering support to remove Durant from the railroad's executive committee. A divided board of directors was beyond Ames' management capabilities, he acquiesced to readmitting Durant in 1867, Crédit Mobilier awarded Ames a new construction contract. In 1873, Ames succeeded his brother as the head of Crédit Mobilier. Oliver Ames Jr. served in the Massachusetts State Senate in 1852 and 1857. He was a Whig and a Republican. Starting around 1826, Oliver became involved in the temperance movement. Ames married Sarah Lothrop on June 11, 1833. Sarah was daughter of Howard Lothrop of Massachusetts, they had two children: Helen Angier. Like the rest of his family, Oliver Jr. was a devoted Unitarian, attended Unitarian churches in Easton and North Easton.
In 1875, Ames hired his nephew, John Ames Mitchell, to design the Unity Church of North Easton, at a cost of $100,000, on his death he left a bequest to keep the church in repair. Ames died at North Easton on March 9, 1877, he left $50,000 in his will for the construction of a library. The will stipulated that it was to be a private institution, not owned by the town, but operated in trust for the public; the request was carried out by Frederick Lothrop Ames and Helen Angier Ames. They hired Henry Hobson Richardson to design the Ames Free Library; the final cost of the building came to at least $80,000. Medallions in the library honor Ames with his likeness; the contributions of Ames and his brother Oakes in the building of the Union Pacific are commemorated in the Oliver and Oakes Ames Monument at Sherman Summit, near Laramie, along the original route. The pyramidal monument was designed by famous architect Henry Hobson Richardson with sculpted plaques of the Ames brothers by Augustus Saint-Gaudens.
At the time of its construction, the monument was located at the highest point attained by the Union Pacific's transcontinental route. With a change in the route of the railroad, the monument today is not on any major transportation route. Ames Shovel Shop List of railroad executives North Easton Historic District Oliver Ames Ames Free Library Beers. Representative men and old families of southeastern Massachusetts. J. H. Beers & Co. Retrieved 23 February 2016. Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl. H. H. Richardson: Complete Architectural Works. MIT Press. White, J. T.. The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. United States: J. T. White Company. Retrieved 21 February 2016
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a 1,912-mile continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U. S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay. The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive US land grants. Construction was financed by both state and US government subsidy bonds as well as by company issued mortgage bonds; the Western Pacific Railroad Company built 132 mi of track from Oakland/Alameda to Sacramento, California. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California constructed 690 mi eastward from Sacramento to Promontory Summit, Utah Territory; the Union Pacific built 1,085 mi from the road's eastern terminus at Council Bluffs near Omaha, Nebraska westward to Promontory Summit. The railroad opened for through traffic on May 10, 1869 when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold "Last Spike" with a silver hammer at Promontory Summit.
The coast-to-coast railroad connection revolutionized the settlement and economy of the American West. It brought the western states and territories into alignment with the northern Union states and made transporting passengers and goods coast-to-coast quicker and less expensive. Paddle steamers linked Sacramento to the cities and their harbor facilities in the San Francisco Bay until 1869, when the CPRR completed and opened the Western Pacific grade to Alameda and Oakland; the first transcontinental rail passengers arrived at the Pacific Railroad's original western terminus at the Alameda Mole on September 6, 1869 where they transferred to the steamer Alameda for transport across the Bay to San Francisco. The road's rail terminus was moved two months to the Oakland Long Wharf about a mile to the north. Service between San Francisco and Oakland Pier continued to be provided by ferry; the CPRR purchased 53 miles of UPRR-built grade from Promontory Summit to Ogden, Utah Territory, which became the interchange point between trains of the two roads.
The transcontinental line was popularly known as the Overland Route after the principal passenger rail service that operated over the length of the line until 1962. Building a railroad line that connected the United States coast-to-coast was advocated in 1832 when Dr. Hartwell Carver published an article in the New York Courier & Enquirer advocating building a transcontinental railroad from Lake Michigan to Oregon. In 1847 he submitted to the U. S. Congress a "Proposal for a Charter to Build a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean", seeking a congressional charter to support his idea. Congress agreed to support the idea. Under the direction of the Department of War, the Pacific Railroad Surveys were conducted from 1853 through 1855; these included an extensive series of expeditions of the American West seeking possible routes. A report on the explorations described alternative routes and included an immense amount of information about the American West, covering at least 400,000 sq mi.
It included the region's natural history and illustrations of reptiles, amphibians and mammals. The report failed however to include detailed topographic maps of potential routes needed to estimate the feasibility and select the best route; the survey was detailed enough to determine that the best southern route lay south of the Gila River boundary with Mexico in vacant desert, through the future territories of Arizona and New Mexico. This in part motivated the United States to complete the Gadsden Purchase. In 1856 the Select Committee on the Pacific Railroad and Telegraph of the US House of Representatives published a report recommending support for a proposed Pacific railroad bill: The necessity that now exists for constructing lines of railroad and telegraphic communication between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of this continent is no longer a question for argument. In order to maintain our present position on the Pacific, we must have some more speedy and direct means of intercourse than is at present afforded by the route through the possessions of a foreign power.
The U. S. Congress was divided on where the eastern terminus of the railroad should be—in a southern or northern city. Three routes were considered: A northern route along the Missouri River through present-day northern Montana to Oregon Territory; this was considered impractical due to extensive winter snows. A central route following the Platte River in Nebraska through to the South Pass in Wyoming, following most of the Oregon Trail. Snow on this route remained a concern. A southern route across Texas, New Mexico Territory, the Sonora desert, connecting to Los Angeles, California. Surveyors found during an 1848 survey that the best route lay south of the border between the United States and Mexico; this was resolved by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. Once the central route was chosen, it was obvious that the western terminus should be Sacramento, but there was considerable difference of opinion about the eastern terminus. Three locations along 250 miles of Missouri River were considered: St. Joseph, accessed via the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad.
Kansas City, Kansas / Leavenworth, Kansas accessed via the Leavenworth and Western Railroad, controlled by Thomas Ewing Jr. and by John C. Fremont. Council Bluffs, Iowa / Omaha, accessed via an extension of Union Pacific financier Thomas C. Durant's proposed Mississippi and
The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding; the early half of the Gilded Age coincided with the middle portion of the Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France. Its beginning in the years after the American Civil War overlaps the Reconstruction Era, it was followed in the 1890s by the Progressive Era. The Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth in the North and West; as American wages were much higher than those in Europe for skilled workers, the period saw an influx of millions of European immigrants. The rapid expansion of industrialization led to real wage growth of 60% between 1860 and 1890, spread across the ever-increasing labor force; the average annual wage per industrial worker rose from $380 in 1880 to $564 in 1890, a gain of 48%.
However, the Gilded Age was an era of abject poverty and inequality as millions of immigrants—many from impoverished regions—poured into the United States, the high concentration of wealth became more visible and contentious. Railroads were the major growth industry, with the factory system and finance increasing in importance. Immigration from Europe and the eastern states led to the rapid growth of the West, based on farming and mining. Labor unions became important in the rapidly growing industrial cities. Two major nationwide depressions—the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893—interrupted growth and caused social and political upheavals; the South after the Civil War remained economically devastated. With the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877, African-American people in the South were stripped of political power and voting rights and were left economically disadvantaged; the political landscape was notable in that despite some corruption, turnout was high and national elections saw two evenly matched parties.
The dominant issues were economic. With the rapid growth of cities, political machines took control of urban politics. In business, powerful nationwide trusts formed in some industries. Unions crusaded for the abolition of child labor. Local governments across the North and West built public schools chiefly at the elementary level; the numerous religious denominations were growing in membership and wealth, with Catholicism becoming the largest denomination. They all expanded their missionary activity to the world arena. Catholics and Episcopalians set up religious schools and the larger denominations set up numerous colleges and charities. Many of the problems faced by society the poor, during the Gilded Age gave rise to attempted reforms in the subsequent Progressive Era; the term "Gilded Age" for the period of economic boom after the American Civil War up to the turn of the century was applied to the era by historians in the 1920s, who took the term from one of Mark Twain's lesser known novels, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today.
The book satirized the promised "golden age" after the Civil War, portrayed as an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic expansion. In the 1920s and 30s "Gilded Age" became a designated period in American history; the term was adopted by literary and cultural critics as well as historians, including Van Wyck Brooks, Lewis Mumford, Charles Austin Beard, Mary Ritter Beard, Vernon Louis Parrington and Matthew Josephson. For them, "Gilded Age" was a pejorative term used to describe a time of materialistic excesses combined with extreme poverty; the early half of the Gilded Age coincided with the middle portion of the Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France. With respect to eras of American history, historical views vary as to when the Gilded Age began, ranging from starting right after the American Civil War, or 1873, or as the Reconstruction Era ended in 1877; the point noted as the end of the Gilded Age varies. It is given as the beginning of the Progressive Era in the 1890s but falls in a range that includes the Spanish–American War in 1898, Theodore Roosevelt's accession to the presidency in 1901, the U.
S. entry into World War I. The Gilded Age was a period of economic growth as the United States jumped to the lead in industrialization ahead of Britain; the nation was expanding its economy into new areas heavy industry like factories and coal mining. In 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad opened up ranching regions. Travel from New York to San Francisco now took six days instead of six months. Railroad track mileage tripled between 1860 and 1880, doubled again by 1920; the new track linked isolated areas with larger markets and allowed for the rise of commercial farming and mining, creating a national marketplace. American steel production rose to surpass the combined totals of Britain and France. Investors in London and Paris poured money into the railroads through the American financial market centered in
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, philanthropist. Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and is identified as one of the richest people in history, he became a leading philanthropist in the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away about $350 million to charities and universities – 90 percent of his fortune, his 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, stimulated a wave of philanthropy. Carnegie was born in Dunfermline and immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1848. Carnegie started work as a telegrapher, by the 1860s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars and oil derricks, he accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman. He built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901 for $303,450,000, it became the U. S. Steel Corporation. After selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years.
Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace and scientific research. With the fortune he made from business, he built Carnegie Hall in New York, NY, the Peace Palace and founded the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Carnegie Hero Fund, Carnegie Mellon University, the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, among others. Andrew Carnegie was born to Margaret Morrison Carnegie and William Carnegie in Dunfermline, Scotland in 1835, in a typical weaver's cottage with only one main room, consisting of half the ground floor, shared with the neighboring weaver's family; the main room served as a living room, dining bedroom. He was named after his legal grandfather. In 1836, the family moved to a larger house in Edgar Street, following the demand for more heavy damask, from which his father benefited, he was educated at the Free School in Dunfermline, a gift to the town by the philanthropist Adam Rolland of Gask.
Carnegie's uncle, George Lauder, Sr. a Scottish political leader influenced him as a boy by introducing him to the writings of Robert Burns and historical Scottish heroes such as Robert the Bruce, William Wallace, Rob Roy. Lauder's son named George Lauder, grew up with Carnegie and would become his business partner; when Carnegie was thirteen, his father had fallen on hard times as a handloom weaver. His mother helped support the family by assisting her brother, by selling potted meats at her "sweetie shop", leaving her as the primary breadwinner. Struggling to make ends meet, the Carnegies decided to borrow money from George Lauder, Sr. and move to Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in the United States in 1848 for the prospect of a better life. Carnegie's migration to America would be his second journey outside Dunfermline – the first being an outing to Edinburgh to see Queen Victoria. In September 1848, Carnegie arrived with his family at their new prosperous home. Allegheny was populating in the 1840s, growing from around 10,000 to 21,262 residents.
The city was industrial and produced many products including wool and cotton cloth. The "Made in Allegheny" label used on these and other diversified products was becoming more and more popular. For his father, the promising circumstances still did not provide him any good fortune. Dealers were not interested in selling his product, he himself struggled to sell it on his own; the father and son both received job offers at the same Scottish-owned cotton mill, Anchor Cotton Mills. Carnegie's first job in 1848 was as a bobbin boy, changing spools of thread in a cotton mill 12 hours a day, 6 days a week in a Pittsburgh cotton factory, his starting wage was $1.20 per week. His father quit his position at the cotton mill soon after, returning to his loom and removing him as breadwinner once again, but Carnegie attracted the attention of John Hay, a Scottish manufacturer of bobbins, who offered him a job for $2.00 per week. In his autobiography, Carnegie speaks of his past hardships. Soon after this Mr. John Hay, a fellow Scotch manufacturer of bobbins in Allegheny City, needed a boy, asked whether I would not go into his service.
I went, received two dollars per week. I had to fire the boiler in the cellar of the bobbin factory, it was too much for me. I found myself night after night, sitting up in bed trying the steam gauges, fearing at one time that the steam was too low and that the workers above would complain that they had not power enough, at another time that the steam was too high and that the boiler might burst. In 1849, Carnegie became a telegraph messenger boy in the Pittsburgh Office of the Ohio Telegraph Company, at $2.50 per week following the recommendation of his uncle. He was a hard worker and would memorize all of the locations of Pittsburgh's businesses and the faces of important men, he made many connections this way. He paid close attention to his work, learned to distinguish the differing sounds the incoming telegraph signals produced, he developed the ability to translate signals by ear, withou
The Men Who Built America
The Men Who Built America is a six-hour, four-part miniseries docudrama, broadcast on the History Channel in the Fall of 2012, on the History Channel UK in Spring of 2013. The series focuses on the lives of Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, J. P. Morgan, Thomas Edison and Henry Ford, it tells. The series is narrated by Campbell Scott, it averaged 2.6 million total viewers across 4 nights. In alphabetical order: William Jennings Bryan – James Kidd Andrew Carnegie – – Adam Jonas Segaller Andrew Carnegie – – AJ Achinger Thomas Edison – Justin Morck Jim Fisk – Kenneth Cavett Henry Ford – Cary Donaldson Henry Clay Frick – John C. Bailey Jay Gould – Cameron McNary President William McKinley – Dan Odell J. P. Morgan – – Ray Reynolds J. P. Morgan – – Eric Rolland Junius Morgan – Daniel Berkey John D. Rockefeller – Tim Getman Theodore Roosevelt – Joseph Wiegand Charles M. Schwab – John Keabler Thomas Scott – Don Meehan Nikola Tesla – Alex Falberg Cornelius Vanderbilt – David Donahoe William Henry Vanderbilt – Michael Chmiel George Westinghouse – Einar Gunn Note: The series consists of eight one-hour episodes.
Neil Genzlinger from The New York Times observed that the series did not contain startling revelations about its principal subjects, although gave them a modern-day relevance. Linda Holmes writing for NPR ridiculed the series for dull presentation, corny re-enactments and ineffective narration, she slammed the production for feeling "a lot like a tricked-out version of an elementary school filmstrip" and suggested that the series might be popular among those who accepted Donald Trump as one of the experts. Geoff Berkshire from Variety criticized the series for "overblown recreations backed by bombastic music, combined with tepid performances by the re-enactors and rudimentary writing". Mentioning the series’ "ostentatious style begins to grate within the first 30 minutes", he scorned "the talking heads feel like filler" and the particular style of padding out the runtime when "the viewers are subjected to the customary recap of the previous segment after every ad break." He concluded that unlike the game-changing icons it intended to celebrate, the series failed to leave its mark.
Verne Gay from Newsday gave the series "C" grade for "self-serving, obvious or of the fortune cookie variety" tips dispensed by the guests and for the lack of subtlety and historic context. On another hand, he praised the well-produced, although static, recreations. On Metacritic the series has a score of 60 out of 100, based on 4 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews"; the miniseries has been released by The History Channel on January 22, 2013, in a three-disc set in both DVD and Blu-ray Disc formats. The Men Who Built America at the History Channel official website The Men Who Built America on IMDb
Orange and Alexandria Railroad
The Orange and Alexandria Railroad was a railroad in Virginia, United States. It extended from Alexandria with another section from Charlottesville to Lynchburg; the road played a crucial role in the American Civil War, became an important part of the modern-day Norfolk Southern rail system. The Virginia General Assembly issued a charter to the O&A on May 28, 1848, to run from Alexandria to Gordonsville. Construction began in 1850 and was completed in April 1854, when it connected with the Virginia Central Railroad in Orange County, its longtime President was John S. Barbour Jr. Virginia lawyer, part-time delegate and son of U. S. Representative John Strode Barbour. In 1854, the General Assembly granted the O&A the right to build southward from Charlottesville to Lynchburg. O&A paid for trackage rights over Virginia Central tracks from Gordonsville to Charlottesville. In 1860, the southern extension was completed, including lucrative connections to the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad and the South Side Railroad.
The O&A connected with the Manassas Gap Railroad, at Tudor Hall which gave it access to the Shenandoah Valley. The railroad boosted Virginia commerce. Farmers from first Virginia's Piedmont region, the Shenandoah Valley could ship their products and goods much more cheaply than before. Not only were the markets of Washington D. C. and Richmond, Virginia accessible, so was the Potomac River port of Alexandria. Alexandria and Lynchburg became manufacturing centers. Passengers could travel from Washington to Lynchburg in eight hours instead of enduring a three-day stagecoach journey; the O&A was strategically important during the Civil War and was fought over and wrecked. In connection with the Virginia Central, it was the only rail link between the capitals at Washington, D. C. and Richmond. An 1861 Union Army attempt to gain control of Manassas Junction led to the First Battle of Bull Run, the junction traded hands numerous time during the war. Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson attacked it in the Battle of Manassas Station Operations to draw the Union into the 1862 Second Battle of Bull Run.
The 1863 Battle of Brandy Station and Second Battle of Rappahannock Station were fought near the railroad line. The railroad entered Reconstruction in dire shape, with much of its track ripped up and most of its rolling stock destroyed. However, Barbour proceeded to rebuild the railroad, soon with the help of various politically connected financiers and his brother in law J. S. B. Thompson. In 1867, the O&A merged with the Manassas Gap Railroad to become the Orange and Manassas Railroad. After the Panic of 1873, the railroad was consolidated into the Virginia Midland Railway, controlled by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, it became part of the Richmond and Danville Railroad, which went bankrupt in the Panic of 1893. The following year it was merged into the Southern Railway. A cutoff between Orange and Charlottesville was incorporated in 1876 as the Charlottesville and Rapidan Railroad and opened in 1880; the Southern Railway acquired the line in 1914. In 1982, Southern Railway System joined the Norfolk and Western Railway to form the Norfolk Southern system.
The former O&A tracks are used by Amtrak and Virginia Railway Express operates commuter railroad service along a portion of the historic line. The line from Orange to Gordonsville has been on long-term lease to the C&O Railway, which transferred to CSX, now CSX subleases to Buckingham Branch Railroad, which operates it as the Orange Subdivision. Among the traces of the original infrastructure are Hoofs Run Bridge and the Wilkes Street Tunnel in Alexandria. Rapidan Passenger Depot Csiegel's Orange & Alexandria Railroad page 1948 photo of Springfield Station Fairfax Station Railroad Museum Virginia Railroad Cities Civil War photographs of the Orange & Alexandria at the Library of Congress Norfolk & Western history page 1851 map 1854 map 1861 map "Map of Warrenton Junction and Alexandria R. R. Virginia shewing destruction of R. R. by enemy, October 1863."
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider